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The Friends ofT)uke University JQprary 

December 1946 

Number 17 



Reminiscences on the Early History of Duke University Library, 

by Joseph Penn Breedlove i 

Programs 4 

Desiderata 6 

Gifts 10 

News 14 

No. 17 



The Friends of 'Duke University Jftbrary 

December 1946 


Joseph Penn Breedlove, Librarian Emeritus 

[In September, 1898, Mr. Breedlove was appointed Librarian of 
Trinity College. Since that date he has conscientiously and 
faithfully served the library, both as Librarian and as Librarian 
Emeritus. His long career has been well described elsewhere; 
in this place it seems most appropriate that he himself, having 
participated in the early struggles of our library and having ob- 
served almost the entire course of its development, should describe 
to the Friends of the Library some few of the many events he 
has witnessed. — Ed.] 

THE Friends of Duke Library may 
be interested to read of a few in- 
cidents which occurred early in the 
history of the library. Many years ago 
the telling of some of these stories 
might have occasioned embarrassment, 
but now that the struggle of the very 
lean years has passed, the serious as- 
pects have faded and only a mildly 
humorous flavor remains. 

In the 1890's the Library of Trinity 
College, consisting of the collections of 
three societies together with a few ref- 
erence works purchased by the college, 
was housed in a single room in the old 
Washington Duke building. Here, for 
two hours each afternoon and three 
hours each evening, students were 
given access to the books, magazines, 
and newspapers. The post of librarian, 
with its inconsiderable salary, was as- 
signed yearly, usually to a junior or 

senior student who needed aid in meet- 
ing his college expenses, sometimes to 
a recent graduate who felt the need of 
further academic training. This an- 
nual change of librarians proved highly 
unsatisfactory, and when, in 1899, the 
financial situation of the college made 
it possible, the employment of a per- 
manent librarian was considered. 

I had served during the year 1898- 
1899 as the last of the student libra- 
rians, and the post of permanent li- 
brarian was offered to me on its crea- 
tion in 1899. I incline to suspect that 
President Kilgo's decision in this mat- 
ter was influenced by a species of "old- 
maidism" which I had practiced during 
my year in office. All members of the 
faculty had keys to the library, and 
many of them, including the President, 
preferred to visit the room when it was 
closed to students. Under some of my 


predecessors, who contented themselves 
with dismissing the students and lock- 
ing the door at closing time, the fac- 
ulty had often found the library room 
in a state of disorder, magazines and 
papers tossed hither and yon on the 
tables, the chairs pushed out of place. 
My personal preference for order led 
me to put all things to rights regularly 
before closing, and it was this habit 
which earned President Kilgo's ap- 
proval and probably influenced my 
appointment as full-time librarian. 

In 1897 an attempt to catalogue and 
classify the books in the library had 
been made; the next four years saw the 
task nearly completed. The catalogue 
was written by hand on small cards, 
not quite two inches high. The classi- 
fication, evolved by the librarian in 
conjunction with the faculty library 
committee, was of a rough-and-ready 
order, satisfactory enough for so small 
a collection, but hardly devised to al- 
low for any considerable expansion. 
This arrangement, which considerably 
simplified the tasks of locating books 
and keeping them in order, led to a 
difficult incident when, in 1902, a sepa- 
rate library building was constructed. 
It was a handsome structure and ex- 
cellent for its purpose — quite the finest 
library building in the state— and I 
looked forward with great pride to 
taking up my work in it. The formal 
opening was planned for February 23, 
1903, but the building was actually 
ready several months beforehand. The 
books were to be moved from the old 
library room during the Christmas va- 
cation of 1902. I was very anxious to 
oversee this proceeding and was willing 
to give up part of my holiday to do so. 
President Kilgo insisted, however, that 
I go home for Christmas, assuring me 

that he would himself supervise the 
moving of the books. Reluctantly I 
departed, enjoyed a pleasant vacation, 
and returned. On visiting the new li- 
brary, I found that the books had been 
duly moved, but not the slightest at- 
tention had been paid to their arrange- 
ment, and it was impossible to locate 
a single specific title without a long 
search. I set to work at once to restore 
order, and a long and weary task it 
was, lasting several days, from early 
morning until the last afternoon light 
faded from the stack-room. I was too 
busy then to ask the reason for all this 
confusion; later I learned that old Kate, 
the college mule, had been hitched to 
the dray, and the campus foreman and 
his negro hands had loaded and un- 
loaded the books. President Kilgo 
stood by while the first load was made, 
then took his dog and gun and went 

Another memory of President Kilgo 
comes to me as I write. The city post- 
man brought the mail to the library in 
those times, making three rounds each 
day. The library was not open in the 
evenings, and I therefore persuaded the 
postman to pay his third daily visit to 
my room in a house near the campus. 
The house belonged to the college, and 
I shared it with several other faculty 
bachelors. These gentlemen made a 
practice of visiting my room each eve- 
ning to examine the two or three news- 
papers which the postman brought. 
Occasionally President Kilgo joined us 
and sat for a while to talk, sometimes 
telling stories of his boyhood or of the 
struggles he had had as Trinity's presi- 
dent. One of the former has stayed in 
my mind. President Kilgo's father, an 
itinerant Methodist minister, owned a 
farm in his native community which 


he leased to a dependable tenant. He 
sent his young sons there during sum- 
mer vacations; they helped with the 
farm work and were paid for their 
labor. On Saturdays they received their 
pay and sometimes drove with the 
farmer to town, nine miles away, to 
spend their small earnings. On one 
such occasion young John Kilgo de- 
cided to spend his money on cocoa- 
nuts; he had never had enough to sat- 
isfy him, he said, and for once he 
would eat his fill. He bought five, and 
on the long drive back to the farm, he 
and the farmer broke them open and 
ate them one by one. President Kilgo 
remarked wryly that he had never 
since that time felt any appreciable in- 
terest in cocoanuts. 

With the new library building came 
other innovations. After some study of 
library methods, I introduced the 
Dewey decimal system of classification, 
which is still in use. I may also claim 
the honor of introducing the first type- 
writer into an institution where more 
than thirty such machines are now in 
daily use. In the early days all cata- 
logue cards were written by hand, a 
great strain on the librarian's muscles 
as well as on the students' eyes. My 
penmanship, though clear as day to 
myself, was strangely a source of some 
difficulty to others. In 1903 or 1904, I 
decided that the problem could best be 
solved by the acquisition of a type- 
writer. With some diffidence, realizing 

the grave expense involved, I requested 
of the President that a machine be pur- 
chased for the library; with no diffi- 
dence at all, he refused my request, 
alleging that the benefit to be derived 
from the use of a typewriter would not 
balance its cost. I was, I confess, ob- 
stinate; I bought a typewriter myself, 
though my budget suffered severely by 
the purchase. I installed it in the li- 
brary and typed all cards from that 
date on. The success of the expendi- 
ture was proved by the fact that a 
second machine, purchased with col- 
lege funds, later appeared. 

There are many still living who can 
join with me in pleasant memories of 
old Trinity Library, who can recall, 
for example, meeting their girls for 
whispered conversations behind the tall 
alcoves of the old library room. (I my- 
self inclined to observe such meetings 
with a sympathetic eye. President 
Kilgo, however, apparently thought 
that coeducation in the library was not 
conducive to good grades, for he took 
measures to segregate the sexes when 
planning the first library building, 
measures which naturally were never 
wholly successful.) Those who do not 
share personally in these reminiscences 
may profit by realizing from them 
what small beginnings our library had. 
The past half-century has seen a truly 
amazing expansion of its resources, and 
the promise for the future is great. 



A dinner-meeting of the Friends of 
Duke University Library took 
place on the evening of October 22, in 
the ball room of the University Union. 
One hundred and fifty members of the 
Friends assembled for the occasion, 
which was held in honor of Mr. and 
Mrs. J. P. Breedlove and Mr. and Mrs. 
B. E. Powell. Professor Newman I. 
White presided over the meeting, and 
the invocation was pronounced by the 
Rev. George B. Ehlhardt. 

After an excellent dinner, Professor 
White introduced President R. L. Flow- 
ers, whose brief address may be given 
in full: 

Forty-eight years ago Duke University 
was small and struggling Trinity College, 
only recently moved to Durham from 
Randolph County. Today, that same 
Trinity College, surrounded by graduate 
and professional schools, is the heart of a 
University that continues to have its prob- 
lems. Some of us here tonight have been 
closely identified with the institution 
through its many phases of development. 
I consider it a great privilege to be one of 
that number. To have watched the 
growth of Trinity into Duke University 
and to have been identified with its prog- 
ress through the years, has been one of 
the most satisfying experiences of my life. 
Another person who, I am sure, shares a 
similar feeling of satisfaction is Joe Breed- 
love. I had not been here many years 
myself when Joe assumed the position of 
librarian soon after his graduation. For 
forty-eight years he has served in that 
capacity and the greatest tribute I can pay 
him, for myself and for Duke University, 

is to say "well done." In recognition of 
Mr. Breedlove's distinguished service to 
the University the Friends of the Library 
are conferring upon him and Mrs. Breed- 
love honorary lifetime membership in their 
organization. We honor these two friends 
here tonight, and express the hope that 
they will continue actively interested in the 
growth of the Duke University Library. 
I am happy at this time to welcome into 
our midst, and to introduce to you Mr. 
and Mrs. Powell. Mr. Powell has already 
assumed his duties as Librarian. I am 
always happy to welcome an alumnus to 
the campus, but I am especially happy to 
welcome one who is to be engaged in car- 
rying on the work of the institution in an 
active way. We welcome both of you into 
the fellowship of this group and into the 
University community, and we wish for 
you personal happiness and success. 

Mr. Powell next took the floor and, 
after an expression of thanks, intro- 
duced the speaker of the evening, Dr. 
Luther Evans, the Librarian of Con- 
gress. Dr. Evans, taking his cue from 
the occasion, spoke of Mr. Breedlove's 
long career as librarian of Duke Uni- 
versity. These forty-eight years of serv- 
ice, beginning at a time when the South 
had not yet emerged from the lethargy 
which followed the agonies of the Civil 
War and the Reconstruction Period, 
have seen a rebirth of Southern culture, 
in which the development of the 
South's great libraries has played a sig- 
nificant part. In these years the Duke 
University Library itself has grown 
from a small collection of books, 
housed in a single room, to its present 
great extent. Mr. Evans pointed out 
the potent influence which such a li- 
brary could and should exert in its re- 



gion, showed how it could be not only 
a storehouse of knowledge but also an 
active mover in the increase and dis- 
semination of knowledge. Stressing the 
fact that Duke University Library had 
entered early into the field of inter- 
library cooperation, he expressed his 
conviction that under the leadership of 
Mr. Powell the institution would par- 
ticipate energetically in the great co- 
operative programs which are marking 
the development of American library 

Much praise is due to the Rev. Mr. 
Ehlhardt and to the members of the 
Friends who assisted him in planning 
and arranging for this pleasant occa- 
sion. Under Mr. Ehlhardt's direction 
the Program Committee has made ten- 
tative plans for other meetings of the 
Friends during the current year, among 
them a lecture by Dr. William Warren 
Sweet early in 1947 and a visit and 
reading by Mr. Robert Frost in March. 


THE literature of American travel 
begins with the early accounts by 
European voyagers, more than a little 
bewildered at the gift of a brave, new 
world, and continues even today, with 
Americans themselves, as well as for- 
eigners, busily discovering America. It 
is a vast and valuable body of literature, 
full of information on manners and 
customs, on the geography of the coun- 
try and the character of its people, all 
presented from a variety of points of 
view. Henry T. Tuckerman, who ex- 
plored the field nearly one hundred 
years ago, well described its resources: 

We derive from each and all of these 
commentators on our country, informa- 
tion, not otherwise obtainable, of the as- 
pect of nature and the condition of the 
people, at different eras and in various re- 
gions: we thus realize the process of na- 
tional development; trace to their origin 
local peculiarities; behold the present by 
the light of the past; and, in a manner, 
identify ourselves with those to whom 
familiarity had not blunted the impression 
of scenes native to ourselves, and social 
traits and political tendencies too near for 
us to view them in their true moral per- 

To present an example somewhat less 
than sublime, here is Isaac Weld's ac- 
count of a classic Southern institution, 
as he witnessed it in 1790: 

The people in this part of the country, 
bordering upon James River, are extremely 
fond of an entertainment which they call 
a barbecue. It consists in a large party 
meeting together, either under some trees, 
or in a house, to partake of a sturgeon or 
pig roasted in the open air, on a sort of 
hurdle, over a slow fire; this, however, is 

an entertainment chiefly confined to the 
lower ranks, and, like most others of the 
same nature, it generally ends in intoxi- 

For a number of years the Duke Li- 
brary has unobtrusively — and at times 
almost unawares — been gathering a col- 
lection of American travel literature 
which now begins to assume quite con- 
siderable proportions. The recent work 
of several faculty members in assisting 
in the compilation of a bibliography of 
Southern travels has drawn our atten- 
tion both to the extent of our collection 
and to the gaps therein. A future issue 
of Library Notes will deal more fully 
with this subject, presenting a survey 
of Duke's holdings in American travel 
literature as well as a selection of un- 
published travel letters from the Flow- 
ers Collection; meanwhile we list only 
a few needed titles in the hope that 
Friends of the Library may be willing 
to assist us in acquiring these books: 

Ad d'A. Esquisses americaines, ou Ta- 
blettes d'un voyageur aux £tats-Unis 
d'Amerique. Paris, 1841. 

Adolphe Fourier de Bacourt. Souvenirs 
d'un diplomate. Lettres intimes sur 
VAmerique. Paris, 1882. 

Souvenirs of a diplomat. Private 

letters from America during the admin- 
istrations of Presidents Van Buren, Har- 
rison, and Tyler. New York, 1885. 

[George Ballentine] Autobiography of an 
English soldier in the United States 
Army. Comprising observations and ad- 
ventures in the States and Mexico. New 
York, 1853. 

Louis Auguste Felix de Beau jour. Apercu 
des Tztats-Unis, au commencement du 
XIX e siecle, depuis 1800 jusqu'en 1810 


avec des tables statistiques. Paris, 1814. 
Sketch of the United States of 

North America . . . from 1800 to 1810. 
Translated by William Walton. Lon- 
don, 1 814. 

[Andrew Bell] (A. Thomason, pseud.). 
Men and things in America, being the 
experience of a year's residence in the 
United States, in a series of letters to a 
friend. London, 1838. 

Henry Clark Benson. Life among the 
Choctaw Indians, and sketches of the 
South-West. Cincinnati, i860. 

Berquin-Duvallon. Travels in Louisiana 
and the Floridas, in the year 1802, giving 
a correct picture of these countries. 
Translated from the French by John 
Davis. New York, 1806. 

J. Esprit Bonnet. Tableau des £tats-Unis 
de VAmerique au commencement du 
XIX e siecle.. Paris, 1816. 

Jean Louis Bridel. Le pour et le contre, 
ou, Avis a ceux qui se proposent de 
passer dans les litats-Unis d'Amerique. 
Suivi d'une description de Kentucky et 
du Genesy, deux des nouveaux etablisse- 
mens les plus considerables de cette par- 
tie du nouveau monde. Paris, 1803. 

Jacques Pierre Brissot de Warville. Nou- 
veau voyage dans les £tats-Unis de 
VAmerique septentrionale, fait en ij88. 
Paris, 1791. 3 vols. 

Anacharsis Brissot [de Warville]. Voyage 
au Guazacoalcos aux Antilles et aux 
£tats-Unis. Paris, 1837. 

Patrick Campbell. Travels in the interior 
inhabited parts of North America, in the 
years ijq.i and iyo2. . . . Edinburgh, 


Francis, Comte de Castelnau. Vues et 
souvenirs de VAmerique du Nord. Paris, 

Luigi, Conte Castiglioni. Viaggio negli 
Stati Uniti dell 'America Settentrionale, 

fatto negli anni ij8$, iy86, e ij8j. Milan, 

Henry Castro. Le Texas [Anvers, 1845]. 

Francois Auguste Rene, Vicomte de Cha- 
teaubriand. Voyages en Amerique et en 
Italic Paris, 1828. 2 vols. 

John Alonzo Clark. Gleanings by the 
way. Philadelphia and New York, 1842. 

Thomas Coke. Extracts of the journals 
of the Rev. Dr. Code's five visits to 
America. London, 1793. 

A journal of the Rev. Dr. Code's 

visit to Jamaica, and of his third tour 
on the continent of America. London, 

Robert H. Collyer. Lights and shadows 
of American life. Boston [1844]. 

Jonathan W. Condy. A description of the 
river Susquehanna, with observations on 
the present state of its trade and naviga- 
tion and their practicable and probable 
improvement. Philadelphia, 1796. 

Michel Guillaume St. Jean de Crevecceur. 
Voyage dans la haute Pensylvanie et 
dans Vetat de New Yor\, par un mem- 
bre adoptif de la nation Oneida. Paris, 
1 801. 3 vols. 

Charles Giles Bridle Daubeny. Journal 
of a tour through the United States and 
in Canada, made during the years i8yj- 
1838. Oxford, 1843. 

Lorenzo Dow. The life and travels of 
Lorenzo Dow, written by himself. Hart- 
ford, 1804. 

Louis Dubroca. L'itineraire des Francais 
dans la Louisiane, contenant Vhistoire de 
cette colonie francaise, sa description, le 
tableau des moeurs des peuples qui Vha- 
bitent. . . . Paris, 1802. 

Louis Marie Aubert DuPetit-Thouars. 
Voyage autour du monde sur la frigate 
la Venus, pendant les annees 1836-1839. 
Paris, 1 840-1 843. 

Mrs. Felton. Life in America. A narrative 
of two years' city & country residence in 



the United States. Hull, 1838. 
Samuel S. Forman. Narrative of a jour- 
ney down the Ohio and Mississippi in 
1789-1790. Cincinnati, 1888. 
Henri Jerome Marie Fournel. Coup d'oeil 
historique et statistique sur le Texas. 
Paris, 1 841. 
Frederic Gaillardet. L'aristocratie en 

Amerique. Paris, 1883. 
P. L. Gelline. Journal de mer d'un voyage 
a la Nouvelle-Orleans, capitale de la 
Louisiane. ... 2 octobre 1841 au 21 fev- 
rier 1842. Paris, 1842. 
Clara von Gerstner. Beschreibung eiher 
Reise durch die Vereinigten Staaten von 
Nordamerica in den Jahren 1838 bis 
1840. Leipzig, 1842. 
Franz Anton von Gerstner. Die innern 
Communicationen der Vereinigten Staa- 
ten von Nordamerica. Vienna, 1842- 
[Chandler Robbins Gilman] Life on the 
la\es, being tales and sketches collected 
during a trip to the pictured roc\s of 
Lake Superior. New York, 1836. 
John Robert Godley. Letters from Amer- 
ica. London, 1844. 
Bernard Adolphe Granier de Cassagnac. 
Voyage aux Antilles francaises, anglaises, 
danoises, espagnoles; a Saint-Domingue 
et aux Etats-Unis d' Amerique. Paris, 
1 842-1 844. 
Joseph John Gurney. A journey in North 
America, described in familiar letters to 
Amelia Opie. Norwich, 1841. 
Frederick Hall. Letters from the east and 

from the west. Washington [1840]. 
James Hall. A brief history of the Missis- 
sippi Territory, to which is prefixed, a 
summary view of the country between 
the settlements on Cumberland-River & 
the territory. Salisbury [N. C], 1801. 
George Harvey. Harvey's scenes of the 
primitive forest of America, at the four 
periods of the year. London, 1841. 

Henry, or The juvenile traveller; a deline- 
ation of a voyage across the Atlantic. 
London, 1836. 
An historical review of North America: 
containing a geographical, political, and 
natural history of the British and other 
European settlements, the United and 
apocryphal states, and a general state of 
the laws. To which are added, a de- 
scription of the interior parts of North 
America. ... By a gentleman imme- 
diately returned from a tour of that con- 
tinent. Dublin, 1789. 
Mrs. Matilda Charlotte Fraser Houstoun. 
Texas and the Gulf of Mexico, or 
Yachting in the new world. Philadel- 
phia, 1845. 
[Thomas Horton James] (Rubio, pseud.). 
Rambles in the United States and Can- 
ada during the year 1845, with a short 
account of Oregon. London, 1846. 
John Dunmore Lang. Religion and edu- 
cation in America, with notices of the 
state and prospects of American Uni- 
tarianism, popery and African coloniza- 
tion. London, 1840. 
Francois Alexandre Frederic, Due de La 
Rochefoucauld Liancourt. Voyage dans 
les Etats-Unis d' Amerique, fait en 1795, 
1796 et 1797. Paris, 1799. 8 vols. 
Isidor Loewenstern. Les Etats-Unis et la 
Havane, souvenirs d'un voyageur. Paris, 
James Logan. Notes of a journey through 
Canada, the United States of America, 
and the West Indies. Edinburgh, 1838. 
[James Lumsden] American memoranda, 
by a mercantile man, during a short tour 
in the summer of 1843. Glasgow, 1844. 
George Moore. Journal of a voyage across 
the Atlantic with notes on Canada and 
the United States. London, 1845. 
Morleigh, pseud. Life in the west: Bac\- 
wood leaves and prairie flowers. Rough 
sketches on the borders of the pictur- 


esque, the sublime, and the ridiculous. 
London, 1842. 

Ambroise Marie F. J. Palisot de Beau- 
vois. Insectes recueillis en Afrique et 
en Amerique . . . pendant les annees 
1786-1797. Paris, 1 805-1 821. 

Hugo Playfair. Brother Jonathan, or The 
smartest nation in all creation.. London, 
1 840-1 841. 

William Priest. Travels in the United 
States of America, commencing in the 
year 1793 and ending in 1797. With the 
author's journals of his two voyages 
across the Atlantic. London, 1802. 

Augustin Ravoux. Memoires, reminis- 
cences et conferences de Monseigneur 
A. Ravoux. St. Paul, Minnesota, 1892. 

Mrs. Anne Ritson. A poetical picture of 
America, being of observations made, 
during a residence of several years at 
Alexandria, and Norfol\, in Virginia. 
. . . London, 1809. 

Mrs. Lydia Howard Sigourney. Scenes 
in my native land. Boston, 1845. 

Mrs. Eliza R. Steele. A summer journey in 
the West. New York, 1841. 

Catherine Stewart. New homes in the 
West. Nashville, 1843. 

Samuel Stewart. Travels and residence in 
the free states of America during the 
years 1840-41, illustrating the circum- 
stances, condition, and character of the 
people, or The emigrants' hand-boot^. 
Belfast, 1842. 

William Thomson. A tradesman's travels 
in the United States and Canada. Edin- 
burgh, 1842. 

Constantin Francois Chasseboeuf, Comte 
de Volney. Tableau du dim at et du sol 
des £tats-Unis d' Amerique. . . . Paris, 

William N. Wyatt. Wyatfs travel diary, 
1836, with comment by Mrs. Addie 
Evans Wynn and W. A. Evans. Chi- 
cago, 1930. 


THE Library has recently received 
a number of valued gifts. On 
the death of Professor Charles Abram 
Ellwood, long a generous contributor, 
his large collection of works on soci- 
ology was bequeathed to Duke Univer- 
sity. Mrs. A. M. Gates and Mr. War- 
ren Gates have presented several hun- 
dred volumes from the library of the 
late Professor A. M. Gates. Mr. G. F. 
Ivey, of Hickory, N. C, has donated 
about fifty books and pamphlets on 
the cotton industry. Of books on lit- 
erary and historical subjects, Professor 
and Mrs. Allan H. Gilbert have do- 
nated seventy titles, Misses Hallie and 
Jean Holman about thirty. Miss Mada- 
line Nichols has given a number of 
volumes in the field of Spanish-Ameri- 
can literature. Lt. David L. Cozart con- 
tinues to send from Berlin valued ma- 
terials on Germany during and since 
the war. The Rev. George B. Ehlhardt 
has contributed many volumes of a re- 
ligious or literary nature. Several ad- 
ditions have been made to the book- 
plate collection, and the Rev. Mr. Ehl- 
hardt has placed on deposit in the 
Library over three hundred bookplates, 
chiefly American. 

Mr. Clifford L. Hornaday, a Trinity 
graduate and for some years an instruc- 
tor in German at the the Trinity Park 
School and at Trinity College, recently 
presented a group of about seventy-five 
German books. These include sets of 
the collected works of Berthold Auer- 
bach, Fritz Reuter, Wilhelm Hauff, 
and Otto Muller, a number of text- 
books, and the 1922 edition of Curme's 
Grammar of the German Language. 
Mr. Hornaday, who is now teaching in 
Virginia, left Trinity to become presi- 

dent of Davenport College, Lenoir, 
North Carolina. 

Professor Frances Brown of the 
Chemistry Department has undertaken 
to build up in the Woman's College 
Library a collection of the writings of 
John Buchan, Lord Tweedsmuir; she 
has already presented about eight titles 
by this author, and has ordered many 
more. We draw particular attention to 
Miss Brown's gift because her method 
of procedure is one that may appeal to 
other members of the Friends. Most 
of us are aware that the writings of 
many modern authors — Aldous Hux- 
ley, T. S. Eliot, James Joyce, to name 
only a few — are but inadequately rep- 
resented in the Library. To choose 
some such author, to purchase for the 
Library each of his new books as it ap- 
pears, and to secure earlier titles missing 
from the library shelves, is a project 
that will prove interesting for the donor 
as well as profitable to the institution. 

Books, pamphlets, and periodicals, 
on a wide variety of subjects, as well 
as generous monetary contributions, 
have been received from a number of 
faculty and staff members and other 
friends of the Library. 


FOUR hundred and eighty-one 
volumes from the library of the 
late Dr. Orie Latham Hatcher have re- 
cently been received as a gift by Duke 
University Library. 

Dr. Hatcher graduated from Vassar 
College in 1888. For the next dozen 
years she taught at the Richmond Fe- 
male Institute, now the Woman's Col- 
lege, in Richmond, Virginia. She then 




went to the University of Chicago for 
graduate work in English; there she 
studied principally under Professors F. 
I. Carpenter, A. H. Tolman, and R. 
M. Lovett. In 1903 she received her 
Ph.D., presenting a thesis entitled John 
Fletcher, A Study in Dramatic Method, 
which was published in 1905. In 1904 
she joined the faculty of Bryn Mawr 
College, where from 1910 until 1915 
she was head of the department of 
Comparative Literature. She was also 
associate professor of English, 1912- 
191 5. In 1907 she traveled in Italy. 
During this visit, as is shown by notes 
in her handwriting, she bought a large 
number of the Italian volumes now in 
the Duke Library. They indicate the 
interest in Italian literature that was 
one of her qualifications for college 
work in Comparative Literature. While 
at Bryn Mawr she published two ar- 
ticles in Anglia, one, "The Source of 
Fletcher's Monsieur Thomas," the 
other, "Fletcher's Habits of Dramatic 
Collaboration." Both show the use of 
good sense in reducing excessive claims 
by earlier writers. She also became in- 
terested in the Neo-Latin poet, Man- 
tuan, and was translating his works 
and writing a book on him. The out- 
break of World War I prevented a 
journey to Mantua for work that she 
considered vital to this study; hence it 
never was finished. In 1916 Dr. 
Hatcher issued her Boo\ for Shake- 
speare Plays and Pageants, A Treasury 
of Elizabethan and Shakespearean De- 
tail for Producers, Stage Managers, 
Actors, Artists, and Students, Illustrated 
with nearly 200 Pictures and Portraits, 
mostly from Contemporary Sources. 
The volume was "meant to be helpful 
in the production of any Elizabethan 
play or any representation of Eliza- 

bethan life." Thus it was a deliberate 
attempt at the application of scholar- 
ship to various popular activities. 

Not until about this time did Miss 
Hatcher find her primary vocation. In 
1914 she founded and became president 
of the Southern Women's Educational 
Alliance, now the Alliance for the 
Guidance of Rural Youth. In 1915 she 
left academic work to devote herself to 
the problems of that organization, to 
the education and opportunities of 
women, and to education and public 
health generally. Her interests were 
not limited, however, as is shown by 
her founding of the Virginia Writers 
Club, and by her place on the Board of 
Visitors of the University of Virginia. 
She was also one of the founders of the 
Richmond School of Social Work and 
Public Health. Her abilities were 
widely recognized, and she was an im- 
portant worker in many organizations 
endeavoring to advance the cause to 
which she had devoted herself, such as 
the National Occupational Conference 
and the White House Conference on 
Children in a Democracy. 

She also wrote extensively on such 
matters. Perhaps her best-known work 
is Occupations for Women; her latest 
work (with Ruth Strang), entitled 
Child Development and Guidance in 
Rural Schools, appeared in 1943. 

Miss Hatcher continued, however, to 
cherish her Elizabethan and sixteenth- 
century Italian library and wished it to 
be used in forwarding the cause of that 
aspect of education to which she de- 
voted her academic career. Knowing 
of the work of that type at Duke Uni- 
versity, she decided to aid it by the gift 
of her collection. Other portions of 
her library went to other institutions. 

The Elizabethan collection shows the 



fundamental character of her interests, 
being made up primarily of sets of the 
great authors: the Bankside Shake- 
speare, the Variorum, the Cambridge, 
Leigh Hunt's and Dyce's Beaumont 
and Fletcher, the two important edi- 
tions of Gascoyne, Bullen's Middleton, 
Bullen's Peel, Collins' Greene, Dyce's 
Shirley, Bond's Lyly, McKerrow's Nash 
in the subscription edition, the Pierson 
Heywood, both Weber's and Dyce's 
Ford, Bullen's Marston, and the works 
of Brome, Randolph, and Glapthorne. 
There are also Gregory Smith's Eliza- 
bethan Critical Essays, Greg's edition 
of Henslowe's Diary, Baker's Biogra- 
phia Dramatic a, Dibdin's London 
Theatre, 1818, in twenty-six volumes, 
Fleay's Chronicle, and many other 

In the Italian collection striking sin- 
gle items are the Opere of Tasso, Ven- 
ice, 1735, in ten volumes, and Ariosto's 
Orlando Furioso, Venice, 1570; the 
latter contains the plates taken to 
England for Harington's translation 
of Orlando. A volume marked by 
Miss Hatcher, "Long sought and very 
valuable," is Giraldi Cinthio's Heca- 
tommithi, Venice, 1584. Another copy 
of this work dates from 1565; many 
lacking pages have been supplied in 
early handwriting. These volumes are 
part of what may be called a col- 
lection of novelle, for here are Boc- 
caccio, Bandello, Grazzini, Sacchetti, 
Masuccio, Strapolo, Parabosco, Novelle 
morali, 11 Pecorone, Le cento novelle 
antiche, and Cento novelle amorose dei 
Signori Accademici Incogniti. Among 
the sixteenth-century editions are San- 
nazaro's Arcadia and Guicciardini's 
Historia d'ltalia, Venice, 1567, pub- 
lished by Giolito. There are editions 

of Dante, Petrarch, and many other 

Before the volumes were sent to 
Duke, they were provided with book 
plates after a design by Thomas Single- 
ton. The motto applies to books the 
words of Spenser's mermaids, "the 
worlds sweet inne from paine and 
wearisome turmoyle" {Faerie Queene, 
2.12.32). In the much-worn copy of 
Spenser included in the gift to Duke, 
this passage is marked. The designer 
of the plate has adapted two human 
figures from plate 138 of Miss Hatcher's 
Boo\ for Shakespeare Plays and Pag- 
eants, thus appropriately carrying out 
one of the purposes for which that vol- 
ume was intended. 

The Hatcher collection is received 
with gratitude and will be immediately 

—Allan H. Gilbert 


THE Library has recently received 
two important collections of re- 
ligious works from the libraries of the 
late Bishop John Carlisle Kilgo, former 
President of Trinity College, and the 
late Dr. Charles C. Weaver. 

The Kilgo collection was presented 
by Bishop Kilgo's children, Mrs. Edna 
Kilgo Elias, Mrs. Bailey T. Groome, J. 
Luther Kilgo, and John C. Kilgo, Jr. 
The collection consists of two thousand 
volumes and manuscripts, most of 
which are of a religious nature and will 
be housed in the Divinity School Li- 
brary. Notable among these are the 
works of theological thinkers of the 
early twentieth century. Many of these 
volumes are now unobtainable, and the 
copies from the Kilgo Collection will 
supplement the present holdings of the 



Library. A special bookplate has been 
prepared to go in these volumes. 

The books from the Weaver library 
were especially selected from the ex- 
cellent library of Dr. C. C. Weaver, 
former president of Emory-Henry Col- 
lege, by his wife. Each volume filled 
a gap in our collection and, because of 
the quality of the works, will prove to 
be of value in our daily class work. 
Many duplicates which are out of print 
and in great demand were included. 

Other gifts which have been received 

during recent months include impor- 
tant printed documents of the Anglo- 
American Commission on Palestine 
presented by Dr. W. F. Stinespring, 
who was an associate on the Commis- 
sion. The Ormond Memorial Fund 
has presented a collection of books 
about the rural church, and the Rev. 
Phillip B. Trigg gave a collection of 
early Conference Minutes. Gifts have 
also been received from Miss Naomi 
Howie, Miss Mary E. Page, Dr. James 
Cannon, III, and Dr. James T. Cleland. 
— George B. Ehlhardt. 



IN the course of participation in 
the Library of Congress program 
for the cooperative acquisition of recent 
foreign publications, the Duke Univer- 
sity Library has received about three 
hundred volumes during the past few 
months. Under the sponsorship of the 
War Department and the Department 
of State, this program was set afoot in 
the summer of 1945 to aid American 
libraries in securing books from the oc- 
cupied and liberated countries of Eu- 
rope, where the normal commercial 
means of acquisition were not yet in 
operation. All American libraries, 
whether public or private in status, 
were given an opportunity to partici- 
pate; about one hundred and fifty 
major libraries are now enlisted in the 
program. For the distribution of the 
books acquired, all the member libra- 
ries have been assigned priorities in 
various subject fields, in accordance 
with the strength of their previous 
holdings in those fields. Thus, when 
only a few copies of a foreign book can 
be acquired, these will go to the li- 
braries which already possess good col- 
lections on the same subject. Geo- 
graphical considerations have also in- 
fluenced the assigning of priorities. 
The Duke Library has relatively high 
priorities in the following subjects: 
Romance and Germanic Languages, 
General Biography, Architecture, Paint- 
ing, Sculpure, Socialism, and Interna- 
tional Law; in the pure sciences, Mathe- 
matics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, 
Zoology, and Physiology; in the ap- 
plied sciences, Forestry, Military and 
Naval Science, Civil, Mechanical, Elec- 
trical, and Chemical Engineering. 

Duke's rating is also high for books 
relating to the following countries: the 
British Isles, France, Germany, Greece, 
U. S. S. R., Switzerland, China, Korea, 
Japan, the Philippines, New Zealand, 
Colombia, Ecuador, and Brazil. 

The aim of the program, it should 
be said, is simply to make available to 
American libraries the works of re- 
search produced in Europe during the 
war years; the program in no way in- 
volves the removal from occupied 
countries of materials which belong to 
cultural institutions. 


PROFESSOR R. T. Cole, who is 
absent from the university on leave 
during the present academic year, has 
resigned his position on the Executive 
Committee of the Friends of the Li- 
brary. Professor Cole's lively interest 
in the proceedings of the committee 
and his numerous helpful suggestions 
have made him a valued member, and 
his departure is much regretted. Pro- 
fessor Frances Brown of the Chemistry 
Department has consented to serve on 
the committee, where she is especially 
welcome because her vocation in the 
sciences has in no way detracted from 
her enthusiasm for the humanities; her 
active interest in the Library is de- 
scribed elsewhere in this issue. 

At a recent meeting, the Executive 
Committee empowered the Chairman 
to appoint two new committees. The 
first of these will supervise the mem- 
bership records of the Friends and will 
undertake measures for the extension 
of our membership among the univer- 
sity alumni. The second committee 



will concern itself with encouraging in 
undergraduate students an interest in 
book-collecting and in the Library. 


THE November, 1946 number of 
The New Hampshire Troubadour 
is a special issue devoted entirely to 
Robert Frost, and contains unpublished 
poems by Frost as well as several in- 
teresting articles on the poet. One 
hundred copies of this publication have 
been made available to the Friends of 
the Library; members desiring copies 
may obtain them by addressing a re- 
quest to the Chairman of the Executive 


THE year's program of exhibitions 
in the University Library was 
opened in September with a display of 
twelve etchings and wood-engravings 
by modern artists. Loaned by a mem- 
ber of the library staff, the prints in- 
cluded three etchings of North Caro- 
lina scenes by Mr. Louis Orr, whose 
series of Duke Campus prints was so 
well received some years ago. 

Professor Weston La Barre, of the 
Sociology Department, has generously 
offered to exhibit his fine collection of 
Orientalia, gathered in the course of 
wartime service throughout the Far 
East. These materials, which include 
textiles, metalwork, porcelains, and 
carved wood and ivory, fall into three 
groups, illustrating the cultures of 
China, India, and Ceylon. The Chinese 
exhibition, displayed during October 
and November, has attracted much 
favorable attention; the Indian and 
Singhalese will appear during the early 

months of 1947. An enthusiastic and 
discriminating collector, Professor La 
Barre has still other materials to offer, 
including a large South American col- 
lection, which we hope to exhibit at a 
later date. 

For the month of December, an ex- 
hibition on William Cullen Bryant was 
prepared, composed of books and 
manuscripts from the Bryant collection 
placed on deposit at Duke by Dr. Ernest 
R. Eaton of New York. The Library 
has recently purchased two small 
groups of Bryant letters — eighteen in 
all — which also appear in this exhibi- 

Arrangements have been made for 
the presentation of the American Insti- 
tute of Graphic Arts exhibition, the 
"Fifty Books of the Year," during the 
period from April 25 to May 15, 1947. 
These books are chosen for excellence 
of design and typography. It is hoped 
that the display of the "Fifty Books of 
the Year" may become an annual fea- 
ture in the Library. 

The concluding exhibition of the 
year will be one which we also hope to 
make an annual practice. During the 
University's centennial year, an exhibi- 
tion dealing with the history of Duke 
University was set up in the Library of 
the Woman's College. Returning alum- 
ni, in particular, expressed pleasure at 
finding on display pictures of old Trin- 
ity and letters written by men promi- 
nent in the history of the institution. 
During the commencement period of 
each year we plan to present an exhibi- 
tion of this nature, the content varying 
from year to year. It is a small but 
suitable contribution which the Library 
can make to the ceremonies of com- 
mencement time. 




AT a business meeting of the Li- 
k brary Staff Association, held on 
September 4, the following officers 
were elected: President, Miss Helen 
Oyler; Vice-President, Miss Mary Can- 
ada; Secretary, Miss Mary Jo Kennedy; 
Treasurer, Mr. Edwin Hix; Member 
of the Executive Committee, Miss 

Evelyn Harrison. On November 18& 
the association was addressed by the 
University Librarian, who spoke on 
the history of Southern libraries. The 
remainder of the year's programs will 
consist of symposia or lectures on sub- 
jects of interest to the staff; library 
planning is to be one of the topics 
under discussion. 


No. 18 


The Friends ofT)uke University J^ibrary 

July 1947 


B. E. Powell, Librarian 

THE extraordinary growth of re- 
search libraries in recent years 
has focused attention on the problem 
of housing the millions of volumes 
added annually to American collec- 
tions. Cooperative purchasing should 
check the geometrical increase — the 
doubling in size every sixteen years — 
which was the rule from the early dec- 
ades of this century to the late war. 
Microfilm has been hailed as a partial 
solution. More recently, micro-cards 
have promised to supplant books and 
provide relief from congestion by re- 
ducing the bulk of our libraries to 
cards. Book storage warehouses are no 
longer regarded as innovations. 

What are the implications of these 
devices for the Duke University Li- 
braries? Each department of the 
undergraduate college and graduate 
school, and each professional school of 
the University, represents a commit- 
ment in the form of annual book and 
serial purchases which cannot be ig- 
nored. Although Duke ranks high 
among American research libraries, 
with more than three quarters of a 
million volumes, it still does not have 
the books already in print needed to 
support its teaching and research pro- 
gram. Faculties with twice our hold- 
ings at their disposal have shown little 
inclination to reduce their annual pur- 

chases. Moreover, this library now 
has a responsibility to North Carolina, 
to the South, and to the nation. It 
must assist other libraries, particularly 
in the Southern region, in supplying 
the research materials requested of 

But cooperative buying, especially of 
fringe material, should enable us to 
depend upon such neighbors as the 
University of North Carolina, Har- 
vard, Chicago, and the Library of Con- 
gress for books which normally we 
might have bought. Eventually this 
policy of distributing among many 
libraries the responsibility for acquir- 
ing important but seldom used ma- 
terials should slacken the growth of 
book repositories. Micro-cards have 
yet to be tried on a large scale. But 
microfilm has already freed hundreds 
of shelves which normally would have 
been laden with bulky and perishable 
bound volumes of newspapers. It will 
continue to substitute for scarce and ex- 
pensive items, for those not available 
in other form, and particularly for 
materials on inferior paper. 

So the library must continue to 
grow — more rapidly perhaps than 
others in this region. More space will 
be required, but some pressure will be 
removed by the practices just noted. 
Storage warehouses have provided re- 


lief in a few instances — inexpensively 
constructed though fire-resistant ware- 
houses, located on low-priced land. 
There is much to recommend them in 
areas where land on which to expand 
is costly or inconveniently located. 
There is likewise argument for hold- 
ing the entire book collection under 
one roof, argument so strong that we 
should not yet consider dividing the 
collection of the General Library. 

Recent numbers of Library Notes 
have contained references to crowded 
conditions in the General Library, con- 
ditions which for several years have re- 
tarded the growth of the research col- 
lections of the University and impaired 
the service normally expected of the 
staff. One hundred thousand volumes 
are off the shelves for lack of adequate 
space, and most of them are inacces- 
sibly stored. Almost half of the manu- 
scripts collection is lodged in out-of- 
the-way storage basements and closets. 
The remarkable manner in which 
members of the library staff have at- 
tended to their duties in the face of 
this discouraging situation must be at- 
tributed to their faith and optimism, 
and to the understanding and forbear- 
ance of faculty and students. To all 
of them we are indebted. 

Early relief from this acute conges- 
tion is anticipated. Plans are being 
completed for expansion of the General 
Library as soon as building conditions 
permit. In this proposed extension 
new space will be secured for air-con- 
ditioned stacks, office and working 
rooms for the staff, special reading 
rooms, microphotography laboratory, 

listening and projection room, studies, 
and rooms for newspapers, maps, docu- 
ments, archives, rare books, and 
manuscripts. The stack capacity will 
be increased now to approximately 
eight hundred thousand volumes and 
later to about two millions. Within the 
stacks will be constructed more than 
three hundred carrells and small stud- 
ies. The seating capacity of the building 
will be increased from less than five 
hundred to nine hundred. 

Quarters for rare books, manuscripts, 
and special collections will be given 
careful attention. Prior to the opening 
of the Rare Book Room, which con- 
tains the distinguished Trent Collec- 
tion of Whitman materials, the library 
had made no provision for preserving 
adequately its accumulation of rare and 
unusual editions. These volumes are 
now being put in order, and the more 
important ones are shelved in the Rare 
Book Room. In the new quarters all 
of the collections of rare items will be 
assembled in a series of air-conditioned 
rooms under the administration of the 
Curator of Rare Books. The magnifi- 
cent Flowers Collection of Southern 
manuscripts, comprising more than a 
million pieces, will have for the first 
time space permitting orderly arrange- 
ment and accessibility. 

But all of the library's materials like- 
wise will be more satisfactorily housed 
than now. Friends who would present 
gifts of books or manuscripts to the 
University may do so with the knowl- 
edge that the available facilities will 
insure their careful preservation. 



Compiled by Ellen Frances Frey 

THE career of Thomas James 
Wise, distinguished English book- 
collector and bibliographer, has been 
the subject of much study and surmise 
during the ten years which have passed 
since his death on 13 May 1937. He 
left behind him the magnificent Ashley 
Library and a group of splendid bibli- 
ographies of English authors; he left 
also a name clouded by its connection 
with an elaborate program of literary 
forgery. The ramifications of this pro- 
gram and the motives which lay be- 
hind it have not yet been satisfactorily 
explained, nor does this paper propose 
to contribute in any degree to the solu- 
tion of the mystery. During the last 
years of his life Mr. Wise performed 
many acts of kindness for the library 
of Duke University, and it is in this 
light alone that we now consider him, 
a friend of our library and the man 
responsible for our acquisition of many 
beautiful and rare books. 

Throughout his career Mr. Wise on 
many occasions responded courteously 
and generously to inquiries addressed 
to him by American scholars. One of 
these inquiries came from Professor 
Newman I. White of Trinity College, 
who first wrote to Mr. Wise on the 
sixteenth of August, 1924, asking about 
the contents of a rare Shelley pamphlet. 
The correspondence thus begun con- 
tinued until the death of Mr. Wise; it 
is of great interest, full of discerning 
comments on literary history and of 
vivid reminiscences of the authors 

whom Wise had known. 1 Much of 
this material we must pass over until, 
coming to the year 1930, we find the 
first reference to Duke University 
Library. Professor White had written 
to ask whether Mr. Wise would be 
willing to sell to Duke such duplicates 
as he acquired in the course of collect- 
ing his own library. Mr. Wise's reply, 
dated 4 August 1930, was somewhat 

Regarding the other matter with which 
your letter deals, I have no duplicates 
whatever just now that would be of any 
use to you. I frequently do have dupli- 
cates, & these I always turn over to Maggs 
Bros, who credit me for them. But if in 
future any suitable ones chance to occur, 
I will advise you. I am constantly im- 
proving the condition of my books by 
buying better copies when such come 
along; & of course sometimes I have to 
take a duplicate in order to secure some- 
thing I want. So I may be able to help 
you later on. 

The next letter to contain a reference 
to Duke University is dated more than 
a year later; in the interim a satisfac- 

1 These letters have been presented to the Uni- 
versity Library by Professor White; with his per- 
mission the following excerpts are here published. 
The collection, covering the period from 16 August 
1924 to 21 February 1938, includes thirty-nine 
letters from Mr. Wise to Professor White; the 
original of one letter and drafts or carbon copies 
of ten letters from Professor White to Mr. Wise; 
ten letters from Mrs. Wise to Professor and Mrs. 
White; five letters from other persons to Mr. Wise; 
and fifteen miscellaneous pieces, chiefly clippings. 


tory arrangement for Duke's acquisi- 
tion of Mr. Wise's duplicates has been 

25, Heath Drive, 
Hampstead, N.W. 3 
October 22 nd 1931 
Dear Mr. White, 

It seems ages since I heard from you. 
Have you been writing any further papers 
on Shelley ? Pray do not forget me if you 
print any more. I think the news I have 
to tell you this morning will be of interest 
to you. You will remember no doubt 
that in the Preface to "A Shelley Library" 
I told a Tale of Woe regarding my fight 
with Mr. Halsey for the Freeling-Carling- 
ford copy of the "Proposals for an Asso- 
ciation of Philanthropists," for the posses- 
sion of which he beat me at ^530. That 
was in the spring of 1903. Ever since that 
dark day I have been writhing under a 
sense of defeat, and lamenting the loss 
of the tract. During all these years no 
third example has come to light (the sec- 
ond is in the Bodleian) ; and now at long 
last one has been found in Dublin. It is 
clean and uncut, and in the original state 
as issued. The owner promptly sent it 
to Sotheby's for sale by Auction. Sotheby's 
very kindly showed it to me, & with much 
trouble induced the owner (a physician 
in Dublin) to agree to withdraw it from 
the Sale-Room, & to dispose of it to me 
by private treaty. The end of the matter 
was that last Thursday the little waif be- 
came mine at the price of ^900. — . — ., a 
by no means unreasonable figure. Had 
the pamphlet come to light during the 
recent 'boom' period the price would no 
doubt have been somewhere in the neigh- 
borhood of ^1500., or possibly even more. 
So now my Shelley Library draws very 
near to completion. Adding together the 
two events of 1903 & 1931, the result forms 
quite a tiny romantic bibliophilic story! 

But here is a coincidence almost too 
strange to be true, & yet it is true. 
We have just dealt with a pamphlet by 

Shelley of which during a whole life- time 
only 2 copies were known: a third came 
to light, and I secured it. Now I have to 
tell you of a pamphlet by Coleridge of 
which, also throughout a life time, only 
two examples could be recorded. Now a 
third copy of this also has drifted into 
the market, and I have secured it. The 
only difference is that whilst the Shelley 
pamphlet is, regarded as literature, a 
worthless rag, only of value because of its 
Author & its rarity, — the Coleridge pam- 
phlet is one of its author's highly impor- 
tant prose writings. The book in question 
is the "Treatise on Method," privately 
printed in 181 8. As you are probably 
aware, until now we were only able to in- 
dicate two surviving specimens of the 
book; one belonged to Ernest Hartley 
Coleridge; the other, had been given by 
Coleridge to Dr. James Gillman, Cole- 
ridge's friend and physician, in whose 
house at High[g]ate he died. From Gill- 
man's grand-daughter, Mrs. H. G. Wat- 
son, I purchased it nearly 30 years ago. 

A few months ago I was offered a small 
but very choice collection of rare First 
Editions of Coleridge which had belonged 
to his life-long friend and sole literary 
Executor Dr. Joseph Henry Green. The 
little packet included superb copies of the 
two Bristol Lectures "Condones ad Popu- 
lum," & "The Plot Discovered"; a fine 
set of the 10 original numbers of "The 
Watchman"; and a clean uncut copy of 
"A Treatise on Method." Both the hither- 
to known examples of the book were 
trimmed, though only slightly so, but of 
course I wanted this uncut specimen. The 
owner would not sell it alone, so in order 
to acquire it I bought the lot! 

For some while past Mr. Thompson, of 
Mss. Stevens & Brown, have been asking 
me if I had not turned up any more dupli- 
cates for you; so I have handed these 
Coleridge books to him for you, having 
exchanged my old Coleridge-Gillman- 
Watson copy for this Coleridge-Green 
one. With them I have given to Mr. 

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P O E M, 

In Three Parts. 

Anticpiam exquirite matrem. ? . 

Ft vera, inceffu, fatuit Dea. 

Printed for Jacob To?ifm, at the Judges Head in \ 
Chancery Lane near Fleetftreet, i6Sj. 

The title-page of the handsome copy of Dryden's The Hind 
and the Panther which Mr. Wise sent to the Duke Library. 


Thompson a number of duplicates which 
I have sorted out. These include several 
pamphlets printed by me or by Clement 
Shorter. They are the only copies of each 
I have left apart from those included in 
the Ashley Catalogue. I think I once told 
you that throughout the larger portion of 
my life I have always passed my dupli- 
cates (which I cannot help accumulating) 
to Mss. Maggs Bros, who have taken them 
all at a uniform rate of "half current cata- 
logue price." I have asked Mr. Thompson 
when communicating with you regarding 
the present pieces to act in precisely the 
same manner: that is to estimate the pres- 
ent (not recent) value, & charge you half 
that sum. I have slipped into many of 
the books a brief note recording the source 
from which they came to me. There is a 
beautiful copy of Dryden's "Hind & Pan- 
ther." This is a book of which quite a 
number of copies are extant, but which 
is almost unobtainable in fine condition. 
The book was popular at the time of its 
appearance in 1687, & practically every 
copy that comes up for sale is more or 
less cropped & dirty. 

A short while ago I received a copy of 
the "Analytical List of D. G. Rossetti 
MSS. in Duke University," & was ex- 
tremely interested in it. Your friend Pro- 
fessor Baum has dealt with the MSS. in a 
masterly manner, & has made a most in- 
teresting study of them. His book will 
be of considerable value to the future edi- 
tor, whoever he may prove to be, of the 
final variorum edition of Rossetti's verse, 
— for a variorum edition there will have 
to be, so infinite are the changes made in 
the text of Rossetti's poems. ... I wonder 
if you are aware that all these MSS of 
yours were once mine. I bought the col- 
lection from W. M. Rossetti's son & 
daughters, to whom they belonged jointly. 
First I selected from them what I re- 
quired to fit in with other things in my 
own collection. Then Mr. Marchbank (an 
old and valued friend) had a look through 
them, & took out what he cared for: i.e. 

the pencil-draft of "Jan van Hunks," & 
one or two poems. The remainder went 
as usual to Mss. Maggs Bros, who gave 
me for them just about half the sum at 
which they were catalogued. From 
Maggs they were purchased by the Duke 
Library. It is a pity I was not at that 
time aware of your wants, as had it been 
otherwise you would have been saved a 
substantial part of the cost. — 

Pray forgive me for inflicting all this 
verbose chatter upon you. But I am full 
of joy over my acquisition of the Shelley 
pamphlet, — and somehow I felt impelled 
to share my joy with you! I promise to 
be good in future, & not worry you at so 
painful a length again. Believe me to be, 
Very sincerely yours 

Thos. J. Wise. 

I am now plunging once more into the 
Bibliography of Byron. 

To this letter Professor White drafted 
an answer on the twentieth of Novem- 
ber, speaking enthusiastically of the 
books Mr. Wise had sent: 

. . . this morning I helped unpack the 
books you let us have and received almost 
as big a thrill as you did when you made 
those two amazing purchases. Farewell 
to any notion of working on my book this 
morning. Handling fine books is vastly 
better than writing grubby ones. 

I congratulate you on your marvellous 
good fortune in acquiring two such items 
as the Shelley and Coleridge ones. The 
story ought to become a classic among 
bibliophiles. The Shelley item in particu- 
lar is really awe-inspiring. To have an 
agent commit an irretrievable blunder, and 
then, after nearly thirty years (during 
which your wrath, I guess, never cooled) 
to have the incredible opportunity come 
swimming serenely into view as if such a 
thing as the law of averages never ex- 
isted! It must have given you a queer 
feeling when you actually realized that 
the copy was yours. ... It has always 


seemed to me that a flaw in the fashionable 
pessimistic philosophy (dour as I am my- 
self, very often) is a failure to realize that 
the big moments are really tremendous 
and can make countless small ones (in 
Shelley's phrase) "shrink to annihilation." 
The unpacking of your duplicates was 
a big moment for me. Simply handling 
them and knowing that they were ours 
was a big thrill, but beyond that was an 
almost prophetic exaltation which may 
seem absurd to you unless I inflict an ex- 
planation. Since you have become a party 
to the development of the Duke Uni- 
versity Library, I think I will inflict it. 

Here Professor White goes on to tell 
the story we all know, the story of the 
development of Trinity, "a small col- 
lege of fair standards but no particular 
distinction" into a university potenti- 
ally great, and of the part played by 
James Buchanan Duke in this meta- 
morphosis. He continues: 

My special interest, of course, is the library. 
It is often hard to get hold of the money 
for special opportunities, and very slow 
work . . . persuading trustees that the li- 
brary is the soul of a great center of 
knowledge and that sums of money much 
larger than they consider reasonable must 
be spent to bring our library to a par with 
our buildings or with the older university 
libraries. The little collection of books 
that you let us have on such generous 
terms is by far the rarest and most elegant 
group of books we have. I am recom- 
mending that they be set apart as the 
Wise collection, hoping that we can add 
to them from time to time and that they 
will stimulate more students to a love of 
rare and beautiful books. The more of 
this sort of thing we have, the more rapid- 
ly will our library take a proper stride 
and direction in its growth. 

After expressing the hope that Mr. 
Wise will continue to send his dupli- 

cates to Duke, Professor White makes 
a further suggestion. Aware of Mr. 
Wise's intention that the Ashley Li- 
brary should eventually go to the 
British Museum, he asks whether Mr. 
Wise will consider recommending that 
the British Museum at that time sell 
to Duke "a number of its own less per- 
fect copies thus rendered duplicates." 

Should this be in any way embarrassing 
to you, simply disregard the suggestion; 
but if it should prove feasible you have no 
idea what a tremendous benefit it would 
be to a library where some of your books 
are already regarded as prize possessions. 
# # # # # 

No more (and you may well say, too 
much) of Duke University. It might in- 
terest you to know that one of the books 
you sent will be put to immediate use by 
an acquaintance of yours. Professor Lewis 
Patton, who called upon you several years 
ago with a letter from me, is editing "The 
Watchman." He has been working hither- 
to with a photostat of the Harvard copy. 

I was quite curious about the first edi- 
tion of English Bards and Scotch Review- 
ers bound with blank leaves for annota- 
tions and collations. The notes were in 
an early hand and one of them quoted 
from Moore's Life of Byron. What 
piqued my curiosity most was that the 
handwriting is not utterly dissimilar to 
Byron's and the notes signed B. and Byron 
were to my unpracticed eye very good imi- 
tations indeed. Some editor of Byron, 
probably. Do you remember anything 
about it? Possibly it was one of the du- 
plicates you acquired. It is mere curiosity, 
and not worth your troubling yourself 

25, Heath Drive, 
Hampstead, N.W. 3 
December 6 th 1931 

Dear Mr. White, 
I received two days ago your long, but 

far too short, letter of Nov. 22, and a pe- 


rusal of it has afforded me a very con- 
siderable amount of pleasure. All that 
you have told me in it regarding the 
founder of the Duke University is news 
to me, & moreover is news of a character 
that makes a very strong appeal to my 
sympathy, and awakes an interest in your 
institution I had never dreamed would be 
excited. Why did you not make me ac- 
quainted with all this long ago ? The fact 
is I have throughout the greater portion 
of my mature life had a great deal to do 
with the formation of public libraries of 
this character. I was one of the advisers 
of Mrs. Rylands and Dr. Green when the 
Rylands Library was in course of forma- 
tion. I was, I think, by a long way the 
chief help in the accumulation of the 
Wrenn Library at Austin, Texas, — as you 
will no doubt have seen in my introduc- 
tion to the beautiful & highly important 
Wrenn Catalogue. And lastly I was mak- 
ing myself responsible for the plan to be 
followed in the purchase of books for the 
Brotherton Library at Leeds, when an un- 
kind Fate took Lord Brotherton away. 
This ambitious project was to have been a 
really "Big Thing." Lord Brotherton was 
a man of great wealth, — he left when he 
died last year, between 5 & 6 millions sterl- 
ing. He was a widower with no children. 
He knew nothing whatever about Books, 
and yet he loved them, & during the last 
5 years of his life, when we stood upon 
terms of close intimacy, nothing gave him 
greater pleasure than to sit either in my 
modest book room here, or in his own 
noble library at Roundhay Hall, Leeds, 
and chat over his treasures. Together 
we formulated a plan which was just 
being put into execution when he sudden- 
ly died just 18 months ago. His ambition 
was to raise a monument to his name in 
the form of a splendid library for his 
native town. As he so often remarked 
with emphasis— "I intend to do for Leeds 
what John Rylands did for Manchester." 
And he would have done it, & in some 
ways the result would have been a foun- 

dation of far wider interest & of a broader 
range of usefulness than the Rylands Li- 
brary has proved to be, or is likely to 
prove in the future. The basis of the Ry- 
lands Library was intended to be of a cleri- 
cal nature. I pressed upon Lord Brother- 
ton to make his library a centre of activity 
for the study of live literature: the work 
of the great classic writers of the 18 th & 
19 th Centuries: roughly dating from the 
Restoration of Charles II to the death of 
Thomas Hardy. This would place Leeds 
University on a level with the collections 
at the British Museum, The Bodleian, & 
the Rylands Library, — for in all three in- 
stances this is just the period in which 
those 3 libraries are woefully deficient. In 
fact the lines upon which the collection 
of my own library is based. The very last 
discussion I had with him, in company 
with his own librarian Mr. Symington, re- 
sulted in his giving instructions to "go 
ahead with Byron & Coleridge." 

About a year before he died Lord 
Brotherton approved the plans for the 
erection of the building, & handed over 
the sum of £100.000. to pay for it. And 
just a week before his death he signed 
the document providing the trustees with 
an additional £30.000. as an endowment 
fund for the remuneration of the librarian 
& an assistant. A very substantial & suffi- 
cient sum was to have been provided for 
the endowment of the library itself; the 
purchase of Books, &c, but his unexpected 
death took place before this proposal was 
carried out. Now it will never be done. 
. . . But I am chattering away instead of 
replying to your letter! This will, I fear, 
have to be answered by instalments : I can- 
not deal with it all this Sunday afternoon. 

I rejoice to hear that you find the books 
(mostly duplicates from my own collec- 
tion) I sent you, So far as 
I can see, & so far as I can penetrate your 
mind, these are just of a class you & your 
colleagues desire. And they are of the 
right class & kind. So far as I am aware 
no public library in America is as yet 



properly furnished with original editions 
of the authors in question. At Harvard 
they seem to be doing their best to gather 
the books of Pope: At Austin, thanks to 
the generosity of Mrs. Stark, they are buy- 
ing Shelley & Byron: at Waco they are 
keen on Browning : at Yale they are mak- 
ing an effort to fill up with the dramatic 
poets, both Elizabethan (so called) & 
Restoration. But all are shockingly in- 
complete, judging from what I am told by 
students who come here, & who corre- 
spond with me, upon these subjects. That 
is why the British Museum Authorities are 
so keen to have my library at my death, — 
which they will have. When you asked 
me to let you have my duplicates, &c, at 
first (forgive me for confessing it!) I did 
not take to the idea. But upon further 
consideration I rather liked the idea, — 
largely, I will admit, in consequence of 
your repeated kindness to me in enabling 
me to acquire the privately-printed Shelley 
pamphlets written by yourself. So I asked 
Mr. Thompson (the partner at Stevens & 
Brown's who attends to rare books & 
MSS) to send for what I had, & instruct- 
ed him to make a careful valuation of 
them at present market prices: that is the 
prices at which the books would be 
marked in the catalogue of a reliable deal- 
er, or which they might be expected to 
bring in the sale room, & to charge you 
half this sum. Mr. Thompson acted as I 
wished, & in due course he 'phoned me 
that he valued the little collection at 
"about /650, making ^325. at half value. 
I replied to him telling him to call it 
^300. in order to be on the safe side. As 
vou will gain the benefit of the present 
fall in Anglo-American Exchange, which 
is something like 25%, you will have made 
a really cheap purchase, — to my own very 
considerable satisfaction. Perhaps you 
may like to know why I said "Charge 
them Half"? Thereby hangs a tale 
which I really must relate to you. 

Many years ago, somewhere about the 
year 1890, it was my frequent habit to go, 

accompanied by Mr. F. S. Ellis, to 
Ha[m]mersmith, & spend a couple of 
hours in the study of William Morris at 
Kelmscott House, leaving after tea, when 
I more often than not went on either to 
The Pines or to W m Rossetti's place in 
Endsleigh Gardens to supper. Morris was 
then sunken deep in his Socialism, & was 
the chief fountain from which the horrid 
gang of Hammersmith Socialists drew 
their funds. One afternoon, just as I was 
leaving, he handed me the MS. of one 
of his books, & said: "Would you like to 
buy this?" "Of course I would," I re- 
plied, "how much am I to pay for it?" 
"Tell me what it's worth," he answered, 
"And give me half; these damned 
blighters want a lump tonight, & I'm 
bust." (Morris, as you know, "swore like 
a trooper," — but he was a clean swearer: 
I never heard him use a filthy word, or 
one that was blasphemous.) You may 
imagine how pleased I was at this reply. 
It shewed me that in the first place he 
appreciated my knowledge & judgment in 
the matter of value, & in the second place 
that he had confidence in mv honour & 
knew that my estimate would be a fair 
one, & would not be influenced by the fact 
that I was a party to the deal. Well: for 
some years now, certainly more than 20, 
I have had an arrangement with Maggs 
Bros to take all my duplicates, & things 
I did not want but which I had to buy 
when purchasing some "lot" in which was 
some item I did want. When the first 
transaction took place & Mr. Maggs asked 
me how much I claimed I made the same 
reply that Morris made to me: "Tell me 
what they are worth & give me half." 
This arrangement has continued. I have 
a box upstairs into which I place all my 
duplicates &c. as they occur, & when it is 
full I hand them over to Maggs. Now I 
have re-christened it "The Duke Box"! 
That MS. I bought from Morris was the 
first of his MSS. I ever had, — but the one 
I loved best was one I did not acquire 
until long after his death. I used in early 


days to go to South Place Chapel, Fins- 
bury. Not in the morning to "Services," 
but in the evening to the Lecture. South 
Place Chapel was at that time run by 
Moncure D. Conway, a countryman of 
yours, I believe. He was the leader of 
the South Place Ethical Society. His 
habit was to have a regular almost con- 
ventional Service on Sunday mornings, 
and in the evenings have a Secular Lec- 
ture, just on a line with Stopford Brooke's 
system at Bedford Chapel, Bloomsbury. 
Upon some occasions he delivered the lec- 
ture himself; more often he induced some 
other man to take his place. One Sunday 
the lecturer was announced to be William 
Morris. Up to then I had never even seen 
Morris, & I was soaked with the beauties 
of "The Earthly Paradise" & other of his 
lovely poems which have yet to be appre- 
ciated at their real worth. So to South 
Place I went that evening, & heard Morris 
deliver his now well known address "Use- 
ful Work versus Useless Toil." Little did 
I dream that the blue folio sheets I 
watched him turn over would one day 
become mine! 

Later on I became intimate with Morris, 
as I did with both Swinburne & Brown- 
ing. But what a difference there was be- 
tween the three men! Great as is the dif- 
ference between their work, greater still 
was the difference in their characteristics 
& their natures. Browning & Morris were 
men to inspire affection: both were "love- 
able" men to a high degree. Swinburne on 
the other hand awoke no love. He held 
one in admiration of his knowledge & his 
power: his conversation was a spell. One 
could have knelt at his feet: one could 
never have kissed his hand. He was a 
typical "little gentleman" to look at. A 
perfect aristocrat in miniature: sometimes 
he seemed almost 'possessed': his move- 
ments a kind of half-leap : his voice raised 
almost to a scream. Browning was a 
polished English gentleman, in spite of 
his (at the time I knew him) somewhat 
Gallic appearance. Fauldess in dress: 

perfectly groomed. His silk hat & his 
closely-rolled umbrella looked ever as new. 
In fact he & Sir Frederic Leighton, close 
companions & constant friends, were a 
pair. Did any one ever see either of them 
abroad without his famous yellow gloves ? 
I never did; they even accompanied him 
on that, to me, memorable windy after- 
noon when he accompanied me in a Han- 
som Cab to Rimell's book shop in Oxford 
St to inspect the newly-found copy of 
Mrs Browning's "Battle of Marathon," a 
story I have told in the Preface to "A 
Browning Library." He was a constant 
diner out, & he never "talked shop." A 
stranger would never have dreamed he 
was a poet. He would, & frequently was, 
taken to be a well-read & widely-travelled 
man of the world. Swinburne? He never 
did anything else than talk Shop. His 
work was his world, & he thought & 
cared for nothing else. 

And Morris? Heaven save us, what a 
contrast! Like Swinburne he did talk 
Shop: but it was a shop of many depart- 
ments. Poetry: Art: Socialism: Decora- 
tion: Economics: and Men. In appear- 
ance he was as unconventional and as un- 
concerned as could be. Always a soft 
hat: a silk hat would have driven him 
mad. Never a glove: a glove would have 
driven him equally mad. Only one form 
of dress, a dark blue reefer suit, usually 
with brass buttons, giving him the appear- 
ance of a bluff old sea-captain, a real 
"Salt ashore," an illusion to which his 
short stout figure, his deeply-coloured com- 
plection, & his rolling gait largely con- 
tributed. And swear! Good Heaven he 
never opened his mouth without an oath. 
It relieved his feelings, & did him a world 
of good. But his language meant noth- 
ing. It was just clean & useful expletive: 
his way of letting off the steam. But- 1 
never heard either Robert Browning or 
Algernon Swinburne utter even a simple 
Dam! Steady!! Here have I filled 6 
sheets of paper and not even made a com- 
mencement at replying to your letter! But 



you have started me thinking of the past 
this afternoon, & I could not prevent my- 
self from chattering. But if only you will 
forgive me this time, I'll promise to be 
good & behave myself in future. But be- 
lieve me to be, in spite of my failings, 
Yours very sincly, 

Thos. J. Wise 

25, Heath Drive, 
Hampstead, N.W. 3. 
December 13& 1931 
Dear Mr. White, 

Last Sunday afternoon I made a start 
at replying to your long & interesting letter 
of Nov. 22, — and made a dismal failure 
of it, largely as a result of indulging in 
my unhappy habit of drifting into chatter 
when I find myself interested in any sub- 
ject. This afternoon I will try to be good, 
& reply to the points of your letter seri- 

At this point Mr. Wise writes at length 
upon Professor White's plan to edit a 
volume of selections from Shelley and 
upon the contemporary reputations of 
Byron, Shelley, and Swinburne. Later 
he turns to matters more nearly con- 
cerning the Duke Library: 

I am at present steeped in Byron, & am 
at last printing a complete Bibliography of 
his Works. Immediately I was quit of 
Pope, early last spring, I put all else on 
one side & set to work to get together all 
the mass of material I had gathered dur- 
ing a life-time, & gradually and slowly 
studied & assimilated, with the final 
Bibliography in view. Now the time has 
come to bring my work to fruition. I hope 
to issue the book about this time next 
year. Immediately that is oil my hands 
I shall apply myself to doing the same 
with Shelley. I have studied him & his 
books for more than 50 years, & through- 
out the whole of that period I have had 
the one end in view. You know what 

my Collection of Shelley is. My collection 
of Byron is almost on a par with it. I 
possess every First Edition of Byron, & 
quite a goodly number of his Manuscripts 
& Letters. When the book is out, I pro- 
pose to go over my store, & put into the 
"Duke Box" all the duplicates there may 
be. There are, I know, some very desir- 
able & scarce items which I fancy you will 
be glad to have. But this matter I can 
correspond with you about later on. I 
have already some of the Bibliography in 
type. If it should be of any interest either 
to you or to Mr. Morrell to have them, I 
will send you a set of the galley proofs 
as they come from the printers. The main 
Bibliography will make a big book, prob- 
ably as large as one of the volumes of the 
Ashley Catalogue, & will even then be 
followed by a Supplement. I am meeting 
with the warmest sympathy & help from 
every quarter. Even from America, from 
Los Angeles & from Philadelphia, I am 
having the loan of rare pieces in order that 
I may be enabled to compare them with 
my own examples. Best of all Colonel 
John Murray ("John Murray the Fifth") 
has afforded me full use of the "Murray 
Archives" (they have the firm's ledgers & 
the printer's bills for the whole of the 
Byron period), & has lent me corrected 
proofs, &c. for use at home. So I am in 
an unique position, & able to get to the 
very root of all matters which might other- 
wise have been debateable. I have also 
made many so-called "discoveries"; & on 
the whole I think the Bibliography will 
prove to be an eye-opener to a large num- 
ber of people. Have you my book "A 
Shelley Library"? I wish now that I had 
sent to Duke University my Bibliographies 
& Catalogues in the past, each as it was 
printed. I am always glad to give them 
to such libraries as you appear to be form- 
ing. I shall not fail to send you everything 
of that nature I may print in future. So 
pray do not purchase them. I have noth- 
ing of the past save a copy or two of "A 



Landor Library." If you have no copy 
of this I will gladly send you one. 

I will worry you with no more today. 
Next Sunday I will complete my reply to 
your letter. 

Always sincerely yours 

Thos. J. Wise 

25, Heath Drive, 
Hampstead, N.W. 3. 
December 20 th 1931 
Dear Mr. White, 

Here goes for the third of my attempts 
to reply to your letter of Nov. 22nd, & 
my third trial of your patience! 

First of all you suggest doing me the 
honor of connecting my name with the 
little cluster of books I shall be able to 
let you have. 

Naturally this generous suggestion is 
both attractive and gratifying to me. But 
— I am a modest man, and nothing is more 
distasteful to me than anything that has 
the smallest appearance of self-advertise- 
ment. What you have to consider, & 
what I seriously beg you to consider, is: 
"What is in the best interest of Duke's 
University, & what is most likely to serve 
to enhance the fame of its library?" 

As I think I have already told you, I 
have for many years past disposed of my 
duplicates to Mss. Maggs Bros. For the 
future these shall go to you, if you wish 
to have them. I am hard at work com- 
pleting the Bibliography of Byron, which 
I hope to have out of my hands in the late 
spring of next year, & to issue some time 
in the autumn. When this time arrives I 
shall have a number of duplicates of 
Byron which will be at your disposal. So 
that next summer I shall be able to make 
up for you another parcel. I commenced 
buying Byron's first & early editions in 
the form of fine & clean cut copies, & 
gradually replaced these with copies in 
wrappers as the opportunity presented it- 
self. But I retained the former even when 
they were replaced by the latter, because 
I thought it wise to employ them for the 

purpose of study & collation, rather than 
run the risk of damaging my "mint" 
copies. As soon as the Bibliography is 
done with these will be free. I shall go 
carefully through my Byron collection & 
remove what I can spare. I know there 
are some of the rare ones, such as the real 
First Edition of "The Bride of Abydos," 
& First Editions of "The Giaour," "The 
Monody on Sheridan," "The Age of 
Bronze," "The Island," &c. &c. I will 
also look over my Popes, which I have not 
touched since I made an end of the Pope 
Bibliography last spring. I know that I 
have at least one of the big Pope rarities 
in duplicate. Somehow or other you have 
caused me to take a personal interest in 
the library of your University, & I have no 
doubt that will influence me when I look 
to see what I can let go. 

But that is all in the future! What I 
ought to do, & what in more prosperous 
times I should have been glad to do, is 
to give you these books. But times are the 
reverse of prosperous. In common with 
most men I have suffered a reduction of 
income of rather a serious nature, & the 
pressure of taxation is increasing heavy. 
I have to think first of the requirements 
of the Ashley Library, and have to be 
prepared to fill what gaps there still are 
when the needed items turn up. And such 
items are almost invariably of great rari- 
ty & of increasingly high price, such as the 
Shelley & the Coleridges I acquired a few 
months ago. Hence I have had to relin- 
quish the idea of being a "public bene- 
factor" outside the disposal of the Ashley 

Nevertheless I am helping you I know, 
— because you will be able to obtain a 
number of good & suitable pieces at the 
price the booksellers pay for them, and not 
at the price at which the booksellers sell 
them. And as you gain at least 25% by 
the exchange, you will be doing well. So 
my conscience no longer troubles me, as 
it did when first I thought over your 



Now you ask me if it would be possible 
to make some arrangement by which you 
might obtain from the British Museum 
some of the books they already possess 
when the Ashley Library becomes their 
property. I fear it will not be possible. 
Their idea is this. The Ashley Library 
is to be kept intact in a room by itself, 
just as the Grenville Library is today. A 
special press-mark will be attached to the 
books, & no book will be issued to a read- 
er when a copy is in the general library. 
There are a very large number of books 
in the Ashley Library of which the Mu- 
seum has no copy at all. These of course 
will be available to students, but only in 
a special room & under strict observation. 
The authorities wish to preserve the books 
in fine state for the benefit of future gen- 
erations, & for use in their frequent Ex- 
hibitions. Of the class of books of which 
the Ashley Library mainly consists the 
Museum has a shockingly poor store. Un- 
til Dr. Pollard's time the funds available 
for the purchase of books were mainly 
devoted to the acquisition of Illuminated 
MSS., early Classics, Historical bindings, 
& manuscripts of national importance. All 
quite well & good. The trustees could not 
buy everything. Hence they have neg- 
lected the Classics of English Literature, 
& their stock of the books of the 18 th & 
19 th centuries is miserable in the extreme. 
Most of the books are worn out, cropped 
& soiled, no half-titles, & all that sort of 
thing, & to replace them would entail a 
very large expenditure, & would be an 
extremely difficult — almost an impossible 
task. Hence their very great anxiety to 
have my collection. Some while ago Dr. 
Pollard remarked to me: "Had you, when 
you commenced to build up your library, 
had in view the end it must serve, that it 
must after your death go to Bloomsbury, 
you could not possibly have made a better 
or wiser selection." And I know this to be 
true. The only one of the Trustees of 
the Museum with whom I stand upon 
terms of intimacy is Lord Crawford. 

When next I meet him I will mention the 
subject to him, but I know only too well 
what his reply will be. 

Just about a century ago the then Trus- 
tees did dispose of a large number of 
duplicates. Each has a big stamp "British 
Museum Duplicate" upon the back of its 
title-page. And that action has been bitter- 
ly regretted ever since. During the time 
that has passed many of those 'duplicates' 
have had to be repurchased at vastly en- 
hanced prices, because they were not du- 
plicates at all! They looked li\e dupli- 
cates, but were not actual duplicates at all. 
Even so late as 10 years ago many of the 
First Editions of Byron (for example) 
would under such circumstances have been 
turned out of any library. Now that I 
have studied and collated them, & have 
found so many 'issues,' 'variants,' & even 
'editions,' all masquerading as "First Edi- 
tions," as likely as not it would turn out 
that the very items discarded were the 
very ones which ought to have been kept. 

I am glad to know that Professor Patton 
has found my — or your — or may I say 
our — "Watchman" of use. It is a large & 
fine copy, & vasdy superior to the speci- 
mens that usually turn up. Until I ac- 
quired my unique uncut copy I am sure I 
never saw a better. Please offer my re- 
gards to Professor Patton & suggest to him 
that he might find it worth while to turn 
up my "Two Lake Poets," p. 61, & look 
at the record I have made of my copy 
which belonged to Coleridge himself, & 
has his notes & comments upon its mar- 

I am interested to know that your Mr. 
Morrell is a son of Morrell the English 
binder. He will appreciate the Riviere 
bindings upon the books I have sent you. 
I always choose my own skins at Riviere's, 
and the dainty dentelle roll inside the 
covers is called "Mr. Wise's Roll" at the 
Haddon St Works. I love these plain 
bindings, but for them only the finest 
skins can be successfully employed. The 
less perfect skins do for books with a lot 



of gold tooling upon them, for the tooling 
covers up the flaws in the leather. 

I note you mention "the First Edition 
of English Bards," &c. I do hope that 
Stevens & Brown did not make any mis- 
take & so mislead you. It is not a copy 
of the First Edition, which has a water- 
mark dated 1805. This is a copy of one 
of the unauthorized editions of the Third 
Edition, impudendy produced by Caw- 
thorn. And the notes are not in the hand- 
writing of Lord Byron. 2 I have devoted 
much time & labour to the study of these 
long series of spurious editions of "Eng- 
lish Bards"; you will observe the result 
when the Bibliography reaches your 
hands. Very soon, early next year, I shall 
have it all in galley proof. If you'd care 
for a set of the galleys you shall have 
one. The book was mine, & had been 
mine for many years. 

I think now I have completed replying 
to all in your letter, & now can bring my 
chattering to a close. "Thank God for 
this his crowning mercy!" I fancy I can 
hear Professor Newman I. White exclaim- 
ing. Well, you've brought the infliction 
upon yourself by writing me so interesting 
a letter. 

Wishing you the Season's best compli- 

Believe me to be, 
With most cordial regards, 
Very sincerely yours 

Thos. J. Wise 

A draft of Professor White's reply 
to these letters has been preserved; it 
well sums up Duke's indebtedness to 
Mr. Wise: 

1 quite understand how you feel about 
our keeping your books together as the 
Wise Collection. In fact, I hope I should 
feel the same way, and I rather anticipated 
your reaction to my suggestion. I should 

2 Professor White recalls that in another Wise 
letter, possibly lost, the writer of these notes was 
identified as the notorious De Gibler, a prolific 
forger of Byron and Shelley manuscripts. 

have explained my idea more fully. Like 
you, I believe that books in a library 
should in all cases be handled simply with 
a view to their most effective use. In no 
case, however, would we want to deface 
such rare and beautiful volumes with the 
usual library marks, nor would we wish to 
risk most of them in the comparative in- 
security of the shelves accessible to many 
irresponsible students. Cheek by jowl in 
the general stacks with all the dirty un- 
washed of bookdom, their beautiful dis- 
tinction would be pretty well smothered. 
Thus in any event we should wish to 
keep them separate, for reasons similar to 
those of the British Museum. Once they 
are kept separate, it becomes inevitable 
that they have a collective name, for con- 
venience, if nothing else. We could re- 
frain from naming it officially the Wise 
Collection, but the library staff first, and 
then the students, would call it that any- 
how. If, in toto, we get so few duplicates 
from you that in either your judgment or 
mine it would look odd to call it officially 
the Wise Collection we will refrain from 
naming it. 

It pleases me though, in spite of your 
own embarrassment, that students and 
library staff will call it by your name. 
There is nothing else in this country (ex- 
cept your catalogues & some prefaces 
which are rather a different matter), so 
far as I know, that will keep alive in the 
minds of young scholars not only the 
existence of the Ashley Library but the 
fact that its creator rendered cheerful and 
valuable assistance to many American 
scholars. As a scholar and as an American 
who feels that Anglo-American cooper- 
ation is of very great importance I shall 
be pleased that we have this reminder 
here at Duke. It hardly matters, from 
this angle, whether it is as large as it 
might have been or not. Nor does it 
matter that you are not giving us the 
books outright. There was absolutely no 
reason why you should, and you are, in 
fact, giving us a great deal, for which we 



are very grateful. You have just promised 
us your future catalogues and a copy of 
A Landor Library, which we shall be de- 
lighted to have. We have only two or 
three of your volumes and are on the 
lookout for the others, but most of them 
were beyond our budget until we came 
into our money from Mr. Duke. 

From this time on, with the disrup- 
tion of Mr. Wise's life by illness and 
trouble, his letters grew less frequent 
and more brief; several are in Mrs. 
Wise's hand or that of a nurse. On 
the third of May 1933, he wrote of the 
nearly completed bibliography of 

Here is the Preface, &c. to Vol. II of 
my "Byron." By doing a little bit each 
day I have managed to get through the 
proofs, & before the end of the week the 

complete volume will be passed for press. 


If all goes well, vol 2 of Byron will be 
delivered just when we return or very 
shortly afterwards. I shall take care that 
two of the first copies sent off will go to 
Prof. White & Mr Morell. Please inform 
the latter of this, & tell him that the next 
thing I do after getting vol 2 distributed 
will be to gather together all the Byron 
duplicates I have been using, plus a 
number of interesting items I can spare, 
which will be made better use of in your 
hands than in mine, & I will instruct Mr 
Thompson to fetch them away from here 
& forward them to you. 

A month later, 1 June 1933, at 
Queen's Hotel, Hastings, Mr. Wise dic- 
tated to his nurse a letter which again 
remarks, among other subjects, upon 
the Byron collection he is planning to 
send to Duke: 

When we return to London towards the 
end of June, I expect to find Volume ii of 
"Byron" awaiting me. The first thing I 

do, with the promised help of Mr. Buxton 
Forman, will be to distribute these. You 
may be sure that among the very first to 
be sent off, will go to Durham, N. C. 

After the dispatch of these has been 
completed, my next job will be, again 
with Mr. Forman's aid, to sort out all 
Byron's duplicates for Messrs Stephen and 
Brown, to collect and send to you. I am 
hoping that there will not be very far 
from a full set. 

Two remaining letters of the collec- 
tion contain passages relating to Duke 
Library. The first, dated 14 November 
1934, is in Mrs. Wise's hand: 

I find myself in possession of a dupli- 
cate of the First Issue of the First Edition 
of "The Genuine Rejected Addresses." It 
is unbound, & the edges are trimmed. I 
have given it to Riviere to put into a red 
leather binding uniform with a number 
of the items included in the small Byron 
collection you had from me recently. 
Please ask Mr Morrell to let me know 
whether he has a copy in the University 
Library. If not I will gladly send you 
this one with my warmest regards. On 
Sep. 26 th I sent to Mr Morrell by regis- 
tered post a small collection of letters 
which Prof. Baum told me I had omitted 
from the collection of Byron etc although 
I had promised it to Mr Morrell. It was 
enclosed in one of Riviere's folding cases. 
I have never heard of its arrival, & should 
be very grateful if Mr Morrell will let 
me know if it arrived safely. 

The second, brief and genial, an- 
nounces the coming of the promised 

25, Heath Drive, 
Hampstead, N.W. 3. 
Dec. 28 th 1934. 
Dear Mr. White, 

Here is the copy of James & Horace 
Smith's "Rejected Addresses." It is un- 
fortunately a small one; but it is a speci- 



men of the First Issue of the First Edi- 
tion, and is quite sound and good. Will 
you please accept it from me, and add it 
to your Byron Collection. 

You did not reply to my question as to 
whether you already had one in the 
library, and so I take it for granted that 
it is still lacking there. 

With all good greeting for the coming 
New Year to Mr. Morrell and to yourself, 

Believe me to be, 

Always sincerely yours 

Thos. J. Wise. 

You see I am trying to write you with 
my own hand! 

To this record of the friendly atten- 
tions paid by Mr. Wise to our library, 
it is appropriate to add a brief account 
of the books received from him. The 
Byron collection, several times men- 
tioned in the letters, was entered in the 
accession books of the library on 12 
March 1934. ft consisted of sixty-seven 

volumes, first and early editions of 
Byron's poems, a few in the original 
covers, the majority in the elaborate 
morocco bindings created for Mr. Wise 
by Riviere. Childe Harold's Pilgrim- 
age, Mazeppa, Beppo, The Corsair, The 
Bride of Abydos, and many others are 
well represented, some appearing in 
two or three variants of the first edi- 
tion. Beyond these, Mr. Wise sent to 
the Duke library about fifty volumes, 
including the rare Coleridge items 
mentioned in the letters, early editions 
of a number of Dryden's plays, the 
1729 edition of Pope's Dunciad, Tenny- 
son's 1843 Poems, and the Dublin, 1759, 
edition of Johnson's Prince of Abys- 
sinia. Small wonder that these volumes 
and their companions aroused enthusi- 
asm among the men who received 
them at Duke; today the "Wise collec- 
tion" remains a valued and proudly 
displayed portion of our library. 



ON the evening of 27 February 
1947, during the third visit of 
Robert Frost to Duke University, an 
open meeting of the Friends of Duke 
University Library was held in Page 
Auditorium. About twelve hundred 
members and guests were present. 
They were welcomed by the Univer- 
sity Librarian, Dr. B. E. Powell, who 
presided over the meeting. Professor 
William M. Gibson spoke upon the 
purpose of the Friends of the Library, 
describing the organization as one de- 
vised for the mutual improvement of 
the library and its patrons. He briefly 
reviewed a few of the many ways in 
which assistance may be rendered to 
the library, and asked that students 
and faculty members alike give 
thought to the possibility of serving 
the institution in these and other ways. 
Professor Gibson then announced the 
establishment by the Friends of the 
Library of two annual awards of 
twenty-five dollars each, to be pre- 
sented at the close of each academic 
year, one to the student in Trinity Col- 
lege or the College of Engineering, the 
other to the student in the Woman's 
College, who has submitted the most 
outstanding collection of books. Stu- 
dents interested in competing in the 
1947 contest were asked to register at 
the library. 

The Rev. George B. Ehlhardt then 
introduced Mr. Frost, saying, in part: 

Although Mr. Frost has been called a 
New England poet, he cannot be bound 
by regional lines. A native of California, 
reared in New England, and now a Flo- 
ridian for a few months of each year, he 
in his travels illustrates the universal 
character of his poetry. Because of his 
simplicity and his wide range of resi- 
dence, Mr. Frost has friends in all walks 
of life and in every stratum of society. In 

each group he is at home, and I know that 
we here at Duke University welcome back 
a friend of long standing who is both near 
and dear to us. 

The Rev. Mr. Ehlhardt then announced 
his intention of presenting to the 
Duke Library his own Robert Frost 
collection; an account of this collec- 
tion is given on another page of this 

Mr. Frost's introductory remarks 
took their cue from the part of Mr. 
Ehlhardt's speech that has been quoted. 
He told his hearers to "be suspicious of 
words," to examine closely meanings 
and applications, and not to be led 
astray by superficial likenesses. The 
term "regionalist," he said, was an ex- 
ample requiring cautious use. He ob- 
jected to having that term applied to 
him, to being classified as a poet of 
New England alone. He spoke of 
himself as a "realmist," rather, one 
whose abode and sphere of action is 
the realm of poetry, in feeling, 
thought, spirit. Mr. Frost then com- 
mented on the "play" of poetry, the 
toying with images that is almost mis- 
chievous. He pointed out that the 
reader must be ready in bringing his 
own experience to the aid of the poet 
and nimble in adjusting his experience 
to the demands made by poetic imag- 

Mr. Frost began his reading with a 
number of poems from his new book, 
Steeple Bush, then not yet published; 
in reading these he remarked that it 
seemed "an unusual thing to handle 
proof in public." Many of the pieces 
were from a section of "Editorials," 
comments on the events and attitudes 
of our time. Among these were "I 
Felt My Standpoint Shaken," "Why 
Wait For Science," "Etherealizing," 
and "Haec Fabula Docet." Then "to 
rest on the familiar," the poet gave 



some of his earlier pieces, "The Run- 
away," "Come In," "Birches," "Stop- 
ping By Woods On a Snowy Evening." 
On reciting "Take Something Like a 
Star," he remarked, "Them's my poli- 
tics." He concluded with "Depart- 
mental," was recalled several times by 
enthusiastic applause, and recited, 
among other pieces, "the poem I was 
brought here to read": "Happiness 
Makes Up In Height For What It 
Lacks In Length." 

The meeting came to an end with a 
brief speech by Dr. Powell in which 
he expressed to Mr. Frost the apprecia- 
tion of the audience and thanked the 
Rev. Mr. Ehlhardt for his generous 
gift to the library. 


CHAUNCEY Brewster Tinker of 
Yale University, Sterling Professor 
of English Literature, Emeritus, and 
Keeper of Rare Books in the Univer- 
sity Library, was guest speaker at a 
meeting of the Friends of the Library 
on the evening of 19 March, in the 
Music Room of East Duke Building. 
Professor Newman I. White introduced 
Professor Tinker, describing his dis- 
tinguished career as scholar, teacher, 
and bibliophile. 

Professor Tinker's lecture, entitled 
"In Praise of the Classroom," was a 
sensitive analysis of the function of the 
teacher. Touching upon the drudgery 
and the disappointments involved in 
the work of teaching, he yet showed 
how teacher as well as pupil profits by 
the daily labor. He quoted from 
Childe Harold's Pilgrimage the passage 
in which Byron bids farewell to 
Horace and affirms that his early 
studies— "The drill'd dull lesson, forced 
down word by word" — have made him 
insensitive to the beauties of the 

Roman poet. Yet Byron goes on, Pro- 
fessor Tinker pointed out, to show how 
thoroughly he did appreciate Horace: 

Although no deeper Moralist rehearse 
Our litde life, nor Bard prescribe his art, 
Nor livelier Satirist the conscience pierce, 
Awakening without wounding the touch'd 
heart. . . . 

Thus even from forced application to 
study the pupil sometimes profits 
more than he knows. The teacher, 
too, covering year by year the same 
ground, stumbles every year upon an- 
swers to old questions and upon new 
problems as well, sharpening his per- 
ception and growing more and more 
sensitive to the author's intentions. 
Many an author — Dante was the ex- 
ample chosen — penetrates spheres of 
thought and feeling into which the 
reader may follow only by virtue of 
strenuous and continued effort; to the 
teacher it is given to make this effort 
and achieve understanding, then to 
help the steps of others along the same 
path. As a taste of the highest tri- 
umph that a teacher may know, Pro- 
fessor Tinker quoted at length from 
the tribute paid by John Keats to his 
friend Charles Cowden Clarke: 

That you first taught me all the sweets 

of song: 
The grand, the sweet, the terse, the free, 

the fine; 
What swell'd with pathos, and what right 

divine : 

# # # # # 

Ah! had I never seen 
Or known your kindness, what might I 

have been? 
What my enjoyments in my youthful 

Bereft of all that now my life endears? 
And can I e'er these benefits forget? 
And can I e'er repay the friendly debt? 
No, doubly no. . . . 


APPROXIMATELY two thousand 
volumes have been presented to 
the library within the past six months. 
In the field of literature, generous gifts 
have been received from Professor 
and Mrs. Clarence Gohdes, Mrs. I. L. 
Sears, and Professor and Mrs. Clement 
Vollmer. Mr. James T. Gittman of 
Columbia, South Carolina, has made 
several additions to the Henry Bella- 
mann Dante collection; Professor and 
Mrs. A. T. West have contributed a 
number of modern plays; Professor 
Frances Brown has given two sets of 
Japanese fairy tales, and Mr. George 
Colt of Asheville a portrait of Wash- 
ington Irving. From Professor and 
Mrs. Lewis Patton have come two 
valued additions to the Coleridge col- 
lection and also a fine association item: 
Thomas Gray's signed and annotated 
copy of Dugdale's A Short View of the 
Late Troubles in England (London, 

In history and the social sciences no- 
table gifts have come from Professor 
and Mrs. R. H. Woody, Professor and 
Mrs. Joseph C. Robert, Professor Bayrd 
Still, Dean Alice Baldwin, Mrs. W. H. 
Glasson, Professor and Mrs. Charles S. 
Sydnor, and Professor and Mrs. Allan 
H. Gilbert. Responses to the recent 
desiderata list of American travel 
books have come from Mr. and Mrs. 
Henry Schuman, Professor and Mrs. 
Neal Dow, and Mr. David Wagstaff. 
Mr. Wagstaff 's gift was the first edition 
of a classic of American travel : the Due 
de La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt's Voy- 
age dans les £tats-Unis d'Amerique, 
fait en iyg^, 1796 et iygy (Paris, L'an 
VII de la Republique). Mrs. J. A. 
Thomas has added a number of vol- 

umes to the Thomas collection of 

In the field of law outstanding con- 
tributions have been made by Professor 
H. C. Horack and Mr. Robert P. Stew- 
art; in science, by Professor and Mrs. 
Marcus Hobbs; in religion, by Mrs. A. 
H. Worth and Mr. Webb B. Garrison. 
Mr. Garrison, of Timmonsville, South 
Carolina, has also made generous mon- 
etary donations to the library, as have 
Mr. and Mrs. Marshall Spears, Mr. and 
Mrs. Harry L. Dalton, and Dean and 
Mrs. W. H. Wannamaker. 


THE University Library has re- 
cently received as a gift from 
Professor C. W. Peppier a considerable 
number of Greek books. These books, 
which formed a part of Professor 
Peppler's private library, are a very 
fortunate acquisition at this time. None 
of the material was already contained 
in the University Library. Many of 
the items included are rare and at 
present can be obtained only with the 
greatest difficulty. Especially worthy 
of mention are the following: Lefeb- 
vre's editio princeps of large parts of 
four plays of the Greek comic poet 
Menander, 1200 lines in all, discovered 
in Egypt in July, 1905; Hunt's edition 
of extensive papyrus fragments of 
Greek tragedy found at Oxyrhynchus; 
Karl Meister, Die homerische Kunst- 
sprache; essays by Henri Weil and by 
Theodore Reinach on the ancient 
Greek musical score of the Hymn to 
Apollo found inscribed on the walls of 
one of the so-called Treasuries at Del- 
phi; Hermann Schone, Repertorium 



griechischer Worterverzeichnisse und 
Speciallexica; Hill's Sources of Gree\ 
History between the Persian and Pelo- 
ponnesian Wars; the rare first edition 
of Spengel's Rhetores Graeci, vols. I- 
III; Anton Springer's Die Kunst des 
Altertums; Whitney's Sanscrit Gram- 


J. L. Rose. 


IN presenting his Robert Frost col- 
lection to Duke University Library 
on the evening of 27 February, the 
Rev. George B. Ehlhardt, addressing 
his words to Mr. Frost remarked: 

Part of the service of any great univer- 
sity is to provide a secure repository for 
the literary treasures which constitute our 
national heritage. Your works are among 
the most significant in American litera- 
ture, and in order that our students of 
today and tomorrow may enjoy the privi- 
lege of reading your works from volumes 
which have known your hand, and thus 
may share the true philosophy of life pres- 
ent in your writings, I am presenting to 
Duke University my Robert Frost collec- 
tion of books and materials, and I ask 
your permission to include those items 
which you have given to me through the 

Mr. Ehlhardt's gift, thus announced, 
was installed in the Rare Book Room of 
the library on the day after its formal 
presentation, when Mr. Frost kindly 
autographed a number of pieces for 

inclusion in the collection. Made up 
of first and limited editions of the 
volumes of poetry published by Mr. 
Frost, together with anthologies con- 
taining his poems, and numerous 
pamphlets and other ephemeral pieces, 
many now very rare, the collection is a 
truly notable one and a valuable ac- 
quisition for the library. A more ex- 
tensive account of these treasures, with 
descriptions of the many association 
copies, is now in preparation and will 
appear in a future issue of Library 

Mr. Ehlhardt has made several addi- 
tions to the Frost collection within re- 
cent months and has expressed the pur- 
pose of seeing it brought as near to 
completeness as may be. During the 
same period he has also made numer- 
ous other gifts to the library in the 
fields of literature, history, the social 
sciences, and religion. Among these, 
two volumes are particularly worthy^of 
mention: the rare second edition of 
XCVI Sermons by the Right Honor- 
able and Reverend Father in God, 
Lancelot Andrewes, Late Bishop of 
Winchester (London, 1631) and Cer- 
tain Sermons or Homilies Appointed 
to be Read in Churches in the Time 
of Queen Elizabeth (London, 1757). 
We have had frequent occasions in the 
past to mention Mr. Ehlhardt's gener- 
osity to the library; not only by his 
many donations of books, but also by 
his able services, he has proved himself 
a true friend of the library. 


The list of American travel books 
which appeared in the desiderata sec- 
tion of the last issue of Library Notes 
consisted for the most part of items 
difficult to secure and rarely to be 
found in private libraries. In this issue 
we are listing a selection of books more 
readily available — the productions of a 
group of modern British authors. 
These volumes are not now in the 
library. It is hoped that some friends 
may be able to supply us with a few of 
the titles mentioned; others may wish 
to "adopt" one of these authors on the 
library's behalf. 

W. H. Auden 
Some poems. 1940. 
Spain. 1937. 

G. K. Chesterton 
All is grist. 1931. 
All things considered. 1908. 
The ballad of St. Barbara and other 

verses. 1923. 
Biography for beginners. 1908. 
Boo\ of fob. 1907. 
Chaucer. 1932. 

The club of queer trades. 1905. 
Come to thin\ of it. 1930. 
A defense of nonsense and other essays. 

The end of the Roman road: a pageant 

of wayfarers. 1924. 
Essays. 1939. 
Five types. 191 1. 
Generally speaking. 1929. 
The grave of Arthur. 1930. 
Graybeards at play. 1900. 
Irish impressions. 1919. 
Lord Kitchener. 191 7. 
The new Jerusalem. 1920. 
The outline of sanity. 1926. 
Poems. 1915. 
The return of Don Quixote. 1926. 

Sidelights on new London and Newer 

Yor\, and other essays. 1932. 
Simplicity and Tolstoy. 1912. 
Tales of the long bow. 1925. 
Thomas Carlyle. 1902. 
Utopia of usurers. 191 7. 
William Bla\e. 1910. 

Cyril Connolly 
Enemies of promise. 1938. 
The roc\ pool. 1936. 
The unquiet grave. 1945. 

C. Day Lewis 
Beechen vigil, and other poems. 1925. 
Child of misfortune. 1939. 
Country comets. 1928. 
The friendly tree. 1937. 
From feathers to iron. 1932. 
The magnetic mountain. 1933. 
Overtures to death and other poems. 

Poems. 1943. 
Poems in wartime. 1940. 
The romantic disaster. 1937. 
The starting point. 1937. 
Transitional poem. 1929. 
Word over all. 1943. 

E. M. Forster 
England's pleasant land: a pageant play. 

Goldsworthy Lowes Dickinson. 1934. 
A letter to Madam Blanchard. 1931. 
Nordic twilight. 1940. 
The story of the siren. 1920. 
What I believe. 1939. 

Aldous Huxley 
Along the road: notes and essays of a 

tourist. 1925. 
The burning wheel. 1916. 
The defeat of youth, and other poems. 

191 8. 
Do what you will. 1929. 
An encyclopaedia of pacifism. 1937. 
Holy face, and other essays. 1929. 
Jonah. 1917. 



Mortal coils. 1922. 

Proper studies. 1927. 

Rotunda. 1932. 

Selected poems. 1925. 

T. H. Huxley as a man of letters. 1932. 

Vulgarity in literature: digressions from 

a theme. 1930. 
What are you going to do about it? The 

case of constructive peace. 1936. 

D. H. Lawrence 
Bay, a boo\ of poems. 1919. 
Christ in the Tyrol. 1933. 
Glad ghosts. 1926. 
Last poems. 1933. 
Tortoises. 1921. 
Touch and go. 1920. 

Arthur Machen 
The bowmen, and other legends of the 

war. 1915. 
The chronicle of Clemendy. 1888. 
Dog and duc\. 1924. 
Far off things. 1922. 
The great god Pan, and The inmost 

light. 1894. 
The great return. 1915. 
The London adventure. 1924. 
Strange roads. 1923. 
The terror. 191 7. 
Things near and far. 1923. 
The three impostors. 1895. 

George William Russell: A. E. 

The avatars, a futurist fantasy. 1933. 
The building up of a rural civilization. 

By still waters. 1906. 
Co-operation and nationality; a guide 

for rural reformers from this to the 

next generation. 1912. 
Deirdre. 1907. 
The divine vision, and other poems. 

The earth breath and other poems. 1897. 
Figgis (D). 1915. 

Gods of war and other poems. 1915. 
The hero in man. 1909. 
Homeward: songs by the way. 1895. 
The house of the Titans, and other 

poems. 1934. 
The inner and the outer Ireland. 1921. 
The mas\ of Apollo and other stories. 

The renewal of youth. 191 1. 
Some Irish essays. 1906. 
Some passages from the letters of A. E. 

to W. B. Yeats. 1936. 
Stephen Spender 

The backward son. 1940. 
The burning cactus. 1936. 
Life and the poet. 1942. 
Nine entertainments. 1928. 
Twenty poems. 1930. 



IN the course of the spring the or- 
ganization of student collectors, 
first proposed in Number 16 of Library 
Notes, has come into existence under 
the able direction of the Friends of 
the Library Undergraduate Committee. 
The members of the committee — Pro- 
fessors Frances Brown, Louise Hall, 
Lewis Leary, and William Blackburn 
— have assembled a group of interested 
students, who have held two meetings 
in the Rare Book Room of the Uni- 
versity Library. At the first, on 19 
March, Professor Chauncey B. Tinker 
addressed the students. Speaking with 
delightful informality, he warned 
them of some of the pitfalls which wait 
for the inexperienced collector, re- 
marking, "Learn that you must make 
mistakes." He adjured them never to 
buy an incomplete book: all the parts 
—the half-title, the advertisements of 
a certain date, the cancel-leaf — must be 
present; "all is evidence." He told 
them to learn the discipline of saying 
"no"; he assured them that they would 
certainly be scoffed at for their absorp- 
tion in rare books: "No one will under- 
stand." And, with a few amusing 
anecdotes to illustrate his point, he re- 
marked that the story of acquiring rare 
books is for the most part a dull one 
and that the great bargains are infre- 
quent: "The rule is that the book in 
the ten-cent barrow belongs there." 
Through all these warnings Professor 
Tinker's own devotion to his subject 
shone clearly. Only a collector of wide 
experience and great enthusiasm could 

have spoken thus of the "pains" of col- 
lecting, in such a way as to illustrate 
its very great pleasures. 

The second meeting of the student 
collectors was held on 6 May; the 
guest speaker was Dr. Josiah C. Trent. 
Dr. Trent brought to the meeting sev- 
eral superb pieces from his collection 
of books and manuscripts on the his- 
tory of medicine. Displaying these one 
by one he told his hearers how his in- 
terest in collecting grew with the ac- 
quisition of each, how each led him in- 
to new fields of thought and study. The 
small brown volume in which William 
Beaumont first published his epoch- 
making experiments in the physiology 
of digestion, the handsome quarto 
which gave to medicine the marvellous 
anatomical researches of Vesalius, the 
stately first edition of Samuel Pepys' 
diary with its record of early experi- 
ments in blood transfusion, these were 
among the treasures with which Dr. 
Trent illustrated his interesting talk. 


TEN undergraduates entered the 
competition this year for the 
awards offered by the Friends of the 
Library to student collectors. The can- 
didates were Miss Mary R. Robinson, 
'49, Mr. Jesse H. Proctor, Jr., '48, Mr. 
Guy Davenport, Jr., '49, Mr. William 
S. Lamparter, '47, Mr. Ward S. Mason, 
'49, Mr. Jesse H. Proctor, Jr., '48, Mr. 
Clifford L. Sayre, Jr., '47, Mr. Roger 
L. Smith, '47, Mr. Richard W. Van 
Fossen, '49, and Mr. Cullen C. Zimmer- 
man, '49. The collections submitted 



by these students were on display in 
the University Library for several 
weeks during the month of May. They 
were of considerable interest and 
variety, ranging in subject matter from 
general literature and history to more 
restricted fields: Mr. Sayre had con- 
fined himself to naval literature; Mr. 
Van Fossen had emphasized Sherlock- 
iana; Mr. Smith was interested in mini- 
ature and souvenir sheets and the lit- 
erature of that subject. 

On 13 May, the judges of the con- 
test — Professor Louis R. Wilson of the 
University of North Carolina, Professor 
Mary Poteat and the Rev. George B. 
Ehlhardt of Duke University — met to 
examine the collections and to inter- 
view the candidates. The purpose of 
these personal interviews was to ascer- 
tain the student's object in collecting 
his library and the extent of his ac- 
quaintance with his books, two of the 
principal criteria upon which the 
judges based their decision. 

The winners of the contest were 
Miss Mary R. Robinson, whose collec- 
tion was of a general nature, with em- 
phasis on books used in her work with 
student groups, and Mr. Ward S. 
Mason, who submitted an excellent col- 
lection developed in the course of his 
studies in sociology, economics, politi- 
cal science, and philosophy. Honorable 
mention was accorded to Mr. Clifford 
L. Sayre for his collection on naval 


THE Cooperative Committee on 
Library Buildings Plans met on 
the campus of Duke University on 18 
March; Dr. Julian P. Boyd of Prince- 
ton University presided over the meet- 
ing, in which librarians and architects 
representing seventeen universities par- 
ticipated. The afternoon session was 
devoted to consideration of plans for 
an addition to the Duke University 
Library building; the committee made 
a number of valuable recommendations 
for the revising of the plans. Both a 
full report of the committee's proceed- 
ings and a brief summary of its recom- 
mendations have been prepared and 
distributed by the University Librarian. 
In discussing the Duke plans, the 
members of the committee were unani- 
mous in emphasizing the importance 
of planning at once for future expan- 
sion as well as for that now necessary. 
All additions should be designed to 
conform with these larger plans and to 
preserve the adaptability and flexibility 
of the building. The location of ac- 
tivities throughout the building should 
be so adjusted as to make the areas 
most heavily used most accessible to 
the main entrance, and the problem of 
traffic flow should be carefully studied. 
Generous provision should be made for 
the needs of research students, with the 
addition of seminar rooms, studies, and 
typing and consultation rooms. 



No. 19 

The Friends of 'Duke University J^ibrary 

February 1948 


WITH the publication of Num- 
ber 15 of Library Notes in De- 
cember, 1945, the magazine was en- 
larged in size and somewhat altered in 
appearance. At the same time all mem- 
bers of the Friends of the Library were 
invited to contribute articles relating to 
the library's resources in their fields of 
study. Subsequent issues have seen a 
gratifying response to this invitation. 
Professors Lewis Patton, Kenneth W. 
Clark, and Allan H. Gilbert, and Miss 
Noma Lee Goodwin have made inter- 
esting and valuable contributions, 
while Professor Newman I. White en- 
riched not only Library Notes but also 
the library itself by his gift of Thomas 
James Wise letters, which were partly 
published in our issue of July, 1947. 
In the present number of the Notes 
we are no less fortunate. Professor 
Lewis Leary's article, which was read 
before the Folio Club on 2 October 
1947, will be of interest to the general 
reader as well as to students of Ameri- 
can history and literature. Around the 
framework offered by four letters pre- 
served in the library's manuscript col- 
lection, Professor Leary has construct- 
ed a narrative of political and roman- 
tic agitation. The central figure is the 
famous and pathetic John Howard 
Payne, who is shown both in conflict 
with the Georgia government and in 
love with a Georgia girl. 

Professor Lewis Patton's contribu- 
tion, the second in a series of articles on 
the marginalia preserved in the library's 
Coleridge Collection, records and in- 
terprets the annotations made by Cole- 
ridge in a copy of The Spirit of Dis- 
covery by William Lisle Bowles. Of 
Coleridge's marginalia a nineteenth- 
century reviewer once wrote: 

It will be a sad loss to literature if a 
complete collection of Coleridge's margin- 
al notes is not made before the work be- 
comes impossible by the ever-increasing 
dispersion of the books in which they 
occur. These notes, as far as we are ac- 
quainted with them, are among the most 
interesting and valuable of Coleridge's 

Many of the volumes containing Cole- 
ridge's manuscript notes were widely 
dispersed even before this suggestion 
was made; such articles as Professor 
Patton's are valuable contributions to- 
ward the eventual realization of the 
project suggested. 

We are grateful to Professors Leary 
and Patton, not only for their articles, 
but also for their example, which we 
hope to see followed by other members. 
of the Friends. The resources of the 
Duke Library are sufficiently extensive 
to furnish material for scores of equal- 
ly entertaining and informative essays. 


Four Letters in the Duke University Library 
Lewis Leary 

IT was pretty much his own fault, 
said the Southern Banner of Athens, 
Georgia, that John Howard Payne, a 
"gentleman well known to the literary 
world," but nonetheless a Whig, a 
Yankee, and an Abolitionist, was ar- 
rested and held for some two weeks in 
custody by the Georgia Guard, under 
suspicion of stirring up the Cherokee 
against the citizens of the South: "He 
got himself into the difficulty under a 
full knowledge of all the circumstances 
. . . and of the strong prejudices exist- 
ing among the people against strangers 
from the North." 1 The incident be- 
came the talk of Georgia, discussed 
heatedly in the newspapers, brought 
officially to the attention of both the 
State Senate and the House of Repre- 
sentatives. It resulted in a special in- 
vestigation ordered by Governor Wil- 
liam Schley, brought a note of strong 
protest from the Governor of Tennes- 
see, was called to the personal attention 
of Secretary of War Lewis Cass, and 
finally, several years later, was intro- 
duced into the business of the 25th 
Congress at Washington. Ordered per- 
emptorily from the state, the play- 
wright left furtively, avoiding main- 
travelled roads. Thus he may be re- 
membered not only as the celebrated 
author of "Home, Sweet Home," but 
as one of the first articulate Northern 
fugitives from Georgia justice. 
Payne was forty-four years old. He 

December 31, 1835; see also November 26 and 
December 17, 1835. 

had returned three years before from a 
residence of something more than two 
decades in Europe, where he had been 
known, first, as the marvelous boy- 
actor, the "American Roscius," and 
then, when he had put on rather too 
much weight for juvenile parts, as a 
workaday playwright who, in 1823, 
scored popular success with the theme 
song of his musical drama, Clari; or, 
The Maid of Milan. For several years, 
however, things had not been going 
well for the American abroad. Never 
greatly creative, he turned more and 
more to translations and adaptations of 
foreign plays, which, even with some 
help from Washington Irving, were 
too seldom successful. There had been 
more than one flight from creditors, at 
least one arrest for debt. He had for 
several years edited, with distinction 
but little financial gain, a theatrical re- 
view in London called The Opera 
Glass. He had spent some time as a 
fugitive in Paris, where he is said to 
have sued in vain for the hand of Mary 
Wollstonecraft Shelley. 2 

Back in America in 1832, with more 
reputation than cash, Payne looked 
about for something to do. He wrote 
an occasional review for the Neu/~Yor^ 
Mirror. His friends arranged special 
"benefit" performances for him in the 

8 See Willis T. Hanson, Jr., The Early Life of 
John Howard Payne, Boston, 1913, passim; William 
Dunlap, History of the American Theatre, New 
York, 1832, pp. 351-352; and Stanley T. Williams, 
The Life of Washington Irving, New York, 1935, I, 
267-272, 286-288. 


theaters of New York, Philadelphia, 
and Boston. He considered preparing 
an elaborate "Life of Our Saviour," 
compiled from the four Gospels. At 
length he hit upon a plan for an "inter- 
national" periodical, to be published in 
London (with himself as editor), but 
with contributors and subscribers from 
both England and America. It was 
projected as a patriotic enterprise, 
which "would supply the mind of Eu- 
rope opportunities for appreciating 
that of America," which would create 
a "means for paying American talent 
with a liberality which no support yet 
obtained for any work in this country 
has thus far been able to afford," and 
which would, finally, be prepared to 
uphold America "against all Europe, 
should she, in Europe, be defamed." 
He planned to call it ]am fehan Nima, 
which, he explained, translated from 
the Persian meant "the goblet wherein 
you may behold the universe." 3 

During the summer of 1834 Payne 
sought— "fruitlessly," he admitted— to 
obtain subscribers for his periodical in 
New England. Then, later in the year, 
he set out on a tour of the western and 
southern states, visiting Ohio, Ken- 
tucky, Illinois, and Mississippi for the 
same purpose. 4 Late in February, 1835, 
he arrived in New Orleans with some 
thousand subscriptions in his pocket 
and his notebooks filled with observa- 
tions of American men and manners. 
After about six weeks, having mean- 
while entered into newspaper contro- 
versy as to whether he or the actor Ty- 

Gabriel Harrison, John Howard Payne, Drama- 
tist, Poet, Actor, and Author of Home, Sweet Home! 
His Ufe and Writings, Philadelphia, 1885, pp. 140- 

* Knoxville Register, December 2, 1836; reprinted 
in George M. Battey, Jr., A History of Rome and 
Floyd County, Atlanta, 1922, p. 55. 

rone Power had contributed more to 
American literature, and having been 
recipient of a grand theatrical benefit 
at the Camp Street Theatre, which 
brought him something more than one 
thousand dollars, Payne set out through 
Alabama toward Georgia. 

His attention may have been directed 
toward the American Indian by the 
exhibit of "aboriginal portraits" which 
George Catlin — the painter who "sur- 
prises and delights us with his pencil 
as Cooper has formerly done with his 
pen" — had on display in New Or- 
leans. But it was apparently while 
travelling through the Creek territory 
in Alabama that Payne really became 
drawn to the subject. Arriving at Ma- 
con, Georgia, on August 8, knowing 
no one and having nothing to do, he 
spent some part of the next day on a 
long letter to his sister, brushing up, he 
said, "my recollection of some of my 
adventures . . . among the Indians." He 
found them an "ill-starred race," set 
upon by speculators, and "among these 
the everlasting Yankee," and "entirely 
at the mercy of interpreters who, if not 
negro slaves of their own, are half 
breeds . . . generally worse than the 
worst of either slaves or knaves." He 
wrote at length of the Green Corn 
Dance which he had witnessed some 
days before. It was to him "a melan- 
choly reflection . . . that these strange 
people were rapidly becoming extinct" 
and "without a proper investigation of 
their hidden past, which would per- 
haps unfold to man the most remark- 
able of all human histories." 6 
At Macon, Payne is said to have pur- 

e The Bee, February 23, March 23, and April 3, 

* See John Howard Payne, "The Green Corn 
Dance," Chronicles of Oklahoma, X (June, 1932), 
170-195; see also Harrison, op. cit., p. 167. 


chased a horse and travelled toward 
Augusta, where he was thought to 
have arranged with Augustus B. Long- 
street, then editor of the States' Rights 
Sentinel, for the printing of articles 
which Payne would produce during 
his travels. "Induced," he explained, 
"by the descriptions I had heard of the 
beauty of its mountain region to turn 
somewhat aside from my road in order 
to seek the upper parts of the State,'" 
Payne travelled northward to Athens, 
where he was entertained by General 
Edward Harden, whose young son and 
eighteen-year-old daughter Mary seem 
to have been just as impressed as we 
would expect them to be by associa- 
tion with the cosmopolitan author of 
"Home, Sweet Home." In the course 
of his wanderings, which took him to 
Toccoa Falls in Stephens County, Ami- 
calola Falls in Dawson County, Tallu- 
lah Falls and Yonah Mountain in 
White County, to the gold fields of 
Dahlonega in Lumpkin County, and 
the Salt Peter Cave near Kingston, 
Payne met Dr. William A. Tennille, a 
brother of the Georgia Secretary of 
State, who talked to him further of 
Indians, reinforced his feeling that in- 
vestigation into their history would be 
of "extreme interest and curiosity," and 
suggested that such an undertaking 
would be especially appropriate for 
such a publication as Payne's projected 
"international" magazine. 

"The more I heard," said Payne, "the 
more I became excited." He obtained 
letters of introduction to John Ross, the 
half-Scotch Principal Chief of the Cher- 
okee, long a thorn in the side of gov- 
ernment agents who attempted to con- 
clude a treaty which would remove the 
Indians from their eastern territories to 

7 Knoxville Register, December 2, 1835. 

reservations west of the Mississippi. On 
September 28th, in search, he insisted, 
of historical materials, Payne rode into 
Tennessee, where Ross, whose home in 
Georgia had been confiscated by public 
lottery, now resided. 8 

From this point on, the testimony as 
to exactly what happened becomes 
confused. 9 Payne, who had at first in- 
tended to remain only one day, then a 
few days, stayed on with John Ross at 
Blue Springs for more than a month, 
copying documents and becoming, by 
all accounts, more and more convinced 
that the Indians were victimized by the 
white man. "In addition to the litera- 
ture and anecdotes of the nation I in- 
voluntarily became well acquainted 
with its politics." It seemed to him that 
agents and commissioners of the 
United States had often exceeded their 
authority, had certainly treated the In- 
dians unfairly. Admitting himself no 
politician, but only a philanthropist, he 
"fancied some good might be done by 
a series of papers on the subject." He 
wrote one, in which, among other 

8 Knoxville Register, December 2, 1835. Accord- 
ing to Battey (op. cit., p. 54), he set off for the 
Indian country in company with Governor Wilson 
Lumpkin, General Harden, and Colonel Samuel 
Rockwell, in the general's two-horse wagon; ac- 
cording to Payne's own account, he was on horse- 
back, equipped complete with saddle-bags and a 
cherished buffalo robe. 

9 The account as herein given is based on Payne's 
own discussion of his arrest in the Knoxville Regis- 
ter, December 2, 1835, and on the testimony of 
U. S. Commissioner, the Rev. John L. Schermerhorn, 
U. S. Indian Agent, John F. Currey, and of various 
other witnesses, as contained in U. S. Senate Docu- 
ments, No. 120 (25th Congress, 2d Session), pp. 
490-571. See also Grant Foreman, Indian Removal. 
The Emigration of the Five Civilized Tribes of Indi- 
ans, Norman, 1932, pp. 266-268; James Mooney, 
"Myths of the Cherokees," in Nineteenth Annual 
Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, i8gy- 
g8, Washington, 1900, pp. 122-123; and Grant Fore- 
man, "John Howard Payne and the Cherokee Indi- 
ans," Amencan Historical Review, XXXVII (July, 
1932), 723-750. 


things, he charged that government 
agents had offered John Ross a bribe 
of $50,000 if he would influence the 
Indians to meet their demands, and in 
which he had the ill grace to character- 
ize the Georgia Guard, a military band 
organized by Governor Lumpkin to 
keep peace on the state border, as a 
group of "banditti." He did not publish 
the article, but — unfortunately, as it 
turned out, for him — kept it among his 
other papers. 10 

When, on October 12, Payne went 
with Ross to the meeting between the 
Cherokee and officials of the United 
States at Red Clay, Tennessee, he was 
outspoken in his opposition to govern- 
mental measures in private conversa- 
tion, and — though it now seems un- 
likely that he could wield such power, 
— he was later held in some large share 
responsible for the failure of the com- 
missioners to come to terms with the 
Indians at that time. The fact that U. 
S. Commissioner, the Rev. John L. 
Schermerhorn, of Utica, New York, 
had been a college-mate years before at 
Union College in Schenectady, may 
have made Payne bold in speaking his 
mind. At best, he was sincere and 
forthright, zealous with the zeal of a 
new convert, and certainly indiscreet. 

Contemporary charges against him, 
however, were serious and explicit. He 
was from New York, and abolitionist 
tracts from New York had recently 
been appearing throughout the district 
— who else, said his accusers, would 
know the local addresses to which the 
pamphlets could be sent? He was 
from England, and was said to have al- 
lowed the Indians to believe that he 
was an emissary from their former and 

10 This article appears in V. S. Senate Documents, 
No. 120, pp. 573-579- 

more benign white fathers abroad. It 
was even hinted — and the hint en- 
larged when Payne admitted speaking 
French — that he was an envoy from 
France, sent to stir up the Indians in 
concert with a new Franco-American 
war. It was whispered that he had 
conspired with Ross in New York the 
previous spring (when Payne was in 
New Orleans) to arrive as an agent 
provocateur among the Cherokee. He 
was a spy who took down every word 
the commissioners said. He was often 
seen in "secret conclave" with Ross, 
and with one Samuel McConnell, who 
everyone knew represented the Whig, 
anti-administration forces in Tennes- 
see. He was supposed to be the author 
(though he probably was not) of a 
"scurrilous and inflammatory" pro- 
Indian letter in Longstreet's Augusta 
newspaper. Certainly, he was an irri- 
tant, and charges grew as people mut- 
tered against him. 

Ridiculous as the accusations may 
seem in view of the few facts which 
can be ascertained, they certainly were 
believed by many people in Georgia — 
and many more among the Indians re- 
joiced to believe them true. When Ben- 
jamin Currey, the Indian Agent, who 
was particularly attacked by Payne, 
found it necessary to explain himself to 
the War Department and the Con- 
gress, he had no trouble rounding up 
a score of men to testify to one or an- 
other of the charges. As we re-exam- 
ine the evidence today, it may seem 
that Payne's principal crime was that of 
talking — and he a Yankee! — too readi- 
ly about a subject on which he was not 
completely informed. But to ruggedly 
pragmatic Indian Agent Currey the 
situation was far more serious. He 
suggested to Sergeant Wilson Young, 


then acting commander of the Georgia 
Guard, that it might be well to examine 
Payne's papers. 11 

After the deed was done, Currey in- 
sisted that he certainly had never meant 
for Sergeant Young to lead a force of 
Georgia men into Tennessee territory 
to make an arrest. But that is what he 
did. On Saturday evening, November 
7, at about eleven, Payne (in the midst, 
he said, of copying a talk held by 
George Washington in 1794 with a del- 
egation of Cherokee chiefs) was dis- 
turbed by the barking of dogs, the 
quick tramp of galloping horses, and 
angry calls outside the house. The door 
was burst open: "The room was filled 
with Georgia Guards, their bayonets 
fixed." Payne was seized, and his pa- 
pers. When he remonstrated, Young 
slapped him across the mouth with his 
pistol: "Hold your damned tongue!" 
He and Ross were taken on horseback, 
through a driving rainstorm, twenty- 
four miles to Spring Place, Georgia, 
where for almost two weeks they were 
held captive "in a small log hut with 
no window and one door." Only after 
great and ingenious efforts did Payne 
manage to smuggle a note out to his 
friends, to substantiate the word of his 
arrest which the Cherokee had brought 
to the Governor of Georgia. At length, 
after adventures which he detailed at 
tedious length, 12 the playwright was re- 

11 Testimony of Joshua Holden, who, as a mem- 
ber of the Georgia Guard, may, however, have been 
anxious to turn responsibility for the arrest away 
from Young toward Currey; see U. S. Senate Docu- 
ments, No. 120, pp. 570-571. 

12 Payne's account of the capture takes up ten 
columns in the Knoxville Register; if, said the 
Georgia Telegraph of Macon, on December 24, 
1835, "Mr. Payne succeeds in making his intended 
'literary periodical' as uninteresting as he has this 
account of his capture, it will certainly be a remark- 
able work!" 

leased, mortified that he was compelled 
to parade before the assembled Guard 
— who did not forget that he had called 
them "banditti" — astride a loosely 
girthed horse, with his saddle-bags and 
belongings piled helter-skelter about 
him, while its commander, Colonel 
William H. Bishop, ordered him 
drummed from the camp: "If you evei 
dare agin show your face within the 
limits of Georgia, I'll make you curse 
the moment with your last breath." 

Payne made his way as best he could 
to Knoxville, Tennessee, where he was 
welcomed by the anti-administration 
faction there. The affair had caused a 
furor: 13 Payne's brother in New York 
had written for an explanation from 
the Secretary of War; the Georgia 
House of Representatives called on 
newly elected Governor William 
Schley for a full and complete investi- 
gation; the papers of Georgia and Ten- 
nessee were full of it for weeks; Gov- 
ernor Newton Cannon of Tennessee 
wrote sternly of the violation of states' 
rights and called on the Governor of 
Georgia for an explanation. Even those 
who suspected that Payne had been up 
to no good censured the Guard for 
having exceeded its authority. Citizens 
in Knoxville held a public meeting to 
pass resolutions against his arrest, as "a 
wanton and arbitrary and lawless out- 
rage upon the sacred rights of an 
American citizen." A committee from 
the Georgia House of Representatives 
presented resolutions that the "charac- 
ter and reputation of the state of 
Georgia" had been jeopardized by 
"this act of wanton and uncalled for 

18 See U. S. Senate Documents, No. 120, pp. 
488-489; Journal of the House of Representatives of 
the State of Georgia, Milledgeville, 1836, pp. 205, 
248, 326-327, 430-444; 1837, PP- 18-19; Nile/ 
Weekly Register, XLIX (January, 1836), 307, 343. 


yandalism": "Resolved, That the leg- 
islature highly disapprove of the con- 
duct of the Georgia Guard in the re- 
:ent arrest and confinement of John 
Howard Payne." Governor Schley 
wrote a conciliatory reply to the Gov- 
:rnor of Tennessee. But Indian Agent 
Benjamin Currey would not admit that 
i wrong had been done. He insisted on 
Payne's guilt in a letter widely printed 
>y newspapers throughout Georgia, in- 
iinuating that the playwright had mis- 
•epresented facts: "had I been aware of 
he extent of the gentleman's offense 
ind had been there before his release, 
us confinement would have continued 
it least until orders, as to the proper 
xmrse to be pursued, could have been 
eceived from the War Department." 14 
A committee of citizens of Knox- 
ille, "consisting of sixteen of the most 
espectable names of the town," met 
o arrange a public dinner in Payne's 
lonor. But he preferred to hurry on 
oward New York, by way of Charles- 
on, where he was most cordially re- 
eived : 

rligh indignation filled our breasts, 
Before we saw John Howard Payne, 

rhat Georgia Guards, against his will, 
The gifted stranger should detain; 

Jut since within our city bounds, 
We have enjoyed a nearer view, 

Ve Charleston folks, by gentler force, 
Would gladly make him prisoner too. 15 

kleanwhile, however, Payne wrote to 
General Edward Harden, with whose 
amily he had apparently maintained 
riendly correspondence: 16 

' The Southern Banner, December 17, 1835. 
'New Yor\ Mirror (XIII, January 23, 1836, 239) 
dentifies these lines as "a jeu d' esprit republished 
rom Charleston (S. C), and written, it is said, by 
distinguished lady there." 

The Harden family long cherished a beaded 
ndian purse, Indian moccasins, and a shark's tooth 

Knoxville Tenn 66 Dec 5, 1835. 
My dear sir, 

You have, no doubt, ere this heard of 
my adventures. I sent you the statement 
by last post. Have you ever known of a 
more impudent enormity? — There has 
been a public meeting here, spirited and 
dignified — The proceedings will, I hope, 
be printed at Athens. The example ought 
to be followed throughout the Union — 
In Georgia, especially, — for these measures 
offer the only opportunity she has of 
casting the blame upon the delinquents 
who deserve it. 

I have no time to write now, but could 
not allow myself to depart on my way 
homeward without a Word of remem- 
brance — It will, perhaps, be as well for me 
not to make my line of march generally 
known — but I must go to Hamburgh, be- 
cause my trunks are all in Augusta — 
Georgia I never enter again without a 
formal public invitation — so I will go to 
the border & look in — It would give me 
sincere pleasure to find a line from you at 
the Augusta post office — M r Ross & many 
Df the delegation are here — They have rec d 
a formal protest against the mission from 
Currey but of this they take no heed — 
My way must be made mostly alone & on 
horseback — I should not wonder if these 
scoundrels make my journey a longer one 
than I have calculated upon — But no 
matter — If the worst happens, I shall not 
be the first who has not lived out his time 
in a free country, and unless the nation 
awakens, I shall not be the last. 

Pray offer my best remembrance to M rs 

presented by Payne to Mary Harden. The tradition 
that General Harden defended Payne as a lawyer 
(see Elinor Hillyer, "When Payne Courted Athens 
Girl," Atlanta Journal, March 17, 1929, p. 4, and 
Annie Hornady Howard and Floraine Harden- 
Smith, "The Romance of Home Sweet Home," 
Holland's Magazine, XLII, October, 1929, 18-19), 
based on a notation in the MS "Ed. Harden. Diary 
and Accounts, 1 834-1 849" (Flowers Collection, 
Duke University Library) that Harden did "Plead 
case of Paine for Terrell" in Gainesville on April 14, 
1834, is manifestly untrue; for in April, 1834, Payne 
had not yet begun his southern travels. 



Harden, your daughter & son — . to Col: 
Hamilton & his family— to Judge Clayton 
— in short, to all who remember, 
Yours most truly 
John Howard Payne. 17 

General Harden answered the letter 
immediately, but it was some time be- 
fore Payne, now safe and busy in New 
York, supplied the next link in the 

New York, March 22. 1836. 
My dear Sir, 

How am I to obtain forgiveness for my 
seeming neglect of your kind letter of 
December 18.? — I can only hope that 
your unwavering friendship will lead you 
to believe me when I assure you that the 
neglect has only been a seeming one, and 
has arisen entirely from my expectation of 
having something more satisfactory to 
communicate than merely my thanks and 
excuses. But of that I now despair and 
must be satisfied to make you a little more 
angry at the letter I do send than you 
might have been at my not sending any. 

The Indian affair remains where it was. 
I had a letter from M r Ross the other day, 
stating that the old party and the old plans 
had produced a quack treaty 18 which was 
presented in opposition to the real & the 
national one, and the chosen delegation 
had been told if they would not sign what 
the faction offerred they should not be 
allowed to sign any other. Protests from 
the two halves of the nation have been 
sent to Washington — the one bearing 3500 
signatures, the other 13,000. These will 
come before the Senate when the false 
treaty is offerred. No doubt the Seminole 
outbreak 19 will be urged to promote the 

17 This letter and the two which follow are among 
the Harden Papers, Flowers Collection, Duke Uni- 
versity Library. 

18 A treaty which provided for removal of the 
Cherokee from their eastern lands was drawn up 
and signed on December 28, 1835, at New Echota; 
see Foreman, Indian Removal, p. 286. 

18 Contemporary newspapers were full of accounts 
of the Seminole rebellion under Osceola, which so 

Cherokee ruin, and the most virtuous na- 
tion in the world hear no more of the 
affair till it is announced in thunder at 
the great Judgement Seat of Eternal Retri- 
bution, where nations, like individuals, 
must answer for their deeds. I hope you 
will escape what I was made to suffer. 
The upper part of Georgia has much to 
atone for already and seems to be in a 
condition which cannot fail to bring on 
her yet much more. I trust, however, you 
will profit by my experience. With an 
interesting family depending on your safe- 
ty, and whose happiness is so much in- 
volved in your security, it would be un- 
just to expose yourself to certain danger 
for hopeless objects. 

I have not been to Washington. Per- 
haps I may go thither when the travelling 
becomes endureable. This has been a 
dreary winter — ice — cold — snow — and 
roads every where impassable. We 
thought we had done with the wild weath- 
er & were to look for spring — but, as I 
write, I look out upon the thick snow- 
flakes falling rapidly and filling up all 
the paths upon which only yesterday we 
were welcoming the long hidden face of 
mother earth. I suppose if I go to Wash- 
ington they will try to bring me into some 
scrape there; but no matter — if I can do 
any good to any body, I must trust to my 
virtue for its own reward — and look to a 
pure conscience for support against very 
impure enemies. I will remember your 
commission in reference to your old politi- 
cal friends & opinions. 

For your copy of Currey's letter, accept 
my thanks. It is only a confirmation of 
the creature's depravity, which so many 
have so long suspected. Is it not appalling 
that any government should trust and tol- 
erate such tools? — Is it for this we be- 
came independent? — At one moment 
the pestilence levels thousands — at another! 
fire scatters havoc & desolation — at another 

prejudiced the public against the Indian in general 
that John Ross sent a delegation of Cherokee to 
Florida to attempt mediation; see Foreman, Indian 
Removal, p. 352. 


the tomahawk glistens and the war- 
whoop is howled — and yet we go on reck- 
lessly as ever, and no more heed these 
things as warnings than did the Pharaoh 
who saw & felt the Plagues! — 

I should like much to see the verses you 
mention in which your son speaks of the 
Guard. — For your daughter's flattering 
request about ["] Sweet Home" do me 
the favour to offer her my best thanks. 
I will write it out for her in my best 
schoolday hand whenever I find an op- 
portunity of sending it post free. No one 
deserves a "Sweet Home" better than she 
does — and no one would be surer to make 
any home, however sweet, still more so, 
by her goodness & her genius. But if I 
send a contribution for her Album she 
must make a sketch for mine. I belong 
to a section of the republic where we are 
not in the habit of doing things without 
large profits — in some places, to be sure, 
her request would be more than compen- 
sation — but in New York we look for 
per-centage by hundreds & thousands — 
I have caught the [infection (?)] & must 
treat with her in the spirit of New York 

[What has (?)] become of Bishop? Did 
he really run away [? What will (?)] 
Georgia do with the Cherokees ? — I think, 
under the circumstances, [the] Legislature 
behaved very handsomely in my case— 
The report I saw was creditable and in a 
much finer spirit than has been shown by 
some who ought to have known better in 
my own city — To be sure, the Legislature 
only expressed what every body must feel, 
and to be told that it was not right to 
take the liberty and expose the life of a 
Citizen in a country professing Freedom, 
is cold satisfaction to a sufferer by such 
enormities, — yet nevertheless the doing 
this is something, and something, where 
less than nothing might have been looked 
for, deserves a sort of gratitude. The gov- 
ernment agents seem to have been busy 
muzzling the press in our leading cities, 
in relation to my case, — especially here, 

where the Statement I made has been 
systematically suppressed, — studiously kept 
out of all the public papers — and prevent- 
ed from appearing in pamphlets, — but it 
is well enough known wherever it is 
necessary to be understood, and if occasion 
should arise, I am prepared to make it 
more so. — However, unless it can do 
service to the cause of the wronged or to 
the future honor of the country, it may as 
well be forgotten. 

Do me the favor, my dear Sir, to give 
me a line whenever your leisure may al- 
low you. If you can find any documents 
regarding the Indians, or the early history 
of our country, pray purchase them for 
me — I shall want all I can get on that 
topic. — I had forgotten to ask one thing — 
Cannot Bishop — Young — & Currey be 
punished by a law suit? Is not Currey's 
letter actionable? — Surely it is a libel & 
a malicious one. — 

I have left myself no room for all I 
would have said in remembrance of your 
Lady, who is a great favorite of mine, or 
of your son & must therefore briefly desire 
you to say all that would have been said 
to them by 

Your obliged & sincere friend 
John Howard Payne. 

Mary Harden's request for a copy of 
"Home, Sweet Home" for her album 
pointed the way to the climax of John 
Howard Payne's southern adventure. 
He apparently never did, as he said he 
never would, enter the state of Georgia 
again, but during the summer of the 
year following his arrest the forty-five- 
year-old dramatist entrusted to the pub- 
lic mail a letter of proposal to the girl 
in Athens who was less than half his 


I did for a long time indulge in the 
fallacious hope, that fortune would have 
favored and placed me in a more suitable 
situation for making this communication 



to you. I have unfortunately been disap- 
pointed and have endeavored to calm my 
feelings and submit to my fate, yet the 
more I have strived to do so, the more 
have I been convinced that it would be 
useless for me any longer to attempt [to 
struggle] with the sentiments I feel to- 
wards you. 

I am conscious of my own unworthiness 
of the boon I desire from you and cannot, 
dare not, ask you to give a decisive answer 
in my favor now, only permit me to hope 
that at some future time I may have the 
happiness of believing my affection re- 
turned, but at the same time I conjure you 
to remember in making up your decision 
that it is in your power to render me hap- 
py or miserable. 

Having frequently through the kind 
permission of your honored Parents the 
pleasure of being in your society I every 
day find it more necessary to come to 
some conclusion as to my future conduct 
for when I was obliged to leave you, it 
was only to renew the agitated state of 
my mind and to contemplate the image 
of one too dear to me to resign for ever, 
without making an effort I was unequal 
to when in your presence 

You will perhaps tell me this is pre- 
sumption on my part and true it is that 
I have nothing to offer to you but a de- 
voted heart and hand, however, be assured 
Madame, whatever your decision may be, 
fervent wishes for your happiness and wel- 
fare shall be the first of my heart — 

I have felt it essential to my peace of 
mind that I should inform you of the 
state of my feelings satisfied that, that and 
your amiableness of heart will plead my 
excuse — I entreat you to reply to this 
letter (if but one word) indeed I am sure 
if you knew how anxiously I shall await 
your answer, compassion alone would in- 
duce you to send me an early answer 
Allow me Madame to subscribe myself 

Your very humble and devoted admirer 
[J. H. Payne] 
Thursday 14 July 1836 

The letter may sound cold and 
middle-aged to modern ears, less 
schooled in polite reticence; perhaps it 
sounded so to Mary Harden. At any 
rate, tradition has it that she "on the 
advice of her parents refused John 
Howard Payne because he could not 
give her a home. But she could not 
forget the handsome and charming 
actor-poet. She never fell in love with 
anyone else, and although she lived 
to be over eighty, she always treasured 
his simple gifts." 20 She did cut his 
signature from the letter of proposal, 
to send it to an autograph-collecting 
friend, but she was careful to note pn 
the margin that the letter had been 
signed, and by whom, and even sup- 
plied the words cut from the text on 
the back of his signature. 

Here, so far as record exists, ends the 
southern adventure of John Howard 
Payne. Mary Harden's answer, if she 
ever gave one, has not been found. The 
playwright apparently never visited in 
the South again, though in 1840 he did 
go to the western Indian Territory by 
way of New Orleans, and he main- 
tained for years his interest in and col- 
lection of material on the Indians. 21 
The Georgia affair had hurt him deep- 
ly: "We do not live," he wrote John 
Ross shortly after the incident, "in days 
of truth and honor." 22 Payne's Jam 
Jehan Nima never saw the light, nor, 

20 Hillyer, op. cit., p. 4. 

81 The Payne manuscripts in the Ayer Collection, 
Newberry Library, Chicago, contain many of his 
unpublished papers on the Indian. 

22 John Howard Payne to John Ross, New York, 
July 8, 1836; see The Collector, LX (September, 
1947), 192. "I abstained from visiting Washing- 
ton," Payne explained, "entirely out of delicacy and 
prudence. I knew that constructions would have 
been put upon a visit for party purposes equally 
injurious to your cause and my own character." This 
two-page letter has recendy been added to the man- 
uscript collection of the Duke University Library. 


unfortunately for American letters and Covent Garden audience ... a new 

the literature of the South, did Payne drama ... laid in the Cherokee coun- 

"live to bless" his experience "as a for- try, and the characters studied while 

tunate circumstance of his life," and a the author was held 'in durance vile' 

means of producing "amid the deafen- by the Georgia Guard." 23 

ing applause of a Chatham Street Or 23 The Southern Banner, December 3,1, 1835. 


Lewis Patton 

AMONG the rarities of the Duke 
l\. Coleridge Collection is The Spirit 
of Discovery by Sea, A Descriptive and 
Narrative Poem, published in 1804 by 
the Rev. William Lisle Bowles. The 
volume is unprepossessing in appear- 
ance and slender in poetic merit, but 
it is rescued from insignificance by the 
presence of marginal annotations in 
the hand of S. T. Coleridge. The an- 
notations are unfortunately in pencil, 
and some have become illegible. Others 
have been destroyed by ruthless clip- 
ping of the binder. Enough of them 
remain, however, to add significantly 
to our knowledge of Coleridge's feel- 
ings about his first poetic master. It 
is not possible to date the annotations. 
It is probable, however, that Coleridge 
was eager to read the volume soon af- 
ter its appearance; it is unlikely that 
having read it once he would care to 
do so again. 

There are few who would challenge 
the statement that Bowles's poems 
would have sunk into obscurity if Cole- 
ridge had not praised them. The rea- 
sons for this admiration are set forth in 
Chapter I of Biographia Literaria and 
in scattered comments in his letters. 
The first reason was a taste for simple 
diction, supposedly taught him by his 
schoolmaster, the Rev. James Bowyer. 
Having come to like Bowles for this 
cause, Coleridge liked him even more 
because he was a contemporary. "The 
poems . . . assume the properties of 
flesh and blood. To recite, to extol, to 
contend for them is but the payment 

due to one who exists to receive it." 
And he tells how, when he was seven- 
teen, lacking the money to buy gift 
copies of Bowles's sonnets, he made 
forty longhand transcriptions of them 
with which to gain proselytes. 

A deeper cause of his enthusiasm 
was the appeal of Bowles's tenderness 
and pathos. Coleridge continually uses 
such phrases as "the heart and fancy of 
Bowles," or he asserts that Bowles's 
sonnets "domesticate with the heart," 
or that they reconcile "the heart with 
the head." In a copy of the poems of 
Bowles (1796) inscribed for a lady, 
Coleridge wrote: "I entreat your ac- 
ceptance of this volume, which has 
given me more pleasure and done my 
heart more good than all other books 
I ever read, except my Bible." 

By chance an opportunity arose for 
Coleridge to meet his idol. In 1799 
Sheridan, looking about for someone 
to supply Drury Lane with a new play, 
asked Bowles for suggestions. Bowles, 
who had seen the poems of Coleridge 
(and had seen his own praises there), 
recommended him. Sheridan, through 
Bowles, then authorized Coleridge to 
go ahead. The result was Osorio. The 
manuscript in hand, Coleridge went to 
Donhead to visit Bowles and to receive 
his criticisms. Little is known of the 
details of this visit and the impressions 
made by each upon the other. The 
sequel was, however, that Sheridan re- 
jected the tragedy and that Coleridge 
for some reason thought less of Bowles. 
In various passages scattered through 



his letters Coleridge mingles censure 
with praise and reaches the just con- 
clusion that "Bowles has indeed the 
sensibility of a poet but not the passion 
of a great poet" (1802). How much 
less than a great poet Bowles was, Cole- 
ridge learned from The Spirit of Dis- 
covery. The Duke marginalia are 
unique in showing a tone of exaspera- 
tion on the part of Coleridge — a tone 
which no published record of his opin- 
ion of Bowles has revealed. He especi- 
ally censures the want of a sense of di- 
rection or sound basic structure in 
Bowles's writing. 

The Spirit of Discovery marks a new 
turn in its author; formerly he wrote, 
as he says in his introduction, a "brief 
sonnet to beguile my tears"; now he 
wakes his harp's strings to "loftier 
utterance." 1 He traces the progress of 
navigation by employing the device of 
the vision or cosmic panorama some- 
what in the manner of Young in his 
Liberty or Shelley in Queen Mab. An 
angel speaks to Noah of the things that 
have been and are to be. Each stage of 
progress is marred by wickedness but 
a promise is given of ultimate salvation 
through the Redeemer. There are con- 
ventional denunciations of the slave- 
trade and of the evils brought by civil- 
ized man to the savage. But Bowles 
balances the picture by condemning 
the violence and cruelty of the savage. 
The poem concludes with pious ex- 
pressions of hope for the future. It is 
difficult to see what Bowles imagined 
that he had achieved, except perhaps to 
provide an asylum for lame adjectives 

In "English Bards and Scotch Reviewers" 
Byron, seeking whom he might devour, pounced 
gleefully upon the hapless Bowles. Satirizing the 
disorderly jumble of discoveries, "From Captain 
Noah down to Captain Cook," he counsels Bowles: 
"Stick to thy Sonnets, man! at least they sell." 

and limp platitudes. His earlier work, 
insipid though it may be, has a genu- 
ine charm and melodiousness. His 
failure in this poem is aggravated by a 
naive egotism, which, as we shall see, 
was the special object of Coleridge's 

Coleridge's disapprobation is convey- 
ed either by direct comment, frequent- 
ly sarcastic, or by a derisive underlining 
or marginal line. Thus, in the intro- 
duction Bowles says (p. vii): "I need 
not perhaps inform the reader, that I 
had before written a Canto on the sub- 
ject of this poem." Coleridge dryly 
says, "Certa[inly] not." An example 
of sarcastic underlining occurs on p. 
viii; its purpose is an ironic emphasis 
on the aimlessness of the structure of 
Bowles's poem: "To obviate such ob- 
jections as might be made by those 
who, from an inattentive survey, might 
imagine there was any carelessness of 
arrangement, I shall lay before the 
reader a general analysis of the several 
books; and, I trust, he will readily per- 
ceive a leading principle, on which the 
poem begins, proceeds, and ends." Cole- 
ridge by underlining likewise silently 
indicates Bowles's naivete in this pas- 
sage (p. ix): "In answer [to possible 
charges of inaccuracy] I must say, that 
history and poetry are two things." 

In the next comment, part of which 
is lost to the binder's knife, Coleridge 
takes his cue from the word build, 
which Bowles uses in the sense of com- 
posing (p. x): "As Mr. Bowles . . . 
throw down his fabric, for he most 
certainly (in spite of his endeavours to 
prove the contrary) does not place one 
stone upon another— alias, build with 
a regular design." When Bowles as- 
serts (p. x) that his poem is neither 
didactic nor epic, Coleridge says: 



"Qu[ery]— what is it? Something 
like the old Senator Valla's [Volta's?] 
epitaph, as thus — 

Nee vir, nee mulier, nee Androgyna 

Nee puella, nee juvenis, nee anus 

Nee casta, nee pudices, &c — 2 

Bowles's presumptuousness meets 
with reproof when he blandly states 
that he "has no objection to the strictest 
investigation of the faults" of his poem, 
"if it be pursued in the spirit of fair 
criticism, and the opinions conveyed in 
the language of a Gentleman!" (p. 
xii). The last phrase is underlined in 
pencil and in the margin appears: 
"Vastly [cjomplaisant." 3 

One of Bowles's ludicrous efforts to 
establish the unity and coherence of his 
meandering tale occurs in the "analy- 
sis" of the third book (p. xix). Cole- 
ridge retorts with the nursery rhyme: 

The old song — 
There was a man; he had a daughfter.] 
And now my story's finish'd quar[ter.] 
There was a man; he had a calf. 
And now my story's finish'd half. 
There was a man; he had a son 
[Last line clipped] 

The censorious commentator speaks up 
concerning the labored analysis of 
Book V: "We jour[ney] slowly," he 
complains (p. xxi). On the same page 
Bowles asserts that "The Poem having 
thus gained a middle and an end, the 
conclusion of the whole is" and so 

2 1 have not, in spite of much learned assistance, 
been able to trace Coleridge's source for this piece 
of scurrilous Latinity. However, when I asked Pro- 
fessor Napoleone Orsini, he recollected instandy that 
it occurs in the Lettere of Remigio Nannini. So it 
does, on p. 206 of the 1582 edition of Considera- 
tioni Civili (Venice) in the section of familiar let- 
ters. But there it is a riddle and no mention is 
made of the Senator. 

3 On p. xiv there is a marginal note on the slave- 
trade which has been cut so much as to render it 

forth. Coleridge adds: "As M r . Bowles 
seems to have the facu[lty] of making 
the end of a thing, before he concludes, 
it wo d perhaps have been as well, if he 
had made an end of this" and again 
the binder's knife intervenes. 

Thus far, we have traversed the pages 
of the introduction and analysis. Be- 
side the text of the poem Coleridge 
has drawn a number of marginal lines 
but has withheld comment. He has 
likewise indulged in his favorite pas- 
time of correction, which he practiced 
incessantly on his own and others' 
poetry. In the passage (p. 3), "Thou 
to the strain/Shall haply listen," Cole- 
ridge has changed shall to shalt, for 
agreement's sake. At intervals there 
are other corrections of spelling, syn- 
tax, and punctuation. On p. 161, 
Bowles writes: "Look Westward, Spirit, 
now." Coleridge, recalling the obvious 
source, misquotes "Lycidas": "Look 
homeward Spirit Milton." 

One marginal jotting, and only one, 
breathes a note of harmony. When 
Bowles (p. 40) refers with praise to 
the passage on the Nile in the seventh 
idyl of Theocritus, Coleridge, evident- 
ly sharing Bowles's taste, quotes the 
two lines in question, lines 113-114. 
The Theocritean influence worked 
strongly upon Bowles, and the idyllic 
strain may have had something to do 
with Coleridge's original liking for 
him. At any rate, it is pleasant that 
the final quotation from these margi- 
nalia should be in a friendly vein, for 
Coleridge was indeed grateful to 
Bowles. In Biographia Uteraria (18 17) 
he testifies to the important service that 
the older poet had done him in rescu- 
ing him from a premature immersion 
in metaphysical and theological con- 



troversy and in strengthening his pow- 
er of feeling. The contribution of the 
Duke marginalia lies in showing that 
before reaching this mature and benign 
attitude, Coleridge had undergone a 
sharp and almost angry disillusion- 

Maria Edgeworth tells the story of 
how another admirer of Bowles, Mme. 
de Stael, also suffered disillusionment. 
Accepting an invitation from his neigh- 
bor, Lord Lansdowne, to meet Mme. 
de Stael, Bowles, on his way there, 

. . . fell, and sprained his shoulder, but 
still came on. Lord Lansdowne alluded to 
this in presenting him to Madame de 
Stael before dinner in the midst of the 
listening circle. She began to compliment 

him and herself upon the exertion he had 
made to come and see her: "Oh, ma'am, 
say no more, for I would have done a 
great deal more to see so great a curiosity!" 
Lord Lansdowne says it is impossible to 
describe the shoc\ in Madame de StaeTs 
face — the breathless astonishment and the 
total change produced in her opinion of 
rhe man. She afterwards said to Lord 
Lansdowne, who had told her he was a 
simple country clergyman, "Je vois bien 
que ce n'est qu'un simple cure qui n'a pas 
le sens commun, quoique grand poete." 4 

We have seen Coleridge in a most de- 
cided manner challenge Bowles's po- 
sition as "grand poete." 

4 Quoted in Garland Greever, A Wiltshire Parson 
and His Friends, Boston and New York [1926], 
pp. 1 00-101, n. 


THE current membership list of 
the Friends of the Library shows 
that the number of members has grown 
from 114, at the end of 1946, to 208, a 
gratifying increase but small in com- 
parison to the growth we hope to see 
in the coming year. Of recent donors, 
with their varied contributions of 
books, money, and services, we may 
mention a few shining examples. Gen- 
erous monetary gifts have come from 
Mr. and Mrs. Marshall Spears, Mr. J. 
Welch Harriss, Professor G. B. Pegram, 
Professor and Mrs. Paul J. Kramer, 
Professor and Mrs. Frank DeVyver, 
Mr. and Mrs. Jerry B. Stone, and Pro- 
fessor and Mrs. W. B. Hamilton. In the 
field of history and the social sciences a 
large group of books, documents, and 
pamphlets has been contributed by Mr. 
Ralph Snyder of Syracuse, New York. 
Professor R. W. Van Wagenen has 
given us documents pertaining to mili- 
tary government in Germany; Mrs. A. 
Symington of Carthage, N. C, has pre- 
sented a number of volumes on the Far 
East. Books on engineering have been 
contributed by Professor W. H. Hall, 
books on medicine by Dr. Grant Tay- 
lor of Hillsboro. Mr. Curtis Carroll 
Davis of Baltimore has presented the 
first American edition of John Bell's 
Engravings of the Bones, the copy 
having at one time belonged to the 
author William A. Caruthers. Collec- 
tions of periodicals have come from 
Dr. C. Sylvester Green, and Mrs. J. A. 
Gifts in the field of literature have 

been many and varied. Notable con- 
tributions have been made by Profes- 
sors Jay B. Hubbell and Lewis Leary 
in American literature, by Miss Ida E. 
Schaberg of St. Louis in German lit- 
erature. Professor and Mrs. Allan H. 
Gilbert have given a number of Italian 
posters, pamphlets, and periodicals. In 
English literature we note a response 
to our last desiderata list: Dr. Lyman 
H. Butterfield of Princeton, N. J., has 
sent handsome copies of three of the 
requested Arthur Machen titles. Mr. 
and Mrs. Henry Schuman of New 
York City have made a valued contri- 
bution, consisting of seven first editions 
of the writings of Sean O'Faolain. In 
each volume the author has written a 
long inscription, often describing the 
circumstances under which the book 
was written. 

A large collection of books in the 
field of religion has been received from 
Mr. W. J. Adams, Jr., of Greensboro. 
Other gifts in this field have come from 
the Rev. G. B. Ehlhardt, Dr. Stanley 
Harrell, and Mr. John A. Hostetler. 

All of these fields and others as well 
are represented in a collection of books, 
periodicals, and pamphlets, nearly sev- 
en hundred in all, presented to the 
library by Miss Alice Mary Baldwin. 
Miss Baldwin has been a constant and 
generous friend to the library for 
many years; in consideration of her 
many past services as well as her recent 
gift, her name is now included among 
the life-members of the Friends of the 




IT is generally known that the folk- 
lore materials gathered by the late 
Frank Clyde Brown are now being 
prepared for publication, under the 
general editorship of Professor Newman 
I. White. Several months ago, Professor 
White placed the entire collection in 
the university library, as the gift of Mrs. 
Frank C. Brown. This gift is of great 
value, and it is with justice that Mrs. 
Brown has been accorded life member- 
ship in the Friends of the Library. 
Composed of about 38,000 folklore 
manuscripts, with 650 musical scores, 
1400 vocal recordings, and a variety 
of related materials, the collection 
was the result of years of indefatigable 
searching and is a monument to Pro- 
fessor Brown's perseverance and de- 
votion. Ninety-five per cent of the 
material relates to North Carolina 
folklore, but twenty other states and 
Canada are also represented. The 
papers run the gamut of folk literature, 
from charms, omens, and divination, 
to riddles, proverbs, legends, and songs. 
The vast labor of organizing these ma- 
terials was accomplished under Pro- 
fessor White's direction before they 
reached the library, and the collection 
is carefully arranged in a special case, 
now installed in the hall outside the 
Rare Book Room. 


THE six children of the late Rev- 
erend Henry Harrison Jordan 
have recently established in his name 
an endowment fund of twenty thou- 
sand dollars for the benefit of the Min- 
isters' Loan Library of Duke Divinity 
School. Since its establishment in Jan- 
uary, 1944, the Loan Library has re- 
ceived generous support from several 
friends and has thus been enabled to 
serve effectually in its function of sup- 
plying religious literature to ministers 
throughout the nation. The Jordan 
gift will place the institution, now 
known as the Henry Harrison Jordan 
Loan Library, on a more permanent 
basis and permit great expansion of its 
collection and services. 

The donors of this outstanding gift, 
whose names now appear among the 
life-members of the Friends of the Li- 
brary, are: Mrs. George Way of Cam- 
den, S. C; Mrs. H. C. Sprinkle, Jr., of 
Greensboro; Dr. Henry W. Jordan of 
Cedar Falls; Mr. Charles E. Jordan of 
Durham, vice-president of Duke Uni- 
versity; the Reverend Frank B. Jordan 
of Mt. Airy; and Mr. B. Everett Jordan 
of Saxapahaw. 


The desiderata lists which have ap- 
peared in previous issues of Library 
Notes have met with a gratifying re- 
sponse. These lists, it should be under- 
stood, are offered merely as suggestions 
to friends who wish to make gifts of 
books to the library. In most cases, 
any available copy of each title, wheth- 
er the first edition or the twenty-first, 
will be welcomed; the date of the first 
edition is mentioned only as a way of 
"placing" the book. If the copy of 
Mirth for the Million in your attic 
bears a date later than the 1883 we give, 
the library will be only too happy to re- 
ceive it. The desirability and charm 
of first editions are undeniable, but we 
are principally interested in securing 
useful, workaday copies of the titles 

A short time before his death the 
late William H. Glasson presented to 
the Duke Library a sum of money for 
the purchase of American works of 
humor, books by Bill Nye, Josh Bill- 
ings, George Ade, and others. This 
fund has been expended, and the li- 
brary's collection is the richer thereby. 
In order to continue the work which 
Dr. Glasson sponsored, it has seemed 
desirable that we devote one of our 
lists of desiderata to American humor- 
ists of the nineteenth century. The 
library is hopeful of securing some 
edition of each of the following titles. 

George William Bagby 

The letters of Mozis Addums to Billy 

Ivvins. 1862. 
Meefyns's twinses, a perduc\shun uv 

Mozis Addums. 1877. 
Mozis Addums' new letters. Number 

one. i860. 

A wee\ in Hepsidam. 1879. 
What I did with my fifty millions. 

Charles Farrar Browne 
Artemus Ward among the Fenians. 

Artemus Ward: Grate snaix: His boo\. 

Artemus Ward's best stories. Edited by 

Clifton Johnson, with an introduction 

by William Dean Howells. 1912. 
Sandwiches. 1869. 

John Ross Browne 

Adventures in the Apache country. 

An American family in Germany. 1866. 

Confessions of a quac\: The autobi- 
ography of a modern Aesculapian. 

Crusoe's island: With sketches of adven- 
ture in California and Washoe. 1864. 

Yusef, or A journey of the Frangi: A 
crusade in the east. 1853. 

Robert Jones Burdette 
Haw\eyes. 1879. 
Sons of Asaph. 

Marcus L. Byrne 

The adventures of Fudge Fumble, or 
The love scrapes of his whole life. 

The life and adventures of an Arkan- 
sas doctor. 1851. 

Rattlehead's chronicles. 1852. 

Rattlehead's travels, or The adventures 
of a backwoodsman. 1852. 

Vim and venture of Bolivar Hornet, the 
Alabama doctor. 1886. 

Waitings of a wife hunter. 1882. 

Charles Heber Clark 
Elbow-room: A novel without plot. 

Fortunate island, and other stories. 

Random shots. 1879. 



Thomas Cooper 
Memoirs of a nullifier, written by him- 
self. By a native of the south. 

Finley Peter Dunne 
Mr. Dooley: His wit and wisdom. 3 v. 
A new Dooley boo\. 191 1. 
Woman's rights. 

Eugene Field 
Contributions in verse to the St. Louis 
Times-Journal. 1935. 

Samuel Fiske 
Mr. Dunn Browne's experiences in 
foreign parts. 1866. 

Asa Green 

A glance at New Yor\. 1837. 

The life and adventures of Dr. Dodi- 
mus Duckworth, A.N. Q. To which 
is added the history of a steam doc- 
tor. 1833. 

The perils of Pearl street, including a 
taste of the dangers of Wall street, 
by a late merchant. 1834. 

Travels in America by George Fibble- 
ton, Esq., ex-barber to his majesty, the 
\ing of Great Britain. 1833. 

John Habberton 
Mrs. Maybum's twins. 1882. 
Romance of California life. 1880. 

Samuel A. Hammett 
The wonderful adventures of Captain 
Priest. 1855. 

Marietta Holley 
fosiah's alarm. 1893. 
Round the world with Josiah Allen's 

wife. 1899. 
Samantha at the World's fare. 1893. 
Tirzah Ann's summer trip. 1892. 
The Widder Doodle's love affair. 1893. 

Johnson Jones Hooper 
Tales of Alabama. 1851. 

Melville D. Landon 

Eli Perkins' wit, humor and pathos. 

Charles Godfrey Leland 
Brand new ballads. 1885. 
The Egyptian s\etch-boo\. 1873. 
Pipps among the wide-awakes, i860. 
Ye sneal{ yclepid Copperhead. 1862. 
Snooping. 1885. 

Charles Bertrand Lewis 

Bessie Bane, or The Mormon's victim. 

The comic biography of James A. Gar- 
field. 1881. 

Goa\s and tears. 1875. 

Quad's odds. 1875. 

Sa wed-off sketches. 1884. 

Spares of wit and humor. 1887. 

Trials and troubles of the Bowser fam- 
ily. 1889. 

David Ross Locke 

Andy's trip to the. west. 1866. 

The democratic John Bunyan. 1880. 

The diary of an office see\er. 1881. 

Divers opinions, and prophecies of 
yours trooly, Petroleum V. Nasby. 

Hanna Jane. 1882. 

The impendin crisis uv the democracy. 

Inflation at the crossroads. 1875. 

The morals of Abou Ben Adhem. 1874. 

The presidents policy. 1877. 
Cornelius Mathews 

Behemoth. A legend of the Mound- 
builders. 1839. 

The career of Puffer Hopkins. 1845. 

The various writings of Cornelius 
Mathews. 1863. 

Joseph Clay Neal 

Charcoal sketches. 1865. 

The misfortunes of Peter Faber, and 

other sketches. 1856. 
Peter Ploddy and other oddities. 1844. 

Robert Henry Newell 
The cloven foot. 1870. 
The walking doll. 1872. 

Edgar Wilson Nye 
Baled hay. 1884. 
Bill Nye, his boo{. 



Bill Nye's blossom boo\. 1885. 

Bill Nye's cord wood. 1887. 

Bill Nye's things. 1888. 

Funny fellow's grab bag. 1903. 

In the days of the prophet. 

Nye and Riley's railway guide. 1888. 


George W. Peck 
Mirth for the million. 1883. 
Peck's sunshine. 1882. 

Marcus Mills Pomeroy 
Gold-dust. 1871. 
Home harmonies. 1876. 
Nonsense, etc. 1868. 

Opie Read 
Miss Polly Lopp, and other stories. 

l8 95«. 
Old Lim Juc\lin; the opinions of an 

open-air philosopher. 1905. 

Opie Read in the Ozar\s. 1905. 

Opie Read on golf. 1925. 

Our Josephine, and other tales. 1902. 

Selected stories. 1891. 

Twenty good stories. 1891. 

Henry W. Shaw 

Complete comical writings of Josh Bill- 
ings. 1876. 

Everybody's friend, or Josh Billings' en- 
cyclopedia and proverbial philosophy 
of wit and humor. 1874. 

Josh Billings' allminax. 1869-1879. 

Josh Billings, his savings. 1865. 

Josh Billings on ice and other things. 

Josh Billings' spice box. 1881. 

Josh Billings struggling with things. 

Josh Billings' trump \ards. Blue grass 
philosophy. 1877. 

Old probability, perhaps rain — perhaps 
not. 1879. 


Twelve ancestral signs in the Billings' 
zodiac gallery. 1873. 

Benjamin Penhallow Shillaber 
Mrs. Partington's new grip-sac\, filled 

with fresh things. 1890. 
Mrs. Partington's grab bag. 1893. 

Charles H. Smith 
Bill Arp's letters. 1868. 
Bill Arp's scrapboo\, humor and phil- 
osophy. 1884. 

Seba Smith 

John Smith's letters with picters to 
match. 1839. 

May-day in New Yor\. 1845. 

Speech of John Smith, esquire, not de- 
livered at Smithville, September 15, 
1861. 1864. 

William Tappan Thompson 

Rancy Cottem's courtship. 1879. 
Charles H. Webb 

John Paul's boo\. 1874. 

Liffith Lan\, or Lunacy. 1866. 

Parodies. Prose and verse. 1876. 

Sea-weed and what we seed. 1876. 

George M. Wharton 
New Orleans sketch boo\. By "Stahl." 

l8 <5- 
The portfolio of a southern medical stu- 
dent. 1851. 

While American humor is under 
consideration, it seems appropriate to 
note that the library is inadequately 
supplied in regard to three humorous 
magazines of the late nineteenth and 
early twentieth centuries: Life, Puc\, 
and Judge. Most of us were regaled 
by these magazines in dentists' waiting- 
rooms during our youth; many of us 
may have random copies stored away 
which will now prove useful in build- 
ing the library's files. Duke has no 
volumes of Judge (New York, 1-116, 
1881-1939) and Life (New York, 1-103, 
1883-1936); any copy you can supply 
will meet a need. The Duke file of 
Puck (New York, 1-83, 1877-1918) 
lacks the following volumes: 26, 52, 
55, 56, 58-83. 



THE group of student book-collec- 
tors organized last year under 
the sponsorship of the Friends of the 
Library has held two meetings during 
the fall semester. At the first, on 14 
October 1947, Mr. Guy Davenport was 
elected chairman of the group. The 
guest speaker was Professor Weston 
LaBarre, who displayed and described 
his collection of the writings of James 
Joyce and discussed with the students 
the problems which arise in the col- 
lecting of modern authors. At the 
second meeting, on 11 December, Pro- 
fessor Allan H. Gilbert showed to the 
assembled students a number of in- 
teresting volumes in Latin, Italian, and 
English literature of the Renaissance, 
the majority from his private collec- 
tion. He spoke of collecting from the 
point of view of the scholar seeking 
out material for his own studies, and 
told many amusing anecdotes of his 
experiences in acquiring much-desired 

The 1948 competition for student 
book-collectors has been announced; as 
was the case last year, two prizes of 
twenty-five dollars each are to be 
awarded to the undergraduate man 
and woman submitting the best col- 
lections of books. 


The recent publication of the Guide 
to the Manuscript Collections in the 
Du\e University Library (Historical 
Papers of the Trinity College Histori- 
cal Society, Series XXVII-XXVIII, 
Duke University Press) has brought 

sharply to view the vast extent and 
great value of the library's manuscript 
collection. Compiled by Miss Nannie 
M. Tilley and Miss Noma Lee Good- 
win, this excellent catalogue will be a 
most useful tool, not only to students 
at Duke but also to scholars and librari- 
ans elsewhere. 


THE first library exhibition of the 
academic year consisted of first 
and early editions of English classics, 
selected from the library's rare book 
collection. Including handsome copies 
of such works as Gulliver's Travels, The 
Spectator, and Bos well's Life of John- 
son, in the form in which they first 
came before the *public, the exhibition 
was, for those who prepared as well as 
those who saw it, gratifying in its indi- 
cation of the library's growing re- 
sources in the field of English litera- 

In October a collection of photo- 
graphs of Eastern college and univer- 
sity buildings was placed on display. 
These pictures were lent to the library 
for exhibition by the Maynard Work- 
shop of Waban, Massachusetts. An- 
other loan-exhibit followed in Novem- 
ber: Professor Weston LaBarre of the 
Sociology Department made available 
his splendid collection of materials re- 
lating to the Indian tribes of Bolivia 
and Peru. In December, the original 
copy of the Duke indenture, with 
books and pictures relating to its sign- 
ing, was displayed in honor of Duke 
University Day. Throughout the 
greater part of the month, however, 



the exhibit cases held materials collect- 
ed by Professor F. A. G. Cowper dur- 
ing his recent visit to France. Maps, 
newspapers, pamphlets, and a variety 
of other items illustrated conditions in 
France today and revealed the efforts of 
the French to reconstruct their many 
demolished cities and towns. 

During January, the "Fifty Books of 
the Year 1946" were on display. This 

exhibition, prepared by the American 
Institute of Graphic Arts, consists of 
books selected for appropriateness and 
excellence of typography, binding, and 

Plans for the remainder of the school 
year include exhibitions of emblem 
books and of selections from the Gus- 
tave Lanson Collection of French lit- 

The Friends ofT)uke University library 

Executive Committee 

Dr. B. E. Powell, Chairman 

Dr. Walter A. Stanbury 

Mrs. Marshall Spears 

Mr. Harry L. Dalton 

Mr. Henry Schuman 

Professor Newman I. White 

Professor Charles S. Sydnor 

Dr. Josiah C. Trent 

Professor Frances Brown 

Miss Gertrude Merritt 

Rev. George B. Ehlhardt 

Miss Ellen Frey 

Editorial Committee 

Professor Paull F. Baum 

Mr. Henry Schuman 

Miss Ellen Frey 

Please address all communications to: 

Chairman of the Executive Committee 

Friends of Du\e University Library 

Durham, North Carolina 



The Friends of 'Duke University library 

July 1948 


Newman I. White 

As though swart Charon's boat, with all on board 
Had sunk, and put out life-rafts, one of which 
Had drifted to my study, I grow rich 

In newly rescued friendships. Here, ungored, 

I badger Doctor Johnson, bend the sword 
That Cyrano resigns to me, or hitch 
My chair to Fielding's monologue, or snitch 

For private use a jest from Miller's hoard. 

So courteous these fellows freshly met, 

So much the same as they had been before, 
Antiquely gracious, negligently bright, 
That I, a bookworm, splendidly forget 
My low estate, till, standing by the door, 

I watch them down the street, and out of sight. 


Paull F. Baum 

AMONG the Rossetti manuscripts 
acquired by the Duke University 
Library in 1930 are some fragments of 
a poem which later became "The 
White Ship." These fragments are de- 
scribed at pp. 43-44 of Dante Gabriel 
Rossetti An Analytical List of Manu- 
scripts in the Duke University Library 
with Hitherto Unpublished Verse and 
Prose, edited by the present writer and 
published by the Duke University Press 
in 193 1. They consist of twenty-seven 
verses in all, corresponding, in the pub- 
lished text, to 11. 1-6, 151-154, 176-181, 
262-265, 269-270 on one page, and on 
another 11. 82-85, with three cancelled 
verses replaced by 11. 158-160. These 
fragments exhibit some small varia- 
tions from the final text, but more im- 
portant is the indication there that 
instead of repeating at the end the first 
stanza with its refrains, as the poem 
now stands, Rossetti meant to use 11. 
269-270 and 271, 273 with the refrain 
lines as a conclusion. It seems prob- 
able, moreover, that he first wrote out 
a prose "cartoon" for the whole poem 
— as he did for "Rose Mary" (see the 
Analytical List, pp. 97 flf.) — and turn- 
ed this into verse piecemeal. 

Now recently the Library has ac- 
quired a holograph of the whole poem 
representing its all but final state. This 
new manuscript consists of two parts. 
The first is made up of four sheets of 
folded note paper, measuring (when 
folded) 4% x jY 8 in. Of these the 
first is used as a cover, enclosing the 
three other folded sheets (which are 
marked A, B, C in the upper right cor- 
ners) and contains no writing except 
the added verses facing Ai. The three 

enclosed sheets are written on only the 
first and third pages, leaving the sec- 
ond and fourth either blank or with 
verses added in the course of composi- 
tion. The lower half of C3 is blank. 
The second part of the manuscript (be- 
ginning at I.85 of the completed 
poem) comprises nine folded sheets of 
the same size and paper, written simi- 
larly on only the first and third pages, 
except for added verses, and are num- 
bered (in the upper right corners) 1 
to 9 consecutively. The poem ends at 
the bottom of the first page of 9; the 
remaining pages are blank. 

In this manuscript the following six- 
teen verses of the finished poem are 
wanting: 9, 10, 15, 18-20, 29, 30, 33, 34, 
62, 87, 217, 222, 238, 239; they were of 
course added (or in the case of 87 sub- 
stituted) in a later revision. Moreover, 
in this manuscript itself the following 
twenty-two verses seem to have been 
added either in revision or in the proc- 
ess of composition: 11-14, 16, 17, 59, 60, 
69-71. 78, 79> 108, 114, 115, 137, 138, 
195, 196, 240, 241. That Rossetti was 
aware of the growth of his poem by 
accretion or expansion, perhaps as new 
verses developed from his "cartoon," 
is testified to by his notation at the 

230 lines 
194 lines 
167 lines 

These figures do not tally with the 
evidence of the present manuscript, 
which, including the additions, con- 
tains 264 lines; and it is obvious that 
they represent preceding versions. At 
least one such may be inferred from the 


lifferent numbering of the folded 
;heets: A-C and 1-9; and likewise at 
east one later manuscript must be in- 
"erred in which the verses were 
)rought up to their final complement 
)f 279. 

In this regard as well as in the de- 
ails of revision, our manuscript fur- 
lishes a valuable example of one of 
lossetti's methods of composing; which 
s of course not unlike that of other 
Doets, did we but have such abundant 
.'vidence. Among the more interesting 
•evisions are those of I.62 and 11. 
\6-91 (see the collation below), the 
:ancelled verses following I.140, one 
>f which became I.145, and the can- 
relied verses after I.143. Notable also 
ire the attempts which resulted in 
I.182, 183, followed immediately by 
he couplet which appears finally ten 
ines later. One of the poet's greatest 
lifficulties seems to have been with the 
wo stanzas of IL210-214; not only 
ire there several rewritings here, but 
nore, in a subsequent manuscript, were 
lecessary before he was satisfied. 

At one point we can almost watch 
:he poet compose. What we read now 
is H.76-77 is 

swifter and swifter the White Ship sped 
rill she flew as the spirit flies from the 

But Rossetti began this couplet with 
! 'F," as for "Faster," then immediately 
changed his mind, wrote a capital "S" 
3ver the "F," and went on — 

Swifter and swifter still they sped 
Till they 

Then he went back and substituted 
"she" for "they" in both places; and 
finally (perhaps to avoid the repeti- 
tion of sound in "still . . . Till") sub- 

stituted "the White Ship" for "still 
she" and finished the second line as it 
now stands. 

Similarly, at I.198, he started to 
write "Cried," but after the first three 
letters changed to "Sighed." And in 
I.121 he first wrote "through the fro" 
as though for "frothing" or "frothy," 
but changed it at once to "foaming." 
He then had 

And back they sped through the foam- 
ing frill 
As the leaf scuds in a water-mill. 

This however did not please him, no 
doubt because of the queerness of 
"frill"; so he tried again: 

And back through the flying foam they 

As a leaf scuds in a water-wheel. 

This he could still improve upon, for 
in a later revision, which does not show 
in our manuscript, the couplet became 

And back with the current's force they 

Like a leaf that's drawn to a water-wheel. 

To some people it may seem imperti- 
nent and sacrilegious to look behind 
the veil and behold genius taking 
pains. These people like to think of 
poetry and all works of art as rising 
full-formed like Venus in all her beau- 
ty from the sea. But for others it is 
a privilege to study the growth of beau- 
ty; and for them it is no diminution 
of the poet's gift to know that he ap- 
plied to his art what Rossetti himself 
was accustomed to call "the fundamen- 
tal brainwork" of composition. For 
most poets we have at the best only the 
revisions in successive printed editions, 
and these are instructive enough — 
though they may also be deceptive. 


(For Tennyson explained once that 
what looked like a revision in the sec- 
ond edition was only a return to the 
first reading of his manuscript.) But 
it is often worth still more to look over 
the poet's shoulder while he works 
and watch him in his search for just 
the right word, the right turn of ex- 
pression, and even see the idea taking 
shape or the progressive adjustment of 
idea to language. 

The following is a full collation of 
our manuscript with the standard print- 
ed text. No account is taken how- 
ever of Rossetti's punctuation, which is 
often irregular. When two readings 
are separated by the square bracket, the 
first is that of the print, the second that 
of the manuscript. When the manu- 
script has an alteration which makes 
it correspond to the print, a square 
bracket follows the reading; when 
there is no such alteration, no sign fol- 
lows. When these symbols would not 
be clear the phrase "altered to" {alt. 
to) is used, or the explanation is spelled 
out. In a few instances, where the 
changes are too complex to be indi- 
cated in the conventional way, the 
whole passage is transcribed. The num- 
bers at the left are those of the printed 


(25 Nov. 1 120) 
4 Twas 

7 King Henry had pledged his oath {alt. 
to plighted a vow) full fain 
9-10 wanting 

11-14, 16, 17 added on page facing 
13 Times had changed since from coast to 

15 wanting 

16 He had struck sore blows to crown his 

18-20 wanting 

21 And 

23 now] 

25 of] 

27 Twas 

29-30 wanting 

32 captain] sea-faring 

33-34 wanting 

35 And he said: "O King I] 

36 deck] 

41 that over Pour her] its over ?the 

42 be my due] liketh you an 
45 today 

47 well-tried] chosen 

48 "My ship" quoth the King "is {alt. to 
"My ships" quoth the King "are) fixed 

50 sons 

52 a fair] 

53 those coasts] 
55 with] fair] 

56-58 Three hundred souls cancelled 

With valiant {alt. to noble) Knights 

& with ladies fair 
And {alt. to With) courtiers & sailors 

gathered there 
Three hundred living souls they {alt. 
to we) were 
59-60 added on page facing 
59 meanest over word heavily crossed out 

61 reckless alt. to lawless 

62 And if of King's heirs men said the 

They had called him meat for the devil's 

First line cancelled; second line alt. to 
And men {alt. to Men) held him as 

meat for etc. {Not in print) 
64 But] were more than] 

66 drink before they shall] 

67 We cancelled; then Our speed 

68 feast in the harbour till] 

72 at first followed 68; then 69-71 were 

crowded between: 
The sailors made good cheer without 

The lords and ladies obeyed his beck 
The night was still & th 
then this was crossed out and fair copied 
at bottom of page: 


7 2 


The sailors {alt. to rowers) made good 

cheer without check 
The lords & ladies obeyed his beck, 
The night was still {alt. to light) & they 

danced on the deck 
With the midnight] 
S of Swifter written over F 
the White Ship] still they she cancelled 
With alt. to Till they {alt. to she) 


added on page facing wan alt. to 

What songbird's fli alt. to course is 

And under the stars as they raced along] 
No song, — a shriek] 


$6-91 That leaped o'er the waves: — like a 
distant {alt. to wild far) sigh 
The King's ships heard it and knew 
not why. 

A shriek that answered the distant 

As the ship's keel felt the hidden 
{alt. to sunken) rock 
As a swimming bladder fills when 
Row, row!] 
Failing alt. to choking 
written in later between 107 and 109 
turned about] 
•115 added between stanzas, but first 
written (on page facing) and 
marked to follow 129: 
To the toppling decks all clung 

As a fly clings to a window pane 

they sped through the fro? {alt. to 
foaming) frill alt. to through the flying 
foam they reel 

As the (alt. to a) leaf scuds in a water- 
mill {alt. to -wheel) 

hovered alt. to rose 
Low] Prone leaned] lay 
115 first added here to follow 129, but 
moved to follow 113 
With the rest, by God's will, 
138 added between the lines 







139 A Prince he was] 

140 Yet to save his sister's life he died. 

He had made his father's heart to ache, 
Yet he died there for his sister's sake 

When he etc. (141) 
After 143 But where the Judge of all Kings 
doth stand, 
His sister knelt with him hand 
in hand. 

152 o'er] o'er alt. to on water's womb] 
middle sea 

153 come] be 

154 Amid vain prayers] 
165 high] blithe 

167 shewn] 

168 space] 
172 sea] 

174 rent] split 
176 dim] dark 

182 ff. And each said, God have mercy on 
Then cried we upon God's name, 

as we 
Did drift on the bitter biting sea. 

And {alt. to They) each cried, "God 

have mercy on me!" 
And the hours passed, & I & he 
Did drift on the bitter biting sea. 

These six lines cancelled and followed by 
Then cried we upon God's name, 

as we 
Did drift on the bitter biting sea. 

(193) And each knew each as the hours 
{alt. to moments) sped 

(194) Less as {alt. to for) one living 
than as {alt. to for) one dead 

184 But once a third face {alt. to man) 

185 thee too he shall] 
188 quoth] said 

190 left] down through alt. to down in 

alt. to through 
For 193-194 see above 

195-196 added on page facing, to follow 192 
195 dim] 
198 Cri Sighed 
200 said] 
203 Then morning rose afar 


205 yet I still might {alt. to did) float] 

206 I clung sore dazed, and might little 
note alt. to Yet {cancelled) Half dead 
I clung, and might little note 

208 over alt. to high o'er 

209 we] 

210-213 Much revised; the successive altera- 
tions seem to be as follows: 
Next my tale I told to a priest 
Who bade me keep it in mine own 

And fast my way fast was I moved 
Above first line: Then first That morn 

(cancelled) I told 
Beneath first line: Who had (cancelled) 
charged me, till my shrift were re- 
Beneath second line: That I should keep 

it in mine own breast 
Above third line: day & night 

though I went with the 
.and above moved: come to 
Then all this crossed out and copied 
jair on page facing: 

Then first I told my tale to a priest 
Who charged me, till my shrift were 

That I should keep it in mine own 

And thence I went with the priest to 

215 We] I 

216 And he wept & made me tell it again 

217 wanting 

218 me 

221 From me first learnt alt. to That now 
they knew 

222 wanting 

223 For two whole days alt. to The King 
had watched 

225 he would 

226 my son] the Prince 

227 lie] are 

229 English] 

230 not more bright] 

231 eyes tha so alt. to are blue & bright 
236 one] they 

238-239 wanting 

240-241 added on page facing, to follow 

2 37 

244 long] 

245 around alt. to about] throne] 

247 little was said and little] 

248 Then first] 
260 kneeled ] 

265 Lie in the sea's bed with 

266 Then the King fell 

267 he lay in his bed 

273 no space above and below 

Beneath last line: D G Rossetti 


230 lines lined through 

194 lines lined through 

167 lines lined through 

THE "COLD WAR" OF 1790-1791 

Documented by a Collection of Eighteenth-Century Pamphlets in the 

Duke University Library 

James L. Woodress, Jr. 


THE members of the London Rev- 
olution Society scarcely had ex- 
pected to be present on a memorable 
occasion when they assembled at the 
meeting house in the street known as 
Old Jewry to observe the ioist anni- 
versary of the Glorious Revolution on 
November 4, 1789. The main speaker 
on the program was Dr. Richard Price, 
an elderly Welsh minister, who achiev- 
ed by his sermon that day what immor- 
tality he may have in the history of 
letters. He spoke on the subject of 
patriotism, hiding under the innocent 
title On the Love of Our Country a 
rapturous eulogy of the French Revo- 
lution. His sermon proved to be the 
opening salvo in a verbal barrage 
which rocked England in the 1790's. 
Meanwhile, across the English Chan- 
nel events had moved swiftly follow- 
ing the fall of the Bastille in the sum- 
mer of 1789. By autumn the French 
National Assembly had completed the 
new Civil Constitution for the Clergy, 
but the king delayed his acceptance of 
it. When the food situation in Paris 
took a critical turn during the month 
before Price spoke in London, a mob 
broke into the palace at Versailles, 
forcing the militia under the Marquis 
de la Fayette to take the king and 
queen into protective custody. 

Price's sermon before the Revolu- 
tion Society evoked in answer Edmund 
Burke's eloquent Reflections on the 
Revolution in France (1790), and 

Burke himself inspired in reply Thom- 
as Paine's Rights of Man (1791-1792). 
These two documents began a chain 
reaction among the amateur and pro- 
fessional pamphleteers of the day. The 
arguments flashed back and forth while 
British patriots thoroughly probed, 
analyzed, condemned, and praised the 
French Revolution. It was not until 
the Reign of Terror (1793) that Brit- 
ish liberals cast suspicious glances to- 
wards France, and the output of pam- 
phlets slackened. 

In 1941 the Duke University Library 
acquired a valuable pamphlet collec- 
tion which records this controversy 
from the publication of Price's sermon 
in 1789 until the early months of 1792. 
The pamphlets are gathered into 
twelve volumes and comprise nearly 
all the important documents in this 
lively and often bitter pamphlet war. 
Information about the collector of these 
pamphlets and the circumstances un- 
der which they were assembled is not 
available. The pamphlets are in ex- 
cellent condition, and until this writing 
the pages of one remained uncut. In- 
cluded among them are first editions 
of Price's sermon, Burke's Reflections, 
and Mary Wollstonecraft's Vindication 
of the Rights of Men. In addition 
there is a rare copy of the suppressed 
edition of Paine's Rights of Man bear- 
ing the imprint of J. Johnson, the pub- 
lisher who first agreed to bring out the 
book but lost his nerve after only a 
few copies had been printed. 


The anonymous scholar who brought 
these pamphlets together used excellent 
judgment in his selection, representing 
with admirable impartiality both sides 
of the controversy. The collection con- 
tains fifty-four items, which vary in 
length from thirty to five hundred 
pages. Thirty-two of them defend the 
French Revolution in terms which 
fluctuate between cautious approbation 
and uncritical adulation; and twenty- 
one support the British Constitution 
and Burke's condemnation of the Rev- 
olution. The fifty-fourth and last item 
in the collection, the entire twelfth vol- 
ume, is judiciously devoted to an anon- 
ymous work purporting to be An Im- 
partial History of the Late Revolution 
in France.. This work covers the peri- 
od from the beginning of the Revolu- 
tion until the execution of Marie An- 
toinette in 1793 and is the only item 
published after mid-1792. 

By far the greatest part of the col- 
lection pertains to the debate which 
went on between Burke and Paine. 
One of Burke's early biographers, Sir 
James Prior, reports that thirty-eight 
replies to Burke's Reflections appeared 
within a few months after the book's 
publication; other biographers have 
counted varying numbers. Twenty- 
seven of these answers are in the pres- 
ent collection. There are in addition 
four pamphlets written in defense of 
Burke, but that eloquent statesman 
hardly needed the support of obscure 
pamphleteers, and his champions saved 
their strongest invective to hurl against 
the Rights of Man. Twelve of the re- 
plies to Paine are preserved in this col- 
lection. It is possibly significant that 
there are no pamphlets rising to the 
defense of Paine. It is as though 
Paine's supporters were completely ab- 

sorbed in the unequal task of cudgel- 
ing Burke. Only two of the better 
known answers to Burke, Sir James 
Mackintosh's Vindiciae Gallicae and 
Joseph Priestley's Letters to the Right 
Honorable Edmund Burke . . . , are 
missing from this superb collection, but 
they are readily available elsewhere in 
the library. It also is interesting to 
note that nearly half of these pam- 
phlets, twenty-three out of fifty-four, 
were hurled into the arena by authors 
who elected to hide behind the mask 
of anonymity. Some of the anonymous 
answers are intelligently ordered and 
cogently written, so that one wishes 
the authors could be identified. One 
or two of these unknown pamphlet- 
eers, perhaps, were figures of impor- 
tance in the history of politics and 

When Price was preaching before 
the Revolution Club in the Old Jewry, 
Burke was watching events in France 
with suspended judgment. All Eng- 
land had been astonished by the devel- 
opments following the fall of the Bas- 
tille. The liberals were exuberant, 
and even the conservatives hoped that 
the French were at last going to enjoy 
the benefits of a limited, British-type 
constitutional monarchy. Burke re- 
vealed his opinion of the Revolution in 
August, 1789, when he wrote to a 
young Frenchman named Dupont, the 
same person to whom the Reflections 
were addressed the following year. His 
cautious, waiting attitude is unmistak- 
ably clear in this letter. Speaking of 
liberty, Burke wrote, "It is our inheri- 
tance; it is the birthright of our spe- 
cies." He added, however, that the 
liberty he referred to was only to be 
secured by equality of restraint — mere- 


ly another name for justice. Then 
Burke warned: "You may have made 
a revolution but not a reformation. You 
may have subverted monarchy but not 
recovered freedom." At this writing, 
however, Burke admits the possibility 
that the French Revolution was inevi- 
table, saying that "a positively vicious 
and abusive government ought to be 
changed — and if necessary by violence 
— if it can't be (as is sometimes the 
case) reformed." 

While Burke was making up his 
mind about the Revolution, the two 
events which most influenced his 
opinion occurred less than a month 
apart. On October the fifth and sixth 
the Parisian mob broke into the palace 
at Versailles, forcing the royal family 
to suffer the indignity of invaded do- 
mestic privacy. This occurrence exert- 
ed a powerful effect on Burke, whose 
belief in law, order, and precedent 
went clear to the roots of his political 
philosophy. He stored up the memory 
of this incident to use in the Reflec- 
tions in the much-admired description 
of Marie Antoinette — the passage in 
which he concludes that "the age of 
chivalry is gone . . <. and the glory of 
Europe is extinguished for ever." Less 
than a month later Price spoke before 
the Revolution Society, making the 
speech which caused Burke to react 
both sharply and extensively. These 
two events seem to have tipped the bal- 
ance in Burke's judgment against the 
Revolution. Mob rule, he felt, was a 
perversion of liberty and justice; on the 
other hand, Price's unbridled panegyric 
was a pernicious and unrealistic reac- 
tion to it. Both developments called 
for Burke's most forceful and uncom- 
promising rhetoric. 

There is little that is intrinsically re- 

markable about the sermon which 
launched a pamphlet war. Price had 
confined himself mostly to generalities 
in praise of truth, virtue, liberty, and 
patriotism. Nevertheless, he gave Burke 
a point of departure when he outlined 
his notion of the principles established 
by the Revolution of 1688. These he 
defined as the right to choose our own 
governors, to cashier them for miscon- 
duct, and to form a government for 
ourselves. Burke took issue with this 
statement of British political doctrine, 
and when he wrote his Reflections he 
stated as forcefully as he was able the 
opposite view. On this point the replies 
to the Reflections are almost unani- 
mously opposed to Burke. It remained, 
however, for Price's eulogy of the 
French Revolution at the close of his 
sermon to inspire Burke's most wither- 
ing eloquence. Price had ended his re- 
marks with this oratorical flourish: 

What an eventful period is this! I am 
thankful that I have lived to see it; and 
I could almost say, 'Lord, now lettest thou 
thy servant depart in peace. . . .' Methinks 
I see the ardor for liberty catching and 
spreading; a general amendment begin- 
ning in human affairs. . . . Tremble all 
you oppressors of the world! Take warn- 
ing all ye supporters of slavish govern- 
ments, and slavish hierarchies! 

Burke was so infuriated by this passage 
that he began his book with a savage 
attack on the old clergyman. He com- 
pared Price to the infamous Hugh 
Peters, who had been executed at the 
Restoration for his part in the behead- 
ing of Charles I. So strong were 
Burke's remarks that Sir Philip Francis 
wrote in February, 1790, "Have you 
thoroughly considered whether it be 
worthy of Mr. Burke ... to enter into 



a war of pamphlets with Dr. Price?" 
Francis had seen early page-proofs of 
the Reflections, which Burke had want- 
ed him to read, and he had disap- 
proved of the book strongly. In a long 
letter to Burke Francis urged suppres- 
sion of the Reflections, basing his rec- 
ommendations more on the bitter, par- 
tisan tone of the book than on the 
political philosophy it contained. Burke, 
however, wrote Francis a polite letter 
of thanks for his advice and went 
ahead with revising and adding to the 

Ten days before the exchange of let- 
ters between Francis and Burke, the 
latter had set his face unalterably and 
publicly against the French Revolution. 
This declaration took place in a tem- 
pestuous debate in the House of Com- 
mons on the Army Estimates Bill on 
February 9, 1790. William Pitt had 
just spoken in favor of a large army 
and the need for sufficient funds to 
maintain it. Burke rose to his feet and 
delivered a stinging attack on the Revo- 
lution, opposing the army bill on the 
grounds that France had pulled down 
her monarchy, her church, her army, 
and her commerce. In the last century, 
he said, we were in danger from the 
despotism of Louis XIV; now we are 
in danger from anarchy. France, he 
added, is in the hands of an "irrational, 
unprincipled, proscribing, confiscating, 
plundering, ferocious, bloody, and ty- 
rannical democracy." Coming a scant 
seven months after the fall of the Bas- 
tille, this speech was too strong for the 
Whig bench, and the eloquent Charles 
James Fox jumped to his feet and de- 
livered a rebuttal. The seeds of the 
break between Fox and Burke, which 
finally came in May, 1791, were sown 
that day. An immediate rupture took 

place between Burke and Richard 
Brinsley Sheridan, the playwright turn- 
ed statesman, who picked up the de- 
bate where Fox dropped it. Such an 
acrimonious exchange took place be- 
tween Burke and Sheridan that the 
two parted political company on the 

Almost a year to the day after the 
meeting of the Revolution Society 
Burke's Reflections came off the press. 
During the months of 1790 Burke 
wrote, revised, and polished his manu- 
script. Despite the charge of one anon- 
ymous pamphleteer that the Reflec- 
tions are intemperate, Burke wrote 
slowly and deliberately. He made so 
many changes in the proofs that the 
printer was obliged to reset the entire 
work. Burke knew exactly what he 
was doing, and the effect of the book 
was calculated. The book, selling for 
five shillings, was brought out on 
November 1, 1790, by J. Dodsley in a 
modest octavo of 356 pages in gray 
paper covers. The public, which had 
been awaiting it since Burke's Army 
Estimates Speech, bought out one edi- 
tion after another. The response was 
so overwhelming that the book went 
through eleven editions in the follow- 
ing twelve months. The Reflections 
came at psychologically the right mo- 
ment, a time when public opinion on 
the French Revolution was ready to 
be precipitated. The liberals of the 
day scarcely finished reading Burke be- 
fore they began writing replies, and in 
the Duke collection there are no less 
than ten pamphlets against Burke 
which appeared in the eight-week 
period following publication of the 
Reflections. The conservatives, who 
had been waiting for a champion, im- 
mediately rallied to Burke's standard. 



Congratulations came from Oxford, 
where there was talk of granting Burke 
an honorary degree. George III praised 
the work, and Stanislaus of Poland 
sent felicitations and a medal. Even 
the unhappy Louis XVI is said to have 
translated the book into French. 


It is beyond the scope of this article 
to consider the content of the Reflec- 
tions. The book is a prose tapestry, 
colorful, ornate, and sumptuous — a 
work which has been reprinted every 
few years since its original publication. 
Neither is there space to examine in 
detail the hastily written answers to 
this carefully wrought literary master- 
piece. With the single exception of 
Paine's Rights of Man these replies be- 
long to the limbo of ephemeral jour- 
nalism. They are distinguished, how- 
ever, by their earnestness, and some- 
times the spur of righteous indignation 
seems to have goaded the writers into 
bursts of eloquent invective. 

With astonishing rapidity the first of 
the adversaries hastened to do battle 
with Burke. This opponent was Major 
John Scott, a member of the Revolu- 
tion Society, who also was the inept 
London agent of Warren Hastings. 
Scott finished his reply to Burke, 
which he published anonymously, five 
days after the appearance of the Re- 
flections. His hurriedly produced pam- 
phlet is, indeed, the attack of a gnat 
upon a giant. It is the sort of answer 
that the writer of a pamphlet on the 
opposite side of the controversy, 
Charles Hawtrey of Oxfordshire, must 
have had in mind when he aptly ob- 
served somewhat later that the puny 
answers to Burke's performance might 
serve to be "hung like trophies here- 
after around the tomb of Mr. Burke." 

The second opponent to enter the 
lists was Mary Wollstonecraft, later to 
become Mrs. William Godwin and the 
mother of Mary Shelley. In 1790 she 
was employed in London doing hack 
work for the publisher Johnson. She 
promptly wrote in reply to Burke a 
pamphlet called A Vindication of the 
Rights of Men. It was written, as the 
author admits, in the heat of indigna- 
tion and contains both moving argu- 
ment and hysterical invective. The 
author accuses Burke of hypocrisy, 
questions his piety, reproves his attack 
on Price, and condemns his contempt 
of the masses. With particular zeal she 
pounces on Burke's lamentation for the 
passing of chivalry and his defense of 
the queen, passages which even Burke's 
friend Francis had called "pure fop- 
pery." She taunted Burke: 

And you mourn for the idle tapestry that 
decorated a gothic pile and the dronish 
bell that summoned the fat priest to 
prayer. You mourn for the empty pageant 
of a name, when slavery flaps her wings, 
and the sick heart retires to die in lonely 
wilds, far from the abodes of man. 

This answer to Burke is at best a lit- 
erary curiosity, impassioned and some- 
times eloquent, unrevised and digres- 
sive. It is scarcely a rebuttal of the 
Reflections, although on occasion the 
author scores an effective point. 

Burke's savage attack on Price at the 
outset of the Reflections had the im- 
mediate effect of magnifying the im- 
portance of Price's sermon. Formerly 
an outspoken liberal but hardly a dan- 
gerous radical, Price became the ma- 
ligned martyr of the new era of liberty 
and brotherhood. One of the last acts 
of his life was to defend himself against 
Burke in the fourth edition of his ser- 



mon, published during the month after 
the appearance of Burke's book. In 
the preface to this edition Price justly 
reprehends Burke for the slanderous 
comparison he draws between him and 
Hugh Peters. Price also criticizes 
Burke for his zealous support of heredi- 
tary claims and aristocratical distinc- 
tions and for his abhorrence of "pop- 
ular rights and the aid of philosophy 
in forming government." On the ques- 
tion of principles established by the 
Revolution of 1688 Price again upholds 
his contention that the people's right 
to choose their own governors had 
been set at that time. 

Capel Lofft, a charter member of the 
Constitutional Society, is one of the 
more articulate of the early critics who 
hurried into print to offset the effect 
of Burke's Reflections. His answer, al- 
so published before Burke's book was 
a month old, is objective, calm, but 
hardly brilliant. He begins with a dis- 
passionate but nevertheless strongly 
affirmative answer to the question 
whether a revolution in France had 
been necessary. He bulwarks his de- 
fense of the Revolution with argu- 
ments that have a distinct Rousseauistic 

The tone of Lofft's reply, however, 
is in sharp contrast to the more usual 
indignant outburst, and one of the best 
examples of the enraged response is 
found in Reflections upon Reflections, 
the work of a Robert Woolsey, who 
begins forthrightly: "Sir, I have read 
your Reflections with concern and in- 
dignation." He accuses Burke of writ- 
ing with a soul "prejudiced in favor of 
tyranny and superstition." This pam- 
phlet still sputters with righteous wrath 
and serves to illustrate vividly the ex- 
treme partisanship with which the de- 

bate was carried on. When Woolsey 
rallies to the defense of Price, for ex- 
ample, he is unusually bitter, charging 
that the Reflections "bespatter him 
[Price] with filth." He further ad- 
dresses an indictment to Burke be- 
cause, as he says, "you censure in the 
lump and damn like the Pope, by your 
own infallibility." 

The replies to Burke which came 
from the presses by the thousands in 
the late weeks of 1790 and the early 
weeks of 1791 are too numerous to dis- 
cuss in detail. It is worth pointing out, 
however, that the answers were written 
by people in every rank and walk of 
life. The aristocracy was represented 
by Sir Brooke Boothby, while loseph 
Towers and loseph Priestley spoke for 
the clergy. The commoners in profu- 
sion replied, two of the more articulate 
being George Rous (whose reply went 
through four editions by the end of 
1791) and Benjamin Bousfield. Even 
young M. Dupont, the Frenchman to 
whom the Reflections had been origi- 
nally addressed, produced a pamphlet 
in which he declared that he was sorry 
he ever had asked for Burke's opinion 
on the Revolution. Another colorful 
character who joined the pamphlet war 
was Catharine Macaulay, heiress and 
daughter of a London merchant, who 
dabbled in writing history and flout- 
ing convention. As an old campaign- 
er, she had crossed swords with Burke 
before, and this reply is a lively farrago 
of shrewd argument and illogical de- 
duction in support of a genuine passion 
for political liberty. Her answer to 
Burke was addressed to the third Earl 
Stanhope, another extreme liberal, who 
had published a reply to Burke's Army 
Estimates Speech eight months before 
the Reflections came out. 




Paine returned to England in 1787 
after more than twelve years in Ameri- 
ca. With America's achievement of 
independence one phase of his unre- 
lenting struggle for political freedom 
had ended. When he reached Eng- 
land he visited Burke at Beaconsfield 
to enlist support for the promotion of 
an iron bridge which he had designed. 
Burke was interested, and the two men 
visited Yorkshire to obtain technical 
advice from experts in the iron foun- 
dries. At that time Paine regarded 
Burke as an unequivocal champion of 
liberty; his speech On Conciliation 
with America (1775) had given him 
the reputation of America's warmest 
friend in England. In the fall of 1789 
Paine crossed to France to see the 
French Revolution at first hand, and 
he wrote Burke early in 1790 that 
events were moving along hopefully in 
France. It was a shock to Paine to 
discover that Burke had denounced the 
Revolution in his Army Estimates 
Speech on February ninth. When the 
Reflections was subsequently announc- 
ed for publication, Paine promised his 
friends that he would write an answer. 
He was in England when Burke's pam- 
phlet appeared, and he set about reply- 
ing to it immediately, preparing his 
Rights of Man for publication in time 
for the opening of Parliament in Febru- 
ary. He engaged his friend lohnson 
to publish the book, but this publisher 
became frightened at some of the trea- 
sonable passages in the text and with- 
drew from the arrangement. Only a 
few copies of this edition found their 
way into private hands, and the Rights 
of Man, Part I, was then brought out 
on March 12, 1791, by J. S. lordan. The 
second part, which is less an answer to 

Burke than a treatise on government, 
appeared on February 17, 1792, and 
was directly responsible for a law 
against seditious publications. Jordan 
was prosecuted and Paine escaped to 
France while awaiting trial. 

With the publication of the Rights 
of Man the controversy in England 
over the French Revolution reached a 
deafening fortissimo. The supporters 
of the Revolution now had a champion 
able to meet Burke on his own ground. 
The heavy blows of Burke's eloquence 
were parried by Paine's sharp, racy 
thrusts. The Rights of Man is too well 
known and too easily accessible to need 
extensive treatment here, and it is 
enough to say that the effectiveness of 
this answer to Burke is immediately 
apparent from its tempestuous recep- 
tion, which ended in suppression and 
prosecution. The book sold rapidly, 
reaching a seventh edition by the end 
of the year. The public seemed as 
anxious to read Paine as it had been to 
read Burke. Paine's great asset was his 
remarkable ability to reduce complex 
ideas to simple terms and to nail down 
a point with a vivid epigrammatic 
summation. When Paine suggested 
that a hereditary mathematician was as 
logical as a hereditary legislator, or an- 
swered Burke's lament for the demise 
of chivalry with the retort that Burke 
"pities the plumage, but forgets the dy- 
ing bird," it was no wonder that the 
Rights of Man was regarded as a dan- 
gerous book. 

The twelve replies to Paine (Parts 
I and II) which are preserved in the 
Duke pamphlet collection were writ- 
ten with the unanimous conviction that 
the Rights of Man was a menace. Even 
Burke felt obliged to write his Appeal 
from the Near to the Old Whigs (1791) 



partly in refutation of Paine's charge 
that he was receiving a pension from 
the government. The replies to the 
Rights of Man were aptly characterized 
by Paine himself in the preface to Part 
II when he wrote: 

Not less, I believe, than eight or ten pam- 
phlets, intended as answers to the former 
part of the Rights of Man have been pub- 
lished by different persons, and not one 
of them, to my knowledge, has extended 
to a second edition, nor are the titles of 
them so much as generally remembered. 
As I am averse to unnecessarily multiply- 
ing publications, I have answered none of 

Paine's adversaries were no more a 
match for him than the other pam- 
phleteers were the equal of Burke. The 
replies to Paine are anonymous with 
the single exception of the answer by 
Charles Hawtrey, mentioned earlier, 
who dismissed the Rights of Man with 
the brave assertion that it "operates 
with just as much force against that 
admirable performance [Burke's Re- 
flections] as the pecking of a beetle 
does against a rock of adamant." This 
was not the view, however, of the 
eleven anonymous pamphleteers. A 
New Friend on an Old Subject de- 
clared that "Mr. Paine's book is per- 
haps one of the most dangerous publi- 
cations that ever appeared on any sub- 
ject; calculated to seduce the weak and 
encourage the disaffected, and express- 
ly written to destroy every existing 
sentiment of duty, affection, and re- 
spect." Another writer, who signed 
himself merely as "An Englishman," 
described the Rights of Man in this 
manner: "Mr. Paine's system is found- 
ed in deep dissimulation ... his words 
are . . . extremely smooth and oily." 

Then he concluded that no one "can 
escape the viperous stroke of his en- 
venomed pen!" And in the opinion 
of "A British Freeholder" Paine's 
"execrable puns, and impotent sallies 
of vulgar sarcasm, smell so strongly 
of the kennel, that their mere noi- 
someness is offensive." In all the replies 
to the Rights of Man there is a com- 
mon failing: invective substitutes for 
argument and emotion takes the place 
of reason. 

With the single exception noted ear- 
lier this pamphlet collection ends with 
a solitary and ineffectual reply to the 
Rights of Man, Part II. On May 14, 
1792, the government took action 
against Paine's publisher Jordan, and 
soon afterwards it followed with the 
decree suppressing seditious publica- 
tions and the institution of criminal 
proceedings against Paine. More and 
more violence in France, culminating 
in the execution of the King, alienated 
British liberals who had at first sup- 
ported the Revolution. Moreover, a 
decree of the French National Conven- 
tion in December, 1792, announced the 
determination of the French to carry 
their Revolution to the oppressed of all 
Europe. Soon the French Revolution- 
ary Wars were in full progress, and the 
die-hard supporters of the French Rev- 
olution in England were partially 

The foregoing pages have attempted 
only a brief study of the more interest- 
ing; portions of this excellent collection 
of eighteenth-century pamphlets. A 
detailed study of the fifty-four items in 
the group carries with it a peculiar 
satisfaction. From no second-hand 
source can one get the same feeling of 
being at the ring-side of one of the 



great events of history that is com- 
municated by these pamphlets. They 
are the record of a period of great polit- 
ical and social upheaval, when govern- 
ment was slowly becoming the con- 
cern of the masses. From every page 
leaps the expression of strong emotion 
— the brusque and vigorous articula- 
tion of the new political consciousness 
and the profound and forlorn dismay 
of the old order of rank and privilege. 
The reader of these documents has a 
very real sense of participating in the 
intellectual ferment of that stirring era, 
the age of the French Revolution. 

the French. London: J. Ridgway, 1791. 
VI, 1. 

Lettre d'un Democrate, Partisan 

The collection described above con- 
tains the following items. Roman and 
arabic numerals after each entry refer 
to position in the several volumes. 

Background and Collateral Material 
Address of the National Assembly of 
France to the People; Shewing What 
they have already done, What they far- 
ther intend, And Answering their Cal- 
umniators. With an Appendix. . . . 
London: J. Ridgway, 1790. IV, 7. 
Anonymous. Free Thoughts on Liberty, 
and the Revolution in Prance. By the 
Author of a Letter to Earl Stanhope on 
the Test. Oxford: J. Fletcher, 1790. I, 
4. (Also antedates the Reflections and 
in preface urges Stanhope to abandon 

An Impartial History of the hate 

Revolution in Prance, from Its Com- 
mencement, to the Death of the Queen, 
and the Execution of the Deputies of 
the Gironde Party. London : Printed for 
the authors, 1794. XII, 1. 

King or No King: or, Thoughts 

on the Escape of Lewis XVI. and on 
Kingly Office, in a Letter Addressed to 
the Society of 1789. Translated from 

de la Revolution, aux Aristo-T heocrates 
Francais. Septieme Edition. Orleans: 
Chez Jacob aine; London: Reprinted for 
Stace and Maids, 1791. VII, 7. 

[Burke, Edmund] An Appeal from the 
New to the Old Whigs, in Consequence 
of Some Late Discussions in Parliament, 
Relative to the Reflections on the French 
Revolution. London: J. Dodsley, 1791. 
II, 1. 

Reflections on the Revolution in 

France, and on the Proceedings in Cer- 
tain Societies in London Relative to 
That Event. London: J. Dodsley, 1790. 


Nares, Rfobert]. Principles of Govern- 
ment Deduced from Reason, Supported 
by English Experience, and Opposed to 
French Errors. London: John Stockdale, 
1792, VI, 3. (Parallels Burke's Reflec- 

Price, Richard. A Discourse on the Love 
of Our Country. . . . London: Printed 
by G. Stafford for T. Cadell, 1789. I, 1. 
(With an appendix containing material 
pertinent to the business of the Revolu- 
tion Society.) 

Raynal [Guillaume Thomas], Abbe. A 
Letter from the Abbe Raynal to the 
National Assembly of France, on the 
Subject of the Revolution, and the Phil- 
osophical Principles Which Led to It 

To Which is Added, The Declaration of 
the Chevalier Bintinaye. . . . London: 
G. G. J. & J. Robinson, 1791. VII, 8. 
(With original French text.) 

Sieves [Emmanuel Joseph], Abbe. An 
Essay on Privileges, and Particularly on 
Hereditary Nobility. . . . Translated into 
English, with Notes, by a Foreign 
Nobleman, now in England. London: 
J. Ridgway, 1791. VI, 2. 



Pamphlets Attacking and Defending 

Anonymous. An Address to the National 
Assembly of France; Containing Stric- 
tures on Mr. Burke's Reflections on the 
Revolution in France. Cambridge : Print- 
ed by J. Archdeacon and sold by W. H. 
Lunn, 1 791. VII, 4. 

Comparison of the Opinions of 

Mr. Bur\e and Mons. Rousseau, on 
Government Reform, and Strictures on 
the Answers to Mr. Bur\e. London :C. 
Lowndes, 1791. V, 2. 

A Letter to a Member of the Na- 

tional Assembly: Containing Remarks 
on the Proceedings of That Legislative 
Body; Strictures on the Political Doc- 
trines of Mr. Bur\e and Mr. Paine 

London: J. S. Jordan, 1791. II, 2. (Only 
mildly critical of Paine.) 

A Letter to the Right Hon. Ed- 

mund Bur\e, Esq. from a Dissenting 
Country Attorney; In Defence of His 
Civil Profession, and Religious Dissent. 
Birmingham: Printed by J. Thompson 
and sold by J. Johnson, London, 1791. 

V, 4. 
The Political Crisis: or, A Disserta- 

tion on the Rights of Man. London: 
J. S. Jordan, 1791. II, 5. (Less an attack 
on Burke than on another opponent of 
the Revolution, Edward Tatham.) 

Short Observations on the Right 

Hon. Edmund Bur\e's Reflections. Lon- 
don: G. Kearsley, 1790. IV, 1. 

Strictures on the Letter of the 

Right Hon. Edmund Bur\e, on the Rev- 
olution in France. . . . London : J. John- 
son, 1 791. VII, 2. 

Temperate Comments upon In- 

temperate Reflections: or, A Review of 
Mr. Burke's Letter. London: J. Walter, 
1791. 111,3. 

A Vindication of the Right Hon- 

orable Edmund Burke's Reflections. 

London: J. Debrett, 1791. V, 1. (Re- 
plies to each of ten attacks on Burke ap- 
pearing between November, 1790, and 
January, 1791.) 

Belsham, Wfilliam], Examination of An 
Appeal from the New to the Old 
Whigs; To Which Is Prefixed, An In- 
troduction Containing Remarks on Mr. 
Burke's Letter to a Member of the Na- 
tional Assembly. London: C. Dilly, 
1792. X, 1. 

[Boothby, Sir Brooke] A Letter to the 
Right Honorable Edmund Bur\e. Lon- 
don: J. Debrett, 1791. Ill, 4. 

Bousfield, Benjamin. Observations on the 
Right Hon. Edmund Bur\e's Pamphlet, 
on the Subject of the French Revolu- 
tion. Dublin: Printed; London: Re- 
printed for J. Johnson, 1791. V, 5. 

Christie, Thomas. Letters on the Revo- 
lution of France, and on the New Con- 
stitution Established by the National As- 
sembly: Occasioned by the Publications 
of the Right Hon. Edmund Bur\e, M. 
P. and Alexander de Calonne, Late Min- 
ister of State. . . . To Which Is Added, 
an Appendix, Containing Original Pa- 
pers and Authentic Documents Relative 
to the Affairs of France. Addressed to 
Sir John Sinclair, Bart. M. P. Part I. 
London: J. Johnson, 1791. VIII, 1. 

Dupont [J. L.]. Answer to the Reflec- 
tions of the Right Hon. Edmund Bur\e. 
With the Original Notes. London: J. 
Debrett, 1791. VII, 3. 

Flower, Benjamin. The French Constitu- 
tion. . . . London: G. G. J. & J. Robin- 
son, 1792. XI, 1. (A 501-page com- 
mentary on the French Constitution; 
pp. 477-501 are devoted mainly to attack 
on Burke.) 

Hamilton, James Edward. Reflections on 
the Revolution in France, by the Right 
Honorable Edmund Bur\e, Considered; 
Also, Observations on Mr. Paine 's Pam- 



phlet. . . . London: J. Johnson, 1791. 
VII, 1. (Burke and Paine viewed in 
light of Aristotle's Politics. Mostly pro- 
Burke with few animadversions on 

Lofft, Capel. Remarks on the Letter of 
the Rt. Hon. Edmund Bur\e, Concern- 
ing the Revolution in France. . . . Lon- 
don: J. Johnson, 1790. IV, 6. 

[Macaulay, Catharine] Observations on 
the Reflections of the Right Hon. Ed- 
mund Bur\e, on the Revolution in 
France, In a Letter to the Right Hon. 
the Earl of Stanhope. London : C. Dilly, 
1790. IV, 4. 

Paine, Thomas. Rights of Man: Being an 
Answer to Mr. Bur\e's Attac\ on the 
French Revolution. London: J. Johnson, 

I79 1 - v > 3- 

Rights of Man. Part the Second. 

Combining Principle and Practice. Third 
Edition. London: J. S. Jordan, 1792. 
X, 4 - 

Pigott, Charles. Strictures on the New 
Political Tenets of the Rt. Hon. Ed- 
mund Bur\e. . . . London: J. Ridgway, 
1791. IX, 3. 

Price, Richard. A Discourse on the Love 
of Our Country. . . . Fourth Edition. 
London: Printed by G. Stafford for T. 
Cadell, 1790. I, 2. (With preface and 
expanded appendix.) 

Rosibonne, M. Letter to the Right Hon- 
orable Edmund Bur\e. London: J. Ridg- 
way, n. d. Ill, 2. (A disillusioned 
French revolutionary praises Burke.) 

Rous, George. A Letter to the Right Hon- 
orable Edmund Bur\e . . . in Reply to 
His Appeal from the New to the Old 
Whigs. London: J. Debrett [1791]. X, 

[ ] Thoughts on Government: Oc- 
casioned by Mr. Bur\e's Reflections, 
&c. in a Letter to a Friend. London: 
J. Debrett, 1790. IV, 3. 

Scott [John]. A Letter from Major Scott 
to the Right Honorable Edmund Bur\e. 
London: John Stockdale, 1791. X, 2. 

[ ] A Letter to the Right Hon. Ed- 
mund Bur\e, In Reply to his "Reflec- 
tions on the Revolution in France, &c." 
By a Member of the Revolution Society. 
London: John Stockdale, 1790. IV, 5. 

Towers, Joseph. Thoughts on the Com- 
mencement of a New Parliament. With 
an Appendix Containing Remarks on 
the Letter of the Right Hon. Edmund 
Bur\e, on the Revolution in France. 
London: C. Dilly, 1790. Ill, 1. 

Tracy [Antoine Louis Claude Destutt, 
Count de]. Translation of a Letter 
from Monsieur de Tracy, Member of 
the French National Assembly, to Mr. 
Bur\e, In Answer to his Remarks on 
the French Revolution. London: J. 
Johnson, 1790. I, 3. (Antedates the Re- 
flections and is answer to Burke's speech 
of Feb. 9, 1790.) 

[Wollstonecraft, Mary] A Vindication of 
the Rights of Men. . . . London: J. 
Johnson, 1790. IV, 2. 

Woolsey, Robert. Reflections upon Re- 
flections. . . . In Two Letters, to the 
Right Hon. Edmund Bur\e, In answer 
to his Pamphlet. London : Printed by J. 
Colerick and sold by W. Stewart, 1790. 
HI, 5. 

Pamphlets Attacking Paine 

Anonymous. A British Freeholder's Ad- 
dress to His Countrymen, on Thomas 
Paine' s Rights of Man. London: B. 
White, 1 791. II, 6. 

Defence of the Rights of Man. . . . 

London: T. Evans, 1791. II, 4. (An 
attack on the Rights of Man using 
Paine's own technique of reducing argu- 
ments to absurdities.) 

Definition of a Constitution. By 

Thomas Paine. London: J. Debrett, 1791. 
IX, 4. 



Letters to Thomas Payne, in An- 
swer to His Late Publication on the 
Rights of Man. By a Member of the 
University of Cambridge. London: J. 
Pridden [1791]. VII, 6. (Fifteen let- 
Letters to Thomas Paine; In An- 

swer to His Late Publication on The 
Rights of Man. . . . Second Edition. 
London: W. Miller, 1791. VII, 5. (Con- 
sists of three letters.) 

A Letter to Mr. Pain [sic], on His 

Late Publication. London: John Stock- 
dale, 1792. X, 5. (Answer to Part II 
of Rights of Man.) 

A New Friend on an Old Subject. 

London: J. F. and C. Rivington, 1791. 
IX, 1. 

Notes upon Paine 's Rights of Man. 

"Foreigners That May Interfere, and 
Foreigners That May Not Interfere," 
"The Conspiracy of the Aristocrats Laid 
Open," "The No Plot of the Democra- 
cy," "Monarchy, or Mob-Archy," "Rights 
upon Rights with Observations upon 

Observations." London: J. Debrett, 1791. 
IX, 5. 

A Rejoinder to Mr. Paine' s Pam- 
phlet, Entitled, Rights of Man. ... By 
an Englishman. London: C. and G. 
Kearsley [1791]. II, 3. (The sub-title, 
An Answer to Mr. Burke's Attac\ on 
the French Revolution, is misleading: 
the exceptions to Burke are slight.) 
Rights of Citizens; Being an In- 

quiry into Some of the Consequences 
of Social Union, and an Examination 
of Mr. Paine' s Principles Touching Gov- 
ernment*. London: J. Debrett [1791]. 
VI, 4. 

Slight Observations, upon Paine's 

Pamphlet. . . . In Three Letters, from a 
Gentleman in London, to a Friend in 
the Country. London: H. Reynell, 1791. 
II, 7. 
Hawtrey, Charles. Various Opinions of 
the Philosophical Reformers Considered; 
Particularly Pain's [sic] Rights of Man. 
London: John Stockdale, 1792. IX, 2. 


THE gifts of books received by the 
library during the first half of 
1948 are, as is usual, widely varied in 
subject matter. One of the most out- 
standing items in the array was pur- 
chased with funds contributed by the 
Friends of the Library: it is a sixteenth- 
century edition of the Dance of Death, 
Simolachri, historie, e figure de la 
morte (Lyons, 1549) with the famous 
wood-engravings of Holbein; this copy 
is interleaved and on the blank leaves 
are mounted the designs of Wenceslaus 
Hollar, after Holbein. Another valu- 
able acquisition, a Greek liturgical 
scroll of the Byzantine empire, was ac- 
quired for the library by Mr. and Mrs. 
James Paton, Jr. 

A number of gifts were received in 
the fields of history and the social 
sciences, many relating to contempor- 
ary affairs. Pamphlets, periodicals, and 
documents relating to wartime and 
post-war Germany were received from 
Mr. David L. Cozart, Jr., and Mr. Wil- 
lis G. Smith. Professor Paul H. Clyde 
donated numerous pieces relating to 
Japan, and Mr. James Mullen eighty 
leaflets distributed by the Allied forces 
in the European theatre. Professor 
Frank T. de Vyver has contributed 
numerous documents relating to Amer- 
ican labor relations and the War Labor 
Board. Large gifts of books, pam- 
phlets, and current periodicals in vari- 
ous fields have come from Professor 
and Mrs. H. C. Horack, Professor E. T. 
Thompson, Mrs. J. A. Robertson, Mr. 
J. L. Williams, and Dr. C. Sylvester 

In the field of religion, books and 
pamphlets on Mormonism were con- 
tributed by Mr. and Mrs. George A. 
Smith of Salt Lake City and by the 
Rev. Mr. Ehlhardt. Mr. and Mrs. B. L. 

Dicks and Miss Corinne Robinson also 
made valued contributions on religious 
subjects. Over one hundred volumes 
in the field of education were received 
from Dr. J. Henry Highsmith; and 
Dr. Frank G. Hall presented a number 
of titles in zoology, psychology, and 
related subjects. 

In literature and the fine arts, gifts 
have come from Mr. Arthur Pforz- 
heimer, Professor and Mrs. J. B. Hub- 
bell, Dr. and Mrs. G. S. Eadie, Mr. J. 
Welch Harriss, Professor Louise Hall, 
and Professor Frances Brown. In re- 
sponse to our desiderata list, Lady 
Mander kindly sent from England the 
first of the "Hogarth Letters," E. M. 
Forster's A Letter to Madam Blanch- 
ard. Mr. Webb Garrison of Cameron, 
South Carolina, continues his gener- 
osity to the library, his recent contribu- 
tions including Brewer's Character 
Sketches of Romance, Fiction and the 
Drama (New York, 1892, 4 vols.). 

Monetary gifts have been received 
from Mr. and Mrs. James Paton, Jr., 
Professor F. T. de Vyver, Mr. and Mrs. 
Harry L. Dalton, Mr. James H. Hyde, 
Miss Mary J. Kennedy, Mrs. Lucille 
K. Boyden, and Mrs. Ida D. Neuhoff. 
Mr. James Thornton Gittman has con- 
tributed largely to the cost of the book- 
plate lately designed by Miss Clare 
Leighton for the Bellamann Dante 

F. D. R. et al. 

THE Duke University Library has 
long been indebted to Dr. and 
Mrs. Josiah C. Trent, not only for their 
many gifts, but also for their abiding 
interest in the library's affairs. The 
sum of this indebtedness has lately 
been substantially increased by their 



gift of a Franklin Delano Roosevelt 
collection. On deposit in the library 
for some time, this collection consists 
of more than eighty pieces, including 
books and pamphlets by or about 
Roosevelt, pictures, recordings, a letter 
signed by Roosevelt, and some stamps 
from his collection. Whatever one's 
attitude toward the late President — and 
it is a tribute to the force of the man 
that the sound of his name still arouses 
people to bitter controversy — one can- 
not deny that he was one of the out- 
standing men of this century and that 
a collection of his writings and of 
books about him is a most desirable 
addition to our library. 

Dr. and Mrs. Trent have recently 
made other gifts in the field of litera- 
ture, including two additions to the 
John Steinbeck collection which they 
presented to the library some years 
ago. A gift of particular interest is 
Major Robert Rogers' Concise Account 
of North America (London, 1765). 
Major Rogers deals briefly with each 
of the colonies, not excluding North 

Carolina, of which he remarks, in part: 

About an hundred miles [from the sea] 
the land rises gradually to the Appala- 
chian mountains, where the soil in some 
places is very good, and produces plenty 
of wheat and other grain; the timber be- 
ing oak, intermixed with pine; they also 
here raise hemp and flax, and have some 
fruit. In this part of the province is plenty 
of wild game, especially deer; and the 
number of their catde and swine is very 
great; some single planters owning a 
thousand head of horned catde, which run 
in the woods all the year round, the calves 
being marked in the spring, that each may 
know his own. . . . 

The greatest number of inhabitants is 
in this westerly part of the province, as 
the soil here is the most fruitful and plea- 
sant. The air here is agreeable enough in 
winter, but very hot in summer; and the 
inhabitants are very subject to agues, 
fevers, cholicks, &c. 

The religious persuasions in this prov- 
ince are some of the Episcopalians; but a 
much greater number of the various sects 
of Dissenters. 


The following list of desiderata re- 
quires no lengthy preface. The authors 
— American novelists of the nineteenth 
and twentieth centuries — are familiar 
to us all. Some of them remain in 
high repute; others have fallen con- 
siderably in the graces of the Ameri- 
can public. The library now possesses 
many of their works and will be most 
grateful for assistance by its friends 
in the acquisition of the missing titles 
listed here. 

Donn Byrne 
Blind Raftery and his wife Hilaria. 

New York [1924]. 
Changeling and other stories. New 

York [1923]. 
Collected poems. London, 1934. 
Crusade. Boston, 1928. 
A daughter of the Medici. London 


Destiny bay. Boston, 1928. 

Field of honor. New York [1929]. 
The foolish matrons. New York [1920]. 
Hangman's house. New York [1926]. 
The hound of Ireland. New York, 

The island of youth and other stories. 

London [1932]. 
O'Malley of Shanganagh. New York 

A party of baccarat. New York [1930]. 
Stories without women (and a few with 

women). New York, 1915. 
The strangers' banquet. New York 

The wind bloweth. New York, 1922. 
A woman of the Shee. New York 
l>93 2 ]- 
James T. Farrell 
Calico shoes and other stories. New York 


Can all this grandeur perish? New York 


Guillotine party and other stories. New 
York [1935]. 

William Faulkner 
Idyll in the desert. New York, 1931. 
The marble faun. Boston [1924]. 

F. Scott Fitzgerald 
All the sad young men. New York, 

John Jackson's Arcady. Boston, 1928. 
Tender is the night. New York, 1934. 

Hamlin Garland 
A pioneer mother. Chicago, 1922. 
Under the wheel: a modern play in six 
scenes. Boston, 1890. 

Ellen Glasgow 
The freeman and other poems. New 
York, 1902. 

Julian Hawthorne 

Another's crime. New York, 1888. 

Archibald Malmaison. New York, 1878. 

Bliss Carman, 1861-1929. Palo Alto, 

!9 2 9- 
David Poindexter's disappearance and 

other tales. New York, 1888. 

A dream and a forgetting. Chicago and 
New York [1888]. 

Fool of nature. New York, 1896. 

Garth. New York, 1877. 

The great ban\ robbery. New York 

Hawthorne reading; an essay. Cleve- 
land, 1902. 

Humors of the fair. Chicago, 1893. 

Idolatry. Boston, 1874. 

John Parmlee's curse. New York [1886]. 

The laughing mill and other stories. 
London, 1879. 

Love is a spirit.. New York, 1896. 

Mrs. Gainsborough's diamonds. New 
York, 1878. 



Noble blood. New York, 1885. 

One of those coincidences and other 
stories. New York and London, 1899. 

Pauline.. New York [1890]. 

The professor's sister. New York [1883]. 

Sebastian Strome. New York, 1879. 

Section 558; or, The fatal letter. New 
York [1888]. 

Solomon, Columbus, Rhodes and com- 
pany, n. p., 1909. 

Spanish America, from the earliest peri- 
od to the present time. New York, 

A tragic mystery. New York [1887]. 

The trial of Gideon and Countess Al- 
mara's murder. New York, 1886. 

Henry William Herbert (Frank For- 

The brothers.. New York, 1835. 2 vols. 
The captains of the Roman republic. 

New York, 1854. 
The cavaliers of England. New York, 

The chevaliers of France. New York, 

The complete manual for young sports- 
men. New York, 1856: 
Dermot O'Brien. New York, 1849. 
Fran\ Forester and his friends. London, 

Guarica: the Carib bride. Philadelphia, 

lngleborough Hall and The lord of the 

manor. New York, 1847. 
The innocent witch: a continuation of 

Ruth Whalley. Boston, 1845. 
Isabel Graham. New York, 1848. 
Marmadu\e Wyvil. New York [1843]. 
The miller of Martigne. New York 

Pierre the partisan. New York, 1848. 
Poems of "Fran\ Forester!' New York, 

The revolt of Boston: a continuation of 

Ruth Whalley. Boston, 1845. 

Ringwood the rover. Philadelphia, 1843. 

The Roman traitor. New York and Bal- 
timore, 1846. 2 vols. 

Ruth Whalley; or, The fair Puritan. 
Boston, 1844. 

The village inn. New York, 1843. 

Wager of battle. New York, 1855. 

Emerson Hough 

Getting a wrong start. New York, 1915. 
Maw's vacation. St. Paul, 1921. 
Out of doors. New York, 1915. 
The sowing. Chicago, 1909. 
The story of the cowboy. New York, 

William Dean Howells 

Bride roses. Boston, 1900. 

Eighty years and after. [New York] 

Niagara revisited. Chicago, 1884. 

Stories of Ohio. New York, 1897. 
Will James 

All in the day's riding. New York, 1933. 

Big-enough. New York, 1931. 

Cow country. New York, 1927. 

Cowboys north and south. New York, 

The dar\ horse. New York, 1939. 

The drifting cowboy. New York. 1925. 

Flint spears. New York, 1938. 

Home ranch. New York, 1935. 

Lone cowboy. New York, 1930. 

Sand.. New York, 1929. 

Scorpion. New York, 1936. 

Sun up. New York, 1931. 

The three mustangeers.. New York, 

Uncle Bill. New York, 1932. 

Thomas A. Janvier 

The Christmas Kalends of Provence. 

New York, 1902. 

An embassy to Provence. New York, 

From the south of France. New York, 




In the Sargasso Sea. New York, 1898. 
Legends of the City of Mexico. New 

I York, 1910. 
The women's conquest. New York, 

J 953 8 94]- 
Ring Lardner 

Bib ballads. Chicago [1915]. 
The big town. Indianapolis [1921]. 
Lose with a smile. New York, 1933. 
My four wee\s in France. Indianapolis 

Own your own home. Indianapolis 

The real dope. Indianapolis [1919]. 
Regular fellows I have met. Chicago, 

You know me AL. New York [1916]. 
Jack London 

The acorn-planter. New York, 1916. 
Theft. New York, 1910. 
George Barr McCutcheon 
Black is white. New York, 1914. 
Boo\s once were men. New York, 193 1. 
The light that lies. New York, 1916. 
William McFee 
Born to be hanged. Gaylordsville, 1930. 
The gates of the Caribbean, n. p., 1922. 
Letters from an ocean tramp. London, 

An ocean tramp. Garden City, N. Y., 

A Port Said miscellany. Boston [1918]. 
The reflections of Marsyas. Gaylords- 
ville, 1933. 
Sailor's bane. Philadelphia, 1936. 
Sailor's wisdom. London [1935]. 
A six-hour shift. Garden City, N. Y., 

Swallowing the anchor. Garden City, 

N. Y., 1925. 
Silas Weir Mitchell 

The children's hour. Philadelphia, 1864. 
A diplomatic adventure. New York, 


The guillotine club and other stories. 
New York, 1910. 

Little stories. New York, 1903. 

A Madeira party. New York, 1895. 

Pearl. New York, 1906. 

A venture in 1777. Philadelphia [1908]. 

A catalogue of the scientific and literary 
wor\ of S. Weir Mitchell. [Philadel- 
phia, 1894]. 

Robert Nathan 
Autumn. New York, 1921. 
A cedar box. Indianapolis [1929]. 
The concert. New York, 1940. 
Jonah. New York, 1925. 
Peter Kindred. New York, 1919. 
The puppet master. New York, 1923. 
Selected poems. New York, 1935. 
Youth grows old. New York, 1922. 

Booth Tarkington 
Bimbo, the pirate. New York, 1926. 
The collector's whatnot. Boston, 1923. 
The ghost story. Cincinnati [1922]. 
The guardian. New York, 1907. 
The help each other club. New York, 


How's your health? New York, 1930. 

The intimate strangers. New York, 

Little Or vie. Garden City, N. Y., 1934. 
Mr. Antonio: a comedy in four acts. 

New York, 1935. 
Penrod and Sam. Garden City, N. Y., 

Station YYYY. New York, 1927. 
The travelers. New York, 1927. 
The try sting place. Cincinnati [1923]. 
The wren. New York, 1922. 

Maurice Thompson 

A banker of Banker sville. New York 

Lincoln's grave. Cambridge and Chica- 
go, 1894. 

A red-headed family. New York [1885]. 



Sweetheart Manette. Philadelphia [1894]. 
Sylvan secrets. New York, 1887. 

John Townsend Trowbridge 

The adventures of David Vane and 
David Crane. Boston [1889]. 

Biding his time. Boston [1880]. 

Bound in honor. Boston, 1878. 

Burrcliff. Boston, 1854. 

A chance for himself. Boston, 1872. 

Coupon bonds. Boston, 1866. 

Cud jo's cave. Boston, 1864. 

The deserted family. Boston, i856[?]. 

Doing his best. Boston, 1873. 

Father Brighthopes. Boston, 1853. 

His own master. Boston, 1878. 

A home idyll and other poems. Boston, 

Ironthorpe: the pioneer preacher. Bos- 
ton, 1855. 

]ac\ Hazard and his fortunes. Boston, 

The \elp-gatherers. Boston, 1891. 

Lawrence's adventures. Boston, 1871. 

The little master. Boston, 1887. 

The lost earl and other poems. Boston 

The lottery ticket. Boston, 1896. 

The old battle-ground. New York, i860. 

Poetical wor\s. Boston, 1903. 

The prize cup. New York, 1896. 

A question of damages. Boston, 1897. 

The rebel. Boston, 1864. 

The vagabonds and other poems. Bos- 
ton, 1869. 

The young surveyor. Boston, 1875. 

Owen Wister 

The dragon of Wantley. Philadelphia, 

Indispensable information for infants. 
New York, 1921. 

The fimmyjohn boss. New York, 1900. 

The new Swiss family Robinson. Cam- 
bridge, 1882. 



THE annual dinner meeting of 
the Friends of the Library was 
held on the evening of 26 February in 
the Union Ballroom. About one hun- 
dred and fifty members were present. 
Professor Newman I. White presided 
over the meeting, which was opened 
by an invocation pronounced by the 
Rev. Mr. Ehlhardt. 

At the conclusion of the dinner, Pro- 
fessor White introduced Dr. B. E. Pow- 
ell, University Librarian, who spoke 
briefly on gifts received by the library 
during the past year and on the addi- 
tion to the library building under con- 
struction. He mentioned a few of the 
many services by which friends could 
assist the library and asked those pres- 
ent to lend their aid in extending the 
membership of the organization of 

Professor C. S. Sydnor then intro- 
duced the speaker of the evening, Dr. 
William Warren Sweet, Professor of 
the History of American Christianity 
at the University of Chicago. Dr. 
Sweet's address, entitled "A Neglected 
Phase in American History," dealt with 
the development of the field of church 
history in American universities. With 
many an enjoyable anecdote he told 
how he was summoned to take the first 
professorship of American religious 
history at the University of Chicago. 
He described the work of other schol- 
ars in the field at that time and pointed 
out the subsequent accomplishments of 
their students and his own in earning 
acceptance for their subject among the 
proponents of more firmly established 
forms of historical study. 

Professor White expressed to Dr. 
Sweet the thanks of the company for 
his interesting talk and pronounced the 
meeting adjourned. Many of the guests 
then visited an exhibition, displayed in 
an adjoining room, which consisted of 
notable gifts presented to the library 
during 1947. 


THE second annual Friends of the 
Library contest for student book- 
collectors was carried on during April. 
Five undergraduate students entered 
the competition: Miss Rebecca Burrum, 
'50, Mr. Robert D. Loomis, '49, Mr. 
Thomas K. Bullock, '48, Mr. Colbert 
Smith, '49, Mr. Fred R. Wagner, '48. 
Three of the collections were literary 
in character: Mr. Loomis submitted 
books in the field of contemporary lit- 
erature; Mr. Smith's subject was the 
novel, and Mr. Wagner's drama and 
the modern theater. Mr. Bullock, win- 
ner of the contest, submitted an excel- 
lent collection on the early history of 
the United States. 

After the collections had been dis- 
played for some time in the University 
Library, the judges — Professor Lewis 
Patton, Professor Paul H. Clyde, and 
Miss Ellen Frey (acting for Mrs. Josiah 
C. Trent) — interviewed the contestants 
on 20 April. On 29 April a meeting of 
the collectors was held, at which Dr. 
B. E. Powell presented the men's award 
to Mr. Bullock; Mr. Wagner received 
honorable mention. The women's prize 
was not awarded this year. 

At this meeting Professor Patton 
spoke briefly on the subject of book- 
collecting, making a number of useful 
suggestions. He remarked on the need 
for a well-stocked secondhand book- 



store near the campus, where faculty 
and students alike would find a stimu- 
lus to more active collecting. Miss Ger- 
trude Merritt also addressed the stu- 
dents, offering them the assistance of 
the library's order section and distrib- 
uting to them copies of a list of second- 
hand book dealers in general and spe- 
cial fields. 

Two other meetings of the book-col- 
lectors were held during the spring. 
On 16 March Professor A. B. Ferguson 
addressed the group on the subject of 
bookbinding, describing the various 
techniques of hand-binding and the 
myriad agonizing problems which be- 
set the beginner. He displayed several 
examples of his own fine work and a 
few of the basic tools of the binder. 
On 3 May several members of the 
group went to Chapel Hill where Pro- 
fessor Raymond Adams courteously 
displayed to them his extensive collec- 
tion of the writings of Henry David 


DURING the spring the library 
has held several interesting ex- 
hibitions. The February display was 
drawn from the library's growing col- 
lection of Renaissance emblem books 
and iconologies. Professor Allan H. 
Gilbert made several of his own fine 
emblem books available for this ex- 
hibit. He also lent valuable items, as 
did Dean Roberta Brinkley, for an ex- 
hibition of early editions of Dante, 
Ariosto, Milton, and Warner, shown in 
the Woman's College Library during 
the Renaissance meeting early in 

During March a large collection of 
knives, gathered throughout the world, 
was lent to the library by Professor 

Weston LaBarre. Specimens of mod- 
ern military knives appeared side by 
side with a Renaissance dagger, in- 
tricate Chinese pocket knives, primi- 
tive South American and African wea- 
pons, and the ornate knives of Sing- 
halese noblemen. During this month, 
also, photographs of historic New 
England scenes made by the Maynard 
Workshop of Waban, Massachusetts, 
were displayed in the Rare Book Room. 
April saw exhibitions of materials on 
the World Federalist movement and of 
the collections submitted in the con- 
test for student book-collectors. 

In May an exhibition from the Gus- 
tave Lanson collection, acquired by 
Duke in 1927, was placed on display. 
With the limited space at hand, we 
could not hope to show the full scope 
of this great collection, which was 
planned to include the writings of all 
important French authors from the 
fifteenth to the twentieth centuries, to- 
gether with the most useful critical 
works upon them. Emphasis in the 
exhibition was therefore placed on the 
eighteenth century, Lanson's own prin- 
cipal field of interest, and many valu- 
able books of this period were shown, 
including first and early editions of 
Rousseau, Voltaire, and Montesquieu. 
Earlier and later periods of French lit- 
erature were also touched on, the nine- 
teenth and twentieth centuries being 
represented by a group of volumes in- 
scribed to Lanson by the authors, 
among them Duhamel, Maeterlinck, 
Valery, Rolland, Coppee, and Romains. 
A number of Lanson's own publica- 
tions were included to show the rela- 
tionship between the scholar's writings 
and his splendid library. 

Future exhibitions will include a dis- 
play of Utopian literature, under the 



sponsorship of Professor Negley, a Life 
magazine atomic energy exhibit in Oc- 
tober, and "The Fifty Books of the 
Year 1948" in March. 


FOR some years Library Notes has 
carried no mention of outstanding 
books acquired by the library, and it 
is high time to review briefly the not- 
able items added to the collection dur- 
ing this time. 

The classics may lead the way. 
Numerous Aldine and Elzevier edi- 
tions have been acquired, of such 
authors as Lucretius, Caesar, Livy, Sal- 
lust, Herodotus, Terence, Tacitus, and 
Virgil. Of Seneca we have acquired 
the Tragoedice (Amsterdam, Pluymer, 
1662) and Lodge's translation of the 
Worses (London, 1614), of Homer the 
Foulis Press edition (Glasgow, 1756- 
1758, 2 vols.). Ovid is represented by 
two Elzeviers — Opera (1629) and 
Operum editio nova (1659-1661, 3 
vols.) — and by two English transla- 
tions of the seventeenth century. Of 
Cicero, acquisitions include the Ant- 
werp, 1586, edition of De oficiis, the 
Elzevier Opera in nine volumes (Ley- 
den, 1642), and Epistola ad T. Pomp. 
Atticum, ad M. Brutum . . . (Paris 
[1531] ). On Roman topography and 
antiquities two recent purchases are 
worthy of note: Calvi's Antiqua urbis 
Romae cum regionibus simulachrum 
(Rome, 1532) and the Topographia 
antiques Roma (Lyons, 1534) of Mar- 

In later European literature impor- 
tant acquisitions include several addi- 
tions to the Dante collection — L'am- 
oroso convivio (Venice, 1531) and the 
Venice 1493 and 1507 editions of the 
Divina Commedia, as well as the None- 

such Press edition (London, 1928). 
Two sixteenth-century editions of Or- 
lando Furioso have been added and 
also Ariosto's Cinque canti di un nuovo 
libro (Florence, 1546). The library's 
collection of Italian literature has been 
greatly augmented lately by the pur- 
chase of the library of the scholar Gui- 
do Manzoni of Florence, an acquisi- 
tion which will be described more fully 
in a future number of Library Notes. 
The collection of emblem literature 
has been increased to more than a hun- 
dred titles. Two interesting volumes 
on witchcraft have been purchased, 
Guazzo's Compendium Maleficarum 
(Milan, 1626) and the Malleus Malefi- 
carum (Nuremburg, 1519) of Henricus 

In English literature many valuable 
items have been acquired. The first 
collected edition of the works of Sir 
Thomas More (Basel, 1563) is present 
in a fine copy. For the seventeenth 
century, acquisitions include first edi- 
tions of Dryden and Donne, Suckling's 
Wor\s (1696), Lovelace's Lucasta 
(1659), Hobbes' Leviathan (1651). 
Notable additions to the eighteenth- 
century collection are the Strawberry 
Hill printing of Gray's Odes (1757) 
and original numbers I-DLV of The 
Spectator. A number of items have 
been added to the Byron and Coleridge 
collections, including the Kelmscott 
Coleridge (1896). A manuscript of 
Rossetti's "The White Ship," recently 
purchased, is described by Professor 
Baum elsewhere in this issue. In Amer- 
ican literature we may mention the 
purchase of the Ernest R. Eaton collec- 
tion of William Cullen Bryant ; several 
of the compilations of Henry S. 
Saunders of Toronto have been added 
to the Whitman collection. 



In American history the most out- 
standing acquisitions are the large 
numbers of books and manuscripts ac- 
quired yearly through the Flowers Col- 
lection fund. Manuscript collections 
of interest include the papers (1799- 
1934) of Robert Leslie, tobacconist, 
which deal with many phases of the 
tobacco industry, and the letters and 
papers of James H. Whitty of Rich- 
mond, a Poe scholar whose correspond- 
ence contains much valuable informa- 
tion on the poet. Students of American 
anthropology will find useful the mon- 
umental compilation of E. S. Curtis on 
The North American Indian (1907- 
1930, 20 vols.) with its twenty accom- 
panying portfolios of plates. 

Valuable acquisitions in the field of 
religion include a Greek New Testa- 
ment manuscript of the mid-twelfth 
century, a group of William Penn pam- 
phlets, a number of first and early edi- 
tions of Luther, Erasmus, and Melanch- 
thon, and a volume of Church of Scot- 
land pamphlets, including the West- 
minster Assembly of Divines' Humble 
advice . . . concerning a larger and a 
shorter catechisme (Edinburgh, 1647). 

Of many valuable acquisitions in the 
field of fine arts we may mention a 

file of KoJ^a (661 numbers), the illus- 
trated monthly journal of the fine and 
applied arts of Japan and other eastern 
countries, and Max Geisberg's compila- 
tion of 1600 facsimiles of early six- 
teenth-century German wood-engrav- 


ON 7 June 1948, at the commence- 
ment of Duke University, the de- 
gree of Doctor of Literature was con- 
ferred upon the distinguished Ameri- 
can poet Robert Frost. For some years 
Mr. Frost has been a life-member of 
the Friends of Duke University Li- 
brary, and it is with great pleasure that 
we see him joined to the University by 
yet another tie. The citation pro- 
nounced at the commencement exer- 
cises read as follows: 

Robert Frost, dean of American poets, 
four times over recipient of the Pulitzer 
Prize. Penetrating spokesman for man- 
kind in our deeper experiences of life. 
Interpreter of our common ways, creator 
of uncommon verse. Vigor, courage, and 
manful mastery of speech have placed in 
his debt all men who may absorb these 
qualities from his enduring verse. 





The Friends of Duke University Library record with sadness the 
loss of two members of the Executive Committee, whose deaths oc- 
curred as this issue of Library Notes was being prepared for the press. 

Professor Newman Ivey White died on December 6 in Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts, where he was spending part of a sabbatical leave. 
Professor White, Chairman of the Department of English of Duke 
University, had always been a friend of the Library, and had long taken 
active interest in the organization. He had been a member of the 
Executive Committee since the reactivation of the Friends at the end of 
the war in 1945, and had also served since that time on the Program 
Committee. He had enriched the Library's collections with many 
gifts as well as by his scholarly and interested advice, and was elected to 
life membership in 1947 in recognition of his exceptional contributions 
and services. 

Dr. Josiah Charles Trent, Assistant Professor of Surgery in the 
School of Medicine, died in Durham on December 10. He had been a 
Friend of the Library since his association with the University in 1939. 
When an Executive Committee of the Friends was organized in 1942, 
Dr. Trent was appointed to that Committee and served on it until his 
death. His friendly and sympathetic interest in all aspects of the devel- 
opment of the libraries was unfailing. The Trent Collection, a joint 
gift in 1943 from Dr. and Mrs. Trent in honor of their daughters, gave 
to the Library one of the notable Whitman collections of the world. 
Other gifts came continually to the Library from this generous Friend, 
who was elected a life member on October 5, 1945. 



The Friends ofT)uke University J^ibrary 

No. 21 

January 1949 


Kathi Meyer-Baer* 

T l HE music collection of the Duke 
University Library, now a part of 
the Woman's College Library, contains 
many rare and valuable editions, and it 
is the purpose of this paper briefly to 
survey the Library's holdings to make 
these treasures known more widely 
among those outside the Department of 
Aesthetics, Art, and Music. The col- 
lection was started only eleven years 
ago, and it is astonishing how expertly 
it has been assembled to fill the needs 
of the teachers as well as of the college 
students. The credit for this accom- 
plishment should go principally to Ed- 
ward Broadhead, former organist of 
the University Chapel (1933-1944) and 
instructor in music, who was respon- 
sible for much of the selection and 
recommendation of materials for pur- 

As it should be in every college li- 
brary, the music collection is evenly di- 
vided and distributed, so that half is 
actual music, or "scores," and the re- 

* Dr. Meyer-Baer, distinguished German musicolo- 
gist and bibliographer, spent several weeks on the 
campus last fall at the invitation of the Library, 
where she made a thorough study of the music col- 
lection and of its organization. At the request of 
the editors, she has prepared this brief evaluation of 
our music collection. 

mainder is again about equally divided 
into books on the history of music and 
books on the theory of music — that is, 
the art of composing and the technique 
of performance and appreciation. 

Among the scores (which here means 
all copies of printed music, including 
those properly called "scores," i.e., the 
representation of music for several or 
many performers with the parts on the 
same page, one above the other), are a 
number of the costly and rare "Gesam- 
tausgaben," — complete works, or edi- 
tions in serial publications. There are, 
for instance, the collected works of 
Johann Sebastian Bach in the new re- 
print by Edwards Brothers in Ann 
Arbor of the Bach Gesellschaft edition 
(46V.), and there will soon be the cor- 
responding complete edition of the 
works of Beethoven. Other important 
monuments are the complete editions 
of the works of Purcell (24V., London, 
1878-1928) and of Monteverdi (i6v., 
Asolo, 1926-42), both great assets. 
Among the serial publications we have 
the Istituzioni e Monumenti delVArte 
Musicale Italiana (Milan, 1931- ), 
the splendid edition of early Italian 
music, and Fellowes' The English Mad- 


rigal School (36V., London, 1913-24), 
the valuable collection of English part 
songs of the 16th and 17th centuries. 
There is the collection of organ music 
by Guilmant {Archives des Maitres de 
VOrgue . . . iov., Leipzig, n.d.), with 
specimens by all the great representa- 
tives who have written for this instru- 
ment. There is also the valuable Tudor 
Church Music (iov., London, 1923-29), 
containing works by the great com- 
posers Byrd, Tallis, Gibbons, and 

Besides these larger sets we find 
items of the important modern editions 
of old manuscript music, in facsimile 
or transcribed in modern notation. 
As we want to mention them in con- 
nection with a specific problem later, 
we will proceed to the shelves which 
hold the music of the last century, of 
the classic and romantic period. Here 
also the selection has been made to cor- 
respond to the interests and abilities 
of the students by whom the collection 
will be used. Thus we find most of 
the opera repertoire in piano scores, 
that is, in editions which carry the full 
parts of the singers with the parts of 
the orchestra condensed into an ar- 
rangement for piano so that it can be 
studied by the average student. We find 
the instrumental music for orchestra on 
the shelves labelled "symphonies," con- 
taining beside the actual symphonies 
orchestral suites, serenatas, etc. On the 
following shelves are the concertos, for 
orchestra with a solo instrument; then 
the chamber music; and finally the 
music for those instruments which usu- 
ally are played by themselves, such as 

piano and organ. 

In these sections we see represented 
most of the important works of old and 
modern masters, of Beethoven and Mo- 
zart, of Schubert and Chopin, of De- 
bussy and Stravinsky. Of works for 
orchestra, the full scores are principally 
in the miniature editions often used to- 
day for all study purposes. The con- 
certos are generally — beside the editions 
in miniature score — arranged for piano 
and the solo instrument, for the use of 
students of the solo part. Most of the 
chamber music is here in scores as well 
as in parts, so that the material is at 
hand both for the player and for one 
who wishes to study the composition 01 
to follow it during a performance. 
Among the piano music we might men- 
tion the complete works of Chopin, 
of Brahms, the sonatas of Beethoven 
and Mozart, and the important works 
of Schumann. 

There are many editions of choral 
music — old and modern: Handel's ora- 
torios in piano scores, further collec- 
tions as they are published by choral 
societies or music publishing houses, 
such as the collection of works per- 
formed by the Dessoff Choir or the col- 
lection of Christmas chorals and an- 
thems published by Schirmer. 

Looking now over the books about 
music, we turn to the group on "aes- 
thetics" to find the recent writings of 
American scholars, such as Warren D. 
Allen's Philosophies of Music History 
(New York, 1939) and Glen Haydon's 
Introduction to Musicology (New 
York, 1941), as well as some of the 
writings of such important European 


musicians as Busoni and Debussy. We 
find also the important books on crit- 
icism, the analyses of works of the 
classic and modern schools. The chief 
works on performance, on the tech- 
nique of single instruments as well as 
on the technique of the voice and of the 
orchestra, are here, and the textbooks 
on composition and the so-called theory 
of music. High standards of selection 
are immediately evident and particular- 
ly praiseworthy in this field, where the 
too popular and ephemeral have been 
carefully avoided. 

The shelves containing works on the 
history of music start with the standard 
works of general history. It should be 
mentioned that the collection has, as 
well as the standard modern works, 
such rare and older books as Hawkins 
(A General History of the Science and 
Practice of Music. 2v., London, 1853) 
and Burney (A General History of 
Music . . . [London, 1776-89] 2v., New 
York, 1935). Burney's Tours are also 
tiere (Ed. 2. 3V., London, 1773-75), ana1 
the Encyclopedic de la Musique, edited 
by Lavignac (nv., Paris, 1913-31). In 
the section of the history of church 
music we have the very rare De Cantu 
?t Musica Sacra (2V., St. Blaise, 1774) 
by the Abbot Gerbert, with its informa- 
tive plates. 

In all of these groups we find some 
rare — old or new — books and editions; 
in the section of local histories the 
Reglement pour I'Opera de Paris by 
Meusnier de Querlon, printed at Paris 
in 1743, with the facetious imprint, "A 
Qtopie, chez Thomas Morus," and 
among the books on theory dAlem- 

bert's famous Clemens de Musique 
(Lyons, 1766). There is also a splen- 
did Italian manuscript in large folio, 
a Gradual on vellum from the early 
quattrocento, with beautiful hand- 
painted initials in blue and red, and the 
original leather binding with straps and 
buckles. Of course, there are a few 
important titles in all these subdivisions 
which members of the faculty will wish 
to add. The important consideration is 
that the cornerstones are laid and the 
framework is sound ; the small gaps can 
easily be filled. 

To illustrate the soundness and use- 
fulness of the collection, let us consider 
the case of a professor assembling the 
materials for his lectures. For instance, 
the Department of Aesthetics, Art, and 
Music now offers a course in music 
history, which is currently dealing with 
the music of the middle ages. For this 
subject the professor would find first 
several copies of the modern standard 
history by Gustave Reese, Music in the 
Middle Ages (New York, 1940), with 
its amazing bibliography. But also he 
would have much additional material 
in the two facsimile and transcribed 
(modern notation) editions of the im- 
portant 14th century troubadour man- 
uscripts in the Bibliotheque Nationale, 
he Manuscrit du Roi (2V., Philadel- 
phia, 1938), and Le Chansonnier Cange 
(2v., Paris, 1927), both edited by Jean 
Beck, the eminent French scholar who 
taught at the University of Pennsyl- 
vania. Likewise available is Beck's his- 
tory of the music of the troubadours 
(La Musique des Troubadours. Paris, 
1928), the 14th century musicians who 


contributed the courtly love songs and 
the romantic ballads in forms which 
persist to this day. A more technical 
work is Johannes Wolf's Geschichte 
der Mensural-Notation (3V., Leipzig, 
1904), which contains numerous tran- 
scribed examples of mediaeval music. 
A standard work is the Histoire de 
VHarmonie au Moyen Age of Cousse- 
maker; this important study was pub- 
lished in Paris in 1852, and describes 
early polyphonic composition, that is, 
the beginning of the art of writing 
music for many voices. Also at hand 
are the four volumes of Melanges de 
Musicologie Critique (Paris, 1900-05), 
a collection which contains such im- 
portant monuments of mediaeval com- 
posed music as the Proses (free addi- 
tions to liturgical music) of Adam de 
St. Victor, and the Lais et Descorts 
Franfais du i^me Siecle. In addition to 
the important treatise on mediaeval 
music by Pierre Aubry (La Musicologie 
Medievale), the Melanges contains also 
his collection, Les Plus Anciens Monu- 
ments de la Musique Francaise. The Li- 
brary also has an edition by Jean Beck 
of Robin et Marion, the celebrated pas- 
toral play written and composed by the 
hunchback, Adam de la Halle. Source 
material relating to the "Minnesang," 
the German music which is parallel to 
the French troubadour music, is to be 
found in the beautiful facsimile edition 
of the manuscripts containing the Loch- 
eimer Liederbuch and the Fundamen- 
tum Organisandi of the blind musician 
Conrad Paumann, one of the very earli- 
est documents (1452) of instrumental 
composed music. 

These are some of the more im 
portant works on music of the perioc 
of the middle ages. To be complete 
we should have to list more of th< 
compendiums and technical manuals 
The subject of mediaeval music wai 
chosen at random and as an example 
we could have selected just as well th< 
music of the 15th century or some lata 
period, and the professor would hav< 
been able to find enough material foi 
demonstrations in his lectures. 

A very great asset is the fact that th< 
collection has sets of the importani 
musical periodicals in the English Ian 
guage, such as the Music Review, Musii 
and Letters, the Musical Quarterly, anc 
the very interesting publications of th< 
English Folk Dance and Song Society 
In most cases the sets are complete 
And it should be mentioned that the 
Department has, in addition to the Li 
brary materials, practical playing edi- 
tions of music for the use of its band 
orchestra, and chamber orchestra, anc 
also a collection of records; for teach- 
ing purposes and for performance, thes< 
supplement the Library collection. 

There is only one group as a whole 
which is scanty; this is the sectior 
of music bibliography, and the readei 
is referred here to the appended de- 
siderata list for some of the importani 
titles now missing from the collection 
These books would be a great help tc 
teachers, students, and librarians alike 
There are also some gaps we should 
like to see filled in the section of in- 
strumental music of the 17th and 18th 
centuries. The Library has some edi- 
tions of music of this period, such as 


Bach's Musical Offering and his Art of 
the Fugue; but there have been many 
modern editions of works by Purcell 
and others, and practical editions by 
several European publishers of orches- 
tral and chamber music for college use 
which would be useful. One important 
further task should be to complete the 
acquisition of the Austrian monument, 
Denkjn'dler der Ton\unst in Oster- 
retch; some volumes of this set are 
now in the collection, but it would be 
worth while to have it complete as the 
volumes contain editions of important 
works from different periods which 
provide good illustrations of many 
forms and styles. 

The building up and enlarging of 
the Library's collection will depend, of 
course, to some extent on the interests 
of the individual members of the De- 
partment. The present teacher of 
theory of music, Mr. Klenz, has made 
special studies in Baroque music and 
the development of the sonata form; 
he will be especially interested in the 
instrumental music of the 17th and 18th 
centuries and will try to assemble as 
much material as possible. Mrs. Muel- 
ler's work in the field of chamber mu- 
sic will lead to the strengthening of 
this important field, while the interest 
of the Department as a whole in mod- 
ern music will naturally be revealed in 
acquisitions of contemporary music. 

The development of a specialty gives 
added distinction and value to any col- 
lection. With the growth of the De- 
partment of Aesthetics, Art, and Music, 

special periods and styles will come to 
be emphasized in lectures, studies, and 
research. The Library, in its buying, 
will follow these trends as well as those 
which can support its special resources 
in other subject fields. A most natural 
field would be, of course, the popular 
music of the South, which has contrib- 
uted important elements to contem- 
porary American music. 


Aber, Adolf. Hand buck der Musi\litera- 
tur in Systematisch-Chronologischer 
Anordnung. Leipzig, 1922. 

Altmann, Wilhelm. Kammermusi\- 
Katalog; ein Verzeichnis von seit 18 41 
veroffentlich ten Kam m erm usi\- Wer\en 
... 4. aufl. Leipzig, 1931 ; [and] Nach- 
trag. Leipzig, 1936. 

Baker, Theodore. Bauer's Biographical 
Dictionary of Musicians. Ed. 4. New 
York, 1940. 

Blom, Eric. A General Index to Modern 
Musical Literature in the English Lan- 
guage . . . London, 1927. 

Handbuch der Musl{iwissenschaff, hrsg. 
von Ernst Biicken. iov. Leipzig, 1928- 
34. (Reprinted: New York, 1948.) 

Kochel, Ludwig von. Chronologisch- 
Thematisches Verzeichnis Sdmtlicher 
Tonwer\e von Wolfgang Amadeus 
Mozart. 3. aufl. . . . mit einem Supple- 
ment . . . von Alfred Einstein. Ann 
Arbor, 1947. 

Tottmann, Albert Karl. Fuhrer durch 
die V iolin-Literatur ... 4. aufl., von 
Wilhelm Altmann. Leipzig, 1934-. 

Wolf, Johannes. Handbuch der Nota- 
tions\unde. 2V. Leipzig, 1913-19. 


A. S. Limouze* 

AN adequate collection of early 
English newspapers and maga- 
zines provides a source without rival 
for information about the day-to-day 
lives and opinions of Englishmen from 
the time of the settling of the Plymouth 
colony to the years of the American 
Revolution. In consequence, additions 
to a collection of such periodicals rank 
high on the list of desiderata of every 
university library. Genuinely strong 
holdings in the field are rare, only 
three libraries in America having col- 
lections that can be considered large. 
Obviously the newspaper and maga- 
zine, because of their ephemeral na- 
ture, have not survived in large num- 
bers, and original copies of early jour- 
nalistic efforts are rarely come by. A 
bound volume of an early newspaper 
occasionally turns up, but all but the 
most fortunate libraries must depend 
on later editions and photographic re- 
productions in building up respectable 
collections of these materials. 

Like the majority of libraries, Duke 
University Library is far from being 
rich in these important materials and 
is constantly seeking to fill gaps in its 
files. A check of the Library's hold- 
ings of fifty significant early periodicals 
reveals some valuable accessions and 
some regrettable deficiencies. Outstand- 
ing acquisitions include complete files 

* Dr. Limouze, who holds the Ph.D. degree from 
Duke University, is a member of the English De- 
partment of New York State Maritime Academy, 
Fort Schuyler, New York. 

of two journals which are the backbone 
of periodical research in the eighteenth 
century, The Gentleman's Magazine 
(founded 1731) and The London Mag- 
azine (founded 1732). The Duke file of 
Leslie's Rehearsal (1704-1709), an early 
Tory journal attacking Defoe's Review 
(which Duke has in reprint edition) 
and John Tutchin's Observator, is 
complete in the original issues, except 
for the final number which some pains- 
taking reader of an earlier day has 
copied out in neat longhand. Terrae 
Filius (1721), Nicholas Amhurst's peri- 
odical revenge for expulsion from Ox- 
ford, is represented in a reprint of 1726. 
Of Addison and Steele's The Spectator, 
greatest of all the essay periodicals, 
Duke has the first 555 numbers (March 
1, 1711-December 6, 1712) in original 
issues, thus lacking only the 80 num- 
bers published during its revival from 
June to December, 1714, and has sev- 
eral early reprints of the entire journal 
as well. The Philosophical Transac- 
tions of the Royal Society (1665 on) 
are also completely represented. 

Outstanding titles lacking from the 
Duke collection, or only partially repre- 
sented there, include the following: 
The Athenian Gazette (1690/91-1697). 
Edited chiefly by the eccentric John Dun- 
ton, who once packed his books and 
came to America to exploit the book- 
market in this country, this journal was 
perhaps the first question-and-answer 
sheet, solving all its readers' problems. 
Its tremendous popularity, proved by the 


number of its imitators, indicates that as 
early as 1690 journalism had discovered 
the attractions of a "Believe it or not" 
column. Duke has the volumes for 
1691-1693, nine of the twenty published, 
and also two early eighteenth-century 
editions of a collection of many of its 
old questions and answers, called The 
Athenian Oracle. 

Common Sense (1737-1743). Lord Ches- 
terfield was among the contributors to 
this Tory journal, of which Duke has a 
reprint of the 1738-1739 volumes only. 

The Craftsman (1726-1747). A political 
associate of Common Sense, this journal 
devoted itself zealously to attacking the 
policies of Robert Walpole. Duke has 
a reprint of the 1731-1747 volumes, but 
no original issues. 

The Daily Courant (1702-1735). Micro- 
films of this rare newspaper, the first 
daily paper in English, should be a part 
of every university library. 

The Examiner (1710-1714). Jonathan 
Swift helped found this journal in 1710 
to defend the administration of Oxford 
and Bolingbroke. Duke has the 171 0- 
171 1 volumes only. 

The Intelligencer (1728-1729). This essay- 
periodical, written by Jonathan Swift 
and friends, is a particularly unfortu- 
nate lack. In its pages, Swift made 
many protests against English mistreat- 
ment of the Irish, and here also he re- 
viewed Gay's Beggars Opera. 

The Political State of Great Britain (1711- 
1740). This monthly review of current 
events, compiled by Abel Boyer, is an 
important research tool. Duke has the 
volumes for 1711-1723, 1736, and part of 
that for 1739. 

Hie early weeklies of the Civil War and 
Commonwealth period. These, the first 
of English periodicals, could never be 

acquired in any great number, but repre- 
sentative items — numbers, for example, 
of the Kingdomes Weekly Intelligencer 
( 1 643-1 649) — can be bought occasional- 
ly. The many "Mercurii" should be 
well represented. The title Mercurius 
was an early favorite, as can be seen by 
this sampling (any or all of which 
would be welcome additions to the Li- 
brary) : Mercurius Academicus (1648), 
Mercurius Anglicus (1648), Mercurius 
anti-Britannicus (1645), Mercurius anti- 
Melancholicus (1647), Mercurius Do- 
mesticus (1648), Mercurius Fumigosus 
(1654-1655, 1660), Mercurius Insanus In- 
sanissimus (1648), Mercurius Poeticus 
(1660), Mercurius anti-Mercurius (1648). 
Most of these early "Weekly Intelligen- 
cers" and "Mercurii" were more nearly 
pamphlets than newspapers or journals. 
Examples would do much to enable the 
student to learn at first hand the earliest 
stages through which the periodical press 
Still other titles which should be repre- 
sented with more or less completeness 
in the Duke Library are the following: 
Arthur Murphy's The Auditor (1762- 
1763); The British Apollo; or, Curious 
Amusements for the Ingenious (1708- 
1711); Smollett's The Briton (1762- 
1763); Theobald's The Censor (1715, 
1717); The Female Tatler (1709-1710); 
Ambrose Philips' The Freethinker (1718- 
1721), of which Duke has a reprint of 
one volume only; The Lay Mon\ (1713- 
1714) ; The Literary Magazine; or, Uni- 
versal Review (1756-1758), possibly ed- 
ited by Samuel Johnson; the Monthly 
Catalogue of B. Lintot (1714-1715) and 
that of J. Wilford (1723-1730); John 
Oldmixon's The Muses Mercury; or, 
The Monthly Miscellany (1707-1708); 
Tutchin's The Observator (1702-1712); 



The Oxford Gazette, continued as Lon- 
don Gazette (1665 on); Pasquin (1772- 
1724); The Plain Dealer (1724-1725); 
The Post Boy, with Foreign and Domes- 
tic\ News (1695-1735); The Universal 
Magazine of Knowledge and Pleasure 
(1747 on); The Universal Spectator 
1728-1746); Read's Weekly Journal; or, 
British Gazetteer (1715-1761); and The 
Whitehall Evening Post (1718-1800?), 
founded by Daniel Defoe. 

The Duke University Library's long- 
term policy for building up its periodi- 
cal holdings will eventually bring about 
the addition of many valuable titles to 
the present collection, in original issues, 
reprints, or microphotographs. The 
process can be greatly speeded if in- 
terested Friends of the Library will lend 
support and assistance in strengthening 
this important part of the Library's re- 


it^K^t^^^^' C 




Clarence Gohdes 

THE entire collection of Emerson- 
iana gathered together over the 
years by the noted bibliophile Carroll 
A. Wilson, one of the departed saints 
among collectors of Americana, has 
come into our Library as a result of 
recent purchase. The material not only 
gives us one of the most desirable 
groups of publications by an author 
deemed by many critics to be the chief 
writer of the United States, but also 
supplements the distinguished Whit- 
man materials reposing on our shelves 
in the Trent Collection, for the rela- 
tionship of Emerson and Whitman was 
one of master and disciple. In the 
1856 edition of Leaves of Grass, Whit- 
man wrote to Emerson, "Master, these 
shores you have found." 

The collection boasts a complete set 
of first editions of all the books by 
Emerson, plus the English editions 
which for one reason or another are 
valued by collectors, as well as a good- 
ly supply of the separates of individual 
orations or essays. A large number of 
these items are copies inscribed by the 
author to various friends, among them 
Edmund Hosmer, Elizabeth Hoar, Wil- 
liam H. Furness, Charles Eliot Norton, 
Edwin Arnold, and Coventry Patmore. 
A show-piece among the presentation 
copies is The Conduct of Life (i860), 
which bears on its half-title "Nathaniel 
Hawthorne, from the Author, Nov. 6, 
i860." This volume gives the appear- 
ance of having been read frequently, 

which is more than one can say of 
the Hawthorne books presented to 
Emerson; it is also sparsely annotated 
— but not, alas, in Hawthorne's own 
hand. A connection with another giant 
among the authors of an older day in 
New England is established by the copy 
of Fortune of the Republic (1878), 
which once belonged to John Greenleaf 
Whittier. The first book by Emerson, 
the little, rhapsodic Nature (1836), ap- 
pears in a fine copy in the original blue 
cloth with the gold stamping still bril- 
liant; and the most important of all 
his volumes, Essays, the first series 
(1841), could scarcely be matched in 
its superb condition. 

Inserted in a number of the books 
are various autograph letters, some of 
them addressed to most interesting 
people — for example, Dr. John Chap- 
man, friend, and perhaps lover, of 
George Eliot, and Wendell Phillips, 
the renowned orator. A few of the 
English imprints are of extreme rarity 
in American collections, and there is a 
copy of each and every one that is 
known to have been, or might have 
been, published prior to the first 
American edition. One of these, Poems 
(1846), bristles with errors, for Emer- 
son sent across the Atlantic his manu- 
script, and never saw a set of proofs. 
The most amusing "howler" is the 
reading "mouse" for "moose" — a not 
inconsiderable misreading, one would 



Among other items of unusual in- 
terest or value is the program of the 
Boston Latin School exercises for 
August 25, 1815, a broadside which 
announces the twelve-year-old Ralph 
Waldo as the author and reader of a 
poem. There is a copy of The Offer- 
ing for i82g, in which Emerson made 
his debut as a contributor to an "An- 
nual," and there is a set of page proofs 
of part of the second edition of the 
renowned Phi Beta Kappa Oration 
(1837). One of the leaflets in the 
collection is inscribed to James Russell 
Lowell, and also bears that writer's en- 
dorsement. Periodicals in which Em- 
erson had a special interest as contrib- 

utor, such as the Boston Dial, the Cin- 
cinnati Dial, and the Western Mes- 
senger, are also represented. There is 
even a ticket of admission to one of 
Emerson's lectures, made out in the 
hand of the lecturer and signed by 

The collection as a whole is of the 
utmost interest to both collectors and 
scholars, and will no doubt inspire re- 
search in Emerson in the same fashion 
that the Trent Collection has already 
enlivened scholarly activities in con- 
nection with Whitman. It adds greatly 
to our holdings in the field of Ameri- 
can literature, an area in which our 
Library is exceptionally well fortified. 

Ed. note: The Emerson collection is now on exhibition in the 
Library, and may be seen through the month of February. 




A Note of Appreciation 
Merle M. Bevington 

IMPROVED photographic tech- 
niques and increasingly close coop- 
eration among libraries have in the 
past few years made it easy to have 
available exact texts of materials that 
formerly would have required expen- 
sive, time-wasting travel and search. 
My experience in getting such materials 
has been so happy that I am writing 
about it as an illustration of one or 
two of the ways in which libraries 
share and extend their holdings to the 
advantage of scholars and students. 

Some time ago I had need to study 
the earliest published prose work of 
Matthew Arnold, a pamphlet which in 
1859 he had printed and offered for 
sale at one shilling — though likely few 
were sold — on England and the Italian 
Question. The little book, which has 
never been reprinted, is interesting be- 
cause it was Arnold's one incursion into 
political writing; and it is extremely 
rare. The one copy I knew of in 
America was in the Widener Library 
at Harvard University. At the request 
of our Library, the Widener Library 
furnished a microfilm of the forty-five 
page pamphlet. On examining it, I 
found that the original was an interest- 
ing association copy, one which Ar- 
nold's close friend Arthur Hugh 
Clough had sent to his friend Charles 

Eliot Norton in America. Clough had 
not even enclosed the pamphlet in a 
wrapper; he had simply set a seal over 
the open edges, put the address, his 
signature, and a postage stamp on the 
back paper cover, and sent it off by 
mail packet from Liverpool. The 
photographic division of our Library 
made beautifully clear prints of the 
pages, "blown up" from the microfilm 
to pamphlet size. We shall now be 
able to mount the prints and bind them 
into a volume which will be, for any 
curious or scholarly reader's purpose, 
a duplicate of the rare book at Harvard. 

Ordinarily, of course, one does not 
go to the trouble and expense of 
making prints from microfilm, which 
can be read quite satisfactorily through 
projectors. For instance, I have been 
using one roll of film, obtained by the 
Library from the British Museum, 
which contains the complete texts of 
ten separate works, ranging from 
pamphlets to good-sized books. This 
film is primarily of interest to me in my 
own research, but it is catalogued and 
available to anyone of similar interests. 

A somewhat different kind of repro- 
duction of morei general interest is 
shown in a recent acquisition that came 
out of my need to see early reviews of 
Jane Austen's novels. I discovered that 



of the ten known reviews published 
contemporary with the novels, only 
three are to be found in our periodical 
collection (and ours is a good collec- 
tion). Within a very short time the 
Library got from the Yale University 
Library photostatic copies of all the 
other reviews. We shall be able to 
mount and bind these into a volume, 
perhaps including with them copies 
of the reviews we already had, and thus 
have available in one cover all that was 
said in the public prints about Jane 
Austen in her time. 

One final illustration of the friendly 
cooperation of university libraries. 
When recently I wrote to the Cornell 
University Library asking for informa- 
tion to be found in a rare Catalogue of 
the Library of William Wordsworth, 
the reply not only gave the informa- 
tion but also generously offered to 
make a photostatic copy of the cata- 
logue. Our Library placed an order, 
and thus we shall have a duplicate of 
a document likely to be of use to sev- 
eral scholars and yet not enough in 
demand to warrant reprinting. 



THE annual dinner meeting of the 
Friends of Duke University Li- 
brary will be held on Friday evening, 
April 8, 1949, in the West Campus 
Union. The principal speaker will be 
Frederick B. Adams, Jr., who assumed 
the directorship of the Pierpont Mor- 
gan Library, New York, on December 
1, 1948, succeeding Miss Belle daCosta 
Greene. Mr. Adams, a noted book 
collector, is President of the Grolier 
Club and First Vice-President of the 
Bibliographical Society of America. 
Detailed plans for this meeting will be 
sent to all members of the Friends at a 
later date. 


A STUDENT book collectors' 
group is again being sponsored 
by the Friends of the Library, with Pro- 
fessor Lewis Patton as chairman of the 
Undergraduate Committee. The group 
has already held two meetings in the 
Rare Book Room. At the November 
meeting Professor Helen Bevington 
spoke on collecting contemporary 
poetry, and in December Professor 
Clarence Gohdes discussed the Carroll 
Wilson collection of Emerson and the 
students were permitted a preview of 
the collection before its public exhibi- 
tion, noted elsewhere in this issue. 

The Undergraduate Committee has 
announced another contest for student 
book collectors to be held in the spring. 

Contestants will exhibit their collec- 
tions in the Library during the month 
of April, and the Committee has de- 
cided this year to offer three prizes of 
$25.00, $15.00, and $10.00 open to all 
contestants, instead of two prizes of 
equal value for the best collections of 
an undergraduate man and woman. 


MANY friends have continued to 
send to the Library generous 
gifts of both books and money; only 
a few of the books can be mentioned 
here. Mrs. Frederick M. Hanes sent 
about 200 volumes, nearly half of them 
on African travel; among the others is 
a 1665 Elzevir edition of Terence. Dr. 
and Mrs. Josiah C. Trent added several 
volumes to the Franklin Delano Roose- 
velt collection which was reported in 
the last issue of this bulletin. Miss 
Frances Brown added another title to 
the collection of works of John Buchan 
which she has been building in the 
Woman's College Library. Governor 
R. Gregg Cherry sent a collection of 
nearly 1500 pamphlets, primarily of- 
ficial documents of several states. From 
Mr. Curtis Carroll Davis came a dozen 
titles in contemporary literature, in- 
cluding several autographed by the 
authors. Mrs. Edward Manifold con- 
tinued her contributions of books in 
memory of her son, 1st Lt. Edward W. 
L. Manifold, of the class of 1937. Many 
members of the faculty have been 
among the donors in the past few 



From the desiderata list appearing in 
our last issue, Mr. James T. Babb sup- 
plied two of the William McFee titles, 
and Miss E. Bain Johnson three of the 
Donn Byrne titles and one by McFee. 


T^WO outstanding manuscript col- 
lections have been acquired in re- 
cent months: the Smith-Carrington 
papers (1800-1900) and the Joseph F. 
Boyd papers (1861-1866). The first, 
consisting of around 10,000 manuscript 
items, presents a picture of the activi- 
ties of two prominent Virginia families : 
the Smiths of Gloucester County, and 
the Carringtons of Richmond. The 
core of the collection is the personal 
and business correspondence of William 
Preston Smith, planter and merchant, 
who carried on an extensive grain 
ftrade with Norfolk, Baltimore, and 
New York markets from 1830 to i860. 
The letters of his brother, Thomas 
Smith, a member of the Virginia legis- 
lature, reveal the complicated structure 
of Virginia politics for the same period. 
Included also is a group of about a 
thousand mounted letters of Confed- 
erate political and military leaders as- 
sembled by Seddon Carrington. 

The Joseph F. Boyd papers (about 
16,000 manuscript items) are the rec- 
ords of a Union Army officer, quarter- 
master of the Army of the Ohio which 
saw service in Kentucky, Tennessee, 
Alabama, and Georgia, and was the 
army of occupation in North Carolina. 
Boyd seems to have preserved every 
record which passed through his office 
during his military career. The col- 

lection should be valuable to students 
interested in the supply problems of 
the Union armies operating in the 
South and in the re-establishment of 
transportation and supply facilities in 
North Carolina, 1865-66. 

— E. G. R. 


to the Library Building 

CONSTRUCTION work on the Li- 
brary addition is now proceeding 
satisfactorily after a series of trouble- 
some delays and shortages last summer. 
The new stack area was sufficiently ad- 
vanced in December to permit the in- 
stallation of bookshelves on one floor. 
Some 30,000 volumes were moved 
temporarily to this new stack from the 
north wing of the old stack so that al- 
terations could be started there. The 
Reference Room was redecorated dur- 
ing August and the early part of Sep- 
tember, and major alterations com- 
pleted in the Catalog and Circulation 
Rooms. As this is being written, ar- 
rangements have been made for the 
installation of acoustic ceiling tile in 
the Circulation Room, fluorescent light- 
ing here and in the Catalog Room, and 
for the redecoration of both rooms dur- 
ing the Christmas vacation. 

Barring unforeseen delays, it now ap- 
pears that the administrative offices of 
the Library in the new tower, quarters 
for technical processes in the new west 
wing, several stack floors, and the new 
manuscript room may be the first parts 
of the addition to be turned over as 
"completed," perhaps early in March. 
Other areas will be completed progres- 



sively through the spring, to be fol- 
lowed by alteration and redecoration of 
certain parts of the original building. 
It is hoped that by the opening of the 
fall term in September all collections 
and departments will be moved into 
their new locations. 


SEVERAL changes in the staff of 
the Library which will be of in- 
terest to Friends have occurred since 
the last issue of this bulletin. 

Ellen Frances Frey was married last 
spring to Dr. A. S. Limouze, and re- 
signed her position at the Library on 
September 30, 1948. Miss Frey had 
been a member of the staff since De- 
cember 1938, serving in many capaci- 
ties before her appointment as Curator 
of Rare Books in 1943. She was ap- 
pointed to the Executive Committee 
of the Friends of Duke University Li- 
brary when the association was reorgan- 
ized in 1945, and had been chief editor 
of Library Notes since that time. She 
was always an active worker in the or- 
ganization, and her many services, both 
official and unofficial, contributed great- 
ly to its effectiveness. All Friends will 
be gratified to know that the Executive 
Committee, meeting on October 29) 
1948, unanimously elected Miss Frey 
to life membership in recognition of 
her outstanding service. 

Thomas M. Simkins, Jr., formerly 
Serials Cataloguer, has been named 
Acting Curator of Rare Books. Mr. 
Simkins, who joined the staff of the 
Library in 1947, will divide his time 
between the Rare Book Room and the 
Serials Section for the present. 

Edward Graham Roberts assumed 
the curatorship of manuscripts on Au- 
gust 1, 1948. Mr. Roberts holds the 
A.B. degree from Sewanee (University 
of the South), a B.A. in Library Science 
from Emory University, and is a candi- 
date for the Ph.D. in American history 
at the University of Virginia. New 
assistants in the Manuscript Depart- 
ment are Mattie Russell and Mrs. 
Carolee Guilds. 

Helen Oyler, formerly Head of the 
Circulation Department, is now Head 
of the Serials Section, replacing Edna 
Earle Griffin, resigned. John P. Wag- 
goner, Jr., formerly reference librarian, 
became Head of the Circulation De- 
partment on July 1, 1948. 


THE year's program of exhibi- 
tions began in October with the 
showing of a photographic display on 
atomic energy lent by Life magazine. 
The 12th annual meeting of the So- 
ciety of American Archivists and the 
8th annual meeting of the American 
Association for State and Local History 
were held jointly in Raleigh October 
27-29. On October 28 the entire con- 
ference visited the Library, and was 
later entertained by the University at a 
luncheon in the ballroom of the West 
Campus Union. For this occasion, the 
Manuscript Department prepared an 
exhibit of selected manuscript and 
printed materials representative of the 
resources of the George Washington 
Flowers Collection, and this remained 
on view throughout the month of No- 
vember. The December exhibit was of 
color reproductions of great paintings 



and illuminated manuscripts appropri- 
ate to the Christmas season. 

The Carroll A. Wilson Emerson col- 
lection, described elsewhere in these 
pages, is now on exhibition, and may 
be seen until the end of February. The 
American Institute of Graphic Arts' 
loan exhibition of "Fifty Books of the 
Year 1948" will be shown at Duke 
March 1-22, 1949. 

Mr. Albert Schiller, type designer of 
New York and a member of the Typo- 
philes, has assembled an exhibition il- 
lustrating the use of type and type 
ornaments in design. Mr. Schiller has 
generously consented to loan this exhi- 
bition for display under the sponsorship 
of the Friends of the Library during 
the month of April. Through the co- 
operation of the Department of Aes- 

thetics, Art, and Music, it will be hung 
in the gallery of the Woman's College 


THE North Carolina Library Asso- 
ciation will hold its biennial meet- 
ing in Durham on April 28-29. Mrs. 
Spears Hicks, Reference Librarian of 
the Woman's College Library, has been 
named general chairman of the con- 
ference committee, and several other 
members of the staff are serving on 
various committes. Miss Marianna 
Long, Librarian of the Law Library, 
is treasurer of the Association, and Mr. 
Powell is a member of the Executive 


No. 22 


The Friends ofTluke University J^ibrary 

July 1949 


Harry R. Stevens 

A HUNDRED years ago Thomas B. 
Macaulay recognized the great 
importance of newspapers for the 
study of history. When he wrote his 
classic History of England he drew ex- 
tensively from them, especially for the 
celebrated chapters on social history. 
Since that time not only historians but 
students of literature, public health, re- 
ligion, labor, and many other subjects 
have made large and constantly increas- 
ing demands on those treasured sources. 

Libraries, partly as a consequence of 
this scholarly demand, and partly 
through the efforts of a series of great 
librarians, have given increasing em- 
phasis to their newspaper collections. 
At Duke there has been an especially 
significant appreciation of their im- 
portance, initiated largely by the late 
William K. Boyd, with the result that 
today Duke University Library has one 
of the outstanding newspaper collec- 
tions not only in the South but in the 
entire United States. 

An excellent Checklist of United 
States Newspapers at Duke, compiled 

by Mary Wescott and Allene Ramage, 
was published 1932-37. Since then the 
collection has continued to grow, and 
as there has been no recent description 
of the Duke holdings in this field, one 
is offered here to indicate the scope and 
value of this collection. 

Duke University Library has over 
11,000 volumes of United States news- 
papers, and in addition more than 
1,000 volumes of newspapers on micro- 
film and in photostat. They represent 
an area covering almost the entire 
country, coming from more than 650 
cities and towns in forty-four of the 
forty-eight states. Chronologically they 
extend, except for earlier scattered is- 
sues, from the American Weekly Mer- 
cury (Philadelphia) of 1719 (reprint), 
down to the past twenty-four hours, 
with photostats and microfilm of earlier 
imprints. More than two centuries of 
American life and letters are thus rep- 
resented in the newspaper files. 

The newspapers include the general 
sort with which we are most familiar, 
as well as religious, labor, commercial, 


financial, agricultural, and many other 
special types, with a fascinating variety 
of propaganda material. 

The papers are about evenly divided 
between Southern imprints and those 
from the rest of the United States; 50 
per cent of the total quantity are pub- 
lications from 15 southern states; 14 
per cent are from New England ; about 
30 per cent from New York, Pennsyl- 
vania, and New Jersey; and 6 per cent 
from the Midwest and Far West. 
While the Southern collection is out- 
standing, the representation from the 
Northeast, especially New York and 
eastern New England, makes the col- 
lection unrivalled in that field among 
Southern libraries, and provides, with 
the western material, a sound basis for 
research of nation-wide scope. The 
states represented with the largest num- 
ber of bound volumes are New York 
(2709 v.), North Carolina (1586 v.), 
Massachusetts (956 v.), Louisiana (768 
v.), and Virginia (688 v.). 

The individual titles are mainly from 
smaller cities and towns, with the great 
bulk of the material (more than 82 per 
cent) coming from thirty-four cities, 
and more than one-third of the total 
from New York, New Orleans, and 
Boston. Statistically the leading cities 
are represented here by the following 
numbers of volumes: 

New York . . . 2425 Charlotte 371 

New Orleans . 741 Columbia . 312 

Boston 727 Atlanta 305 

Richmond 391 Chicago 286 

Washington . . . 372 Raleigh 267 

Durham 257 Greensboro ... 201 

Philadelphia . . 233 Portland, Me. . 172 

St. Louis 201 

In addition to the outstanding collec- 
tion from New York City (the Library 
has at least one, and generally two or 
three different New York newspapers 
for almost every day of the entire 19th 
century), special attention has been 
given to the other Northeastern and 
New England material. Eastern New 
England is well represented by large 
collections, first of all from Boston 
(727 v.), and then from Portland, 
Maine (172 v.), Providence, Rhode 
Island (no v.), Worcester, Newbury- 
port, Salem, and Springfield, Massa- 
chusetts; Concord, New Hampshire; 
and Hartford, Connecticut; and a large 
scattered selection from many smaller 
New England communities, including, 
for example, 41 more in Massachusetts 
alone. Western newspapers are repre- 
sented principally by files from Chi- 
cago, St. Louis, Des Moines, Omaha, 
San Francisco, Seattle, and St. Paul. 

The greatest strength of the Library 
is concentrated, however, in the south- 
ern area, extending all the way from 
Baltimore to Dallas. In addition to the 
excellent files from nine southern cities 
named above, the largest collections are 
those from Norfolk (124 v.), Baltimore 
(114 v.), Winston-Salem (76 v.), 
Charleston (66 v.), Augusta (65 v.), 
Dallas (60 v.), and Louisville (60 v.). 
Throughout the Southeast, the distri- 
bution of strength by states shows 154 
volumes from Maryland, 372 from the 



District of Columbia, 688 from Vir- 
ginia, 1586 from North Carolina, 490 
from South Carolina, and 508 from 

Chronologically, the Duke collection 
covers almost two and a half centuries. 
The 18th century is represented by 
good material from Virginia and 
Massachusetts, and a large file of micro- 
film reproductions. North Carolina 
18th century newspapers constitute one 
of the six best collections in the United 
States. The 19th century is better 
represented in the period prior to 1865 
than in the later years; for, although 
the quantity is smaller, it represents a 
larger proportion of the material pub- 
lished. The mid-century files from 
1840 to 1865 are particularly valuable. 
More than 80 per cent of all the news- 
papers, however, are 20th century pub- 
lications. This great disproportion in 
physical bulk is an indication of the 
vast expansion in size of individual is- 
sues that has occurred with the develop- 
ment of cheap newsprint, modern 
printing presses, and more active news- 
gathering agencies. 

The Library is fortunate in its pos- 
session of certain major titles in long, 
often almost complete files. The most 
extensive is the New Yor\ Times, with 
902 volumes from 1851 to date; next in 
quantity are the New Orleans Abeille, 
1827-1917 (491 v.) ; New York Herald- 
Tribune, 1925 to date (377 v. plus 
microfilm) ; the earlier New York Her- 
ald, 375 volumes from 1848 to 1921; 
Charlotte Observer, 1874 to date (371 

v.); Atlanta Constitution, 1917 to date 
(305 v. plus microfilm); Columbia, 
S. C, The State, 1892 to date (278 v.) ; 
Chicago Tribune, 1932-1947 (270 v. plus 
microfilm) ; Richmond Times-Dispatch, 
1908 to date (247 v.) ; Durham Herald, 
1913 to date (237 v. plus microfilm); 
Boston Evening Transcript, 1931-1941 
(236 v.) ; New Orleans Times-Picayune, 
1932 to date (234 v.); New York 
Tribune, 1841-1909 (227 v.), the per- 
sonal file of the editor, Horace Gree- 
ley; Raleigh News and Observer, 1880 
to date (219 v. plus microfilm) ; Greens- 
boro News, 1909-1946 (201 v. plus 
microfilm); and St. Louis Post-Dis- 
patch, 1932 to date (201 v. plus micro- 

The Library has also many other 
titles which, though not so bulky, are 
outstanding for other reasons, such as 
the old Washington National Intel- 
ligencer of ante-bellum days; the early 
National Gazette, edited by Philip 
Freneau, and celebrated for its attacks 
on George Washington while he was 
president; the fire-breathing Charleston 
Mercury; the abolitionist Liberator; 
and photostatic copies of almost com- 
plete files of two rare colonial Williams- 
burg newspapers, each named the Vir- 
ginia Gazette. 

While sixty-four major titles comprise 
the bulk of the Duke holdings, there is 
a superior representation of many lesser 
titles from various areas and periods in 
fragmentary files that strengthen the 
larger holdings decidedly. This sup- 
port from occasional issues is partic- 


ularly noteworthy in the case of ante- 
bellum Southern newspapers of the 
period 1840 to i860, and of Confederate 
imprints. Many of them survive only 
in the unique copies at Duke, making 
this library unsurpassed for various 
lines of research. 

The newspaper collection at Duke, 
one of the strongest factors in making 
it a research center for United States 
history, is constantly growing. Current 
publication accounts for a large part of 
the current additions, but a large share 
is also made up of gifts, purchases, and 
exchange of earlier material. Among 
the more valuable recent acquisitions 

are a file of the Albany Evening Jour- 
nal from 1847 to 1884, the Ashtabula 
(Ohio) Sentinel, which has contributed 
some hitherto unknown material on 
William Dean Howells, and a large col- 
lection of Southern titles from the years 
of the Confederacy, as well as micro- 
films of many 18th century titles. 
Other acquisitions are constantly en- 
hancing the value of the material here 
to facilitate the work of scholars resi- 
dent at Duke and visiting from other 
centers. The newspaper collection may 
in a real sense be regarded as an out- 
standing living resource of the Duke 
University Library. 


John C. Guilds 

frailty and her husband's fugitive 
extra-marital affairs, perhaps a conse- 
quence of this frailty, have sometimes 
been mentioned by Poe's biographers 
as causes for lack of harmony in the 
household of his foster-parents, the 
John Allans, in Richmond. But there 
is reason to believe that the root of the 
Allans' unhappiness goes deeper than 
that. Mrs. Allan was a member of 
the Virginia gentry, John Allan was a 
Scotch immigrant, and their funda- 
mental points of view were far apart. 
Some hitherto unpublished letters 
among the William Gait, Jr., Papers in 
the Duke University Library suggest 
that young business-minded Scots in 
America were advised by their friends 
and relatives at home to "work hard 
and stay single." For example, on 
November 10, 1818, Mary, John Al- 
lan's sister, wrote from Scodand to her 
cousin, William Gait, Jr., in Richmond 
— "do not you my dear Boy go a fool- 
ing amongst the Girls and get yourself 
married before you know what you 
are about the Virginians marry when 
they are Children and I have heard that 
they often remain so." It is important 
to note, however, that Miss Allan 
warns Gait not so much against marry- 
ing as against marrying a Virginia 
woman. Since Mary Allan must have 
been well acquainted with her brother's 
Virginia wife by this time, one wonders 

if she had Mrs. Allan in mind in writ- 
ing the letter. 

That even the cultivated European 
was not without intolerance in his 
judgment of Virginians is indicated by 
Thomas Moore's words, written from 
Norfolk on November 7, 1803, to his 
mother — "the few [Virginia] ladies 
that pass for white are to be sure the 
most unlovely pieces of crockery I ever 
set my eyes upon." 1 If Mary Allan 
still possessed such prejudice as late as 
1818 it may well be that her brother 
had held somewhat the same feelings 
when he first came to Richmond some 
two decades earlier. Certainly John 
Allan was not above prejudice; and, 
because he frequently corresponded 
with his kinsmen in Scotland, he must 
have been well aware of their opinions 
and, perhaps, influenced by them. 

Another letter from Mary Allan to 
young Gait, on October 28, 18 19, clearly 
reveals that the "people back home" 
still looked upon America, for the most 
part, as a land of sin and vice: "I 
heard how very foolishly the young 
men in Virginia spend their time that 
they are much given to swearing drink- 
ing fighting with all the other vices that 
lead to destruction." 

William Gait, Jr., the kinsman and 
close friend of John Allan, indicated 

1 Memoirs, journal, and correspondence of Thomas 
Moore, ed. by Lord John Russell. London, 1853, I, 


his attitude toward the "Virginia 
Ladies" in a letter to Mary Fowles, 
dated "Richmond, Feb. 25, 1825." In 
announcing his engagement to Rosanna 
Dixon, whose mother (Mrs. John 
Dixon) was a half-sister of Frances 
Allan, young Gait writes: 

The lady is named Miss Dixon, and is 
somewhat of the figure that Miss Gait was 
when I last saw her; her face is generally 
esteemed beautiful, and She sings well and 
is a first rate performer on the Piano, and 
withal has received a good education 
which has not been thrown away, and as 
to Cash, She has more than I have, 2 which 
is however no inducement to me for 
marrying her, tho' no serious objections. 

After this rationalistic, unromantic 
description of his fiancee, he goes on 
to say: 

It is really a hazardous matter to be so 
communicative as I have been for the 
fickleness of the Virginia Ladies has often 
shown itself, and as it will be some twelve 
months yet before my happiness will be 
consummated, owing to some untoward 
family accidents; and in that long time 
circumstances might happen to create a 
change in mind; but it matters not, were 
she to shew a disposition to be fickle I 
should not care how soon I was off. She 
is a neice [sic] of Mrs. Allan's but not 
exactly like her 3 in temper and disposi- 
tion. . . . 

2 Gait had crossed out the words "probably from 
five to six thousand dollars," to replace them with 
"more than I have." He and Rosanna Dixon were 
married September 15, 1825, by the Reverend W. B. 

3 Instead of "not exacdy like her," Gait had first 
written "quite unlike her," then "not much re- 
sembling her," before deciding upon the final phras- 

Later he adds: 

You observe that I will think the Scotch 
Ladies write as much nonsense as I said 
the Virginia Ladies talk, you are quite 
mistaken. I will not however offend you 
with a comparison, on being put on a level 
with them, 4 for as far as I am able to 
judge, the generallity [sic] of the Virginia 
Ladies are as I before described them, and 
are of course quite unlike the Ladies of 
your own country. . . . 

If Scotchmen looked down on the 
ladies of Virginia, it must be remem- 
bered also that Richmond did not at 
once accept these bluff Scottish mer- 
chants into its better social circles. We 
recall that, even as late as 1863, the sec- 
ond Mrs. Allan and her children were 
still known condescendingly as "the 
Scotch Allans," suggesting that perhaps 
John Allan, despite his wealth and busi- 
ness prestige, never quite gained the 
social distinction of a native Virginia 

John Allan's letter from London to 
William Gait, Jr., in Richmond on 
November 12, 1818, further reveals 
some of the prejudices with which a 
Scotchman in Virginia had to contend. 
After writing young Gait that his 
father is "displeased with you and 
thinks you quarrelsome & ill tempered," 
he goes on to say — "as I do not know 
the cause or causes you have had to 
quarrel I am quite at a loss to advise 

ing. In any of the three phrases, however, Gait 
seems apologetic in admitting his fiancee's asso- 
ciation with Frances Allan. 

* The words "on being put on a level with them" 
are struck through in the manuscript. 



or counsel your future conduct, I dare 
say some one has been mocking your 
Scotch dialect abusing Scotland or some 
such thing." 

Indeed, the relationship between 
Richmond's gentlemen planters and 
her Scotch merchants was a curious 
one. Despite the fact that they did 
business together and even mingled 
socially, neither apparently was with- 
out a distaste for the other. Perhaps 
one of the chief reasons John Allan 
finally won general social approval was 
the fact that his first wife was the 
daughter of a Virginia planter. But 
this same difference of backgrounds 
must have made it exceedingly difficult 

for Frances Allan to view some of her 
husband's Scotch mannerisms and hab- 
its of thought without aversion. Cer- 
tainly, the inevitable gulf between the 
daughter of a Virginia planter and 
a native son of Scotland must have been 
a formidable handicap to happy mar- 

It is not hard, then, to understand 
why young Edgar Poe, the son of an 
actress and the "adopted" son of a 
Scotch merchant, should have — par- 
ticularly while a student at the Univer- 
sity of Virginia — "longed for the social 
position which the son of a Virginia 
planter might command." 5 

B Agnes Bondurant, Poe's Richmond. Richmond, 
[1942], 204. 





THE membership for the year 
1948 was 317 — just about the same 
as the previous year. By action of the 
Executive Board, Mr. and Mrs. A. S. 
Limouze have been added to the list 
of life members in recognition of the 
extraordinary services rendered to the 
organization over a period of years by 
Mrs. Limouze, the former Ellen Frey, 
whom we all miss here tonight. Nor 
can we gather here without being 
aware of how sorely we miss the pres- 
ence of two devoted Friends, Newman 
Ivey White and Josiah Charles Trent, 
life members and members of the 
Executive Board, who have been taken 
from us by death during the past year. 
Their contributions — of sympathetic 
interest and knowing advice, no less 
than of books and other materials — 
have been built into the Library, as 
their scholarship has become part of 
the heritage and pride of the Univer- 
sity, and their warm friendship and 
blithe spirits a lasting and happy mem- 
ory in our hearts. 

Gifts of books during the past year 
have been far too numerous to detail 
here; 2392 pieces came to the Library 
from its Friends during calendar 1948: 
current publications of both scholarly 
and general interest, first editions of 
English and American authors, mod- 

ern press books, Elzevirs, periodicals — 
both current subscriptions and old 
files — and newspapers from all parts of 
the world, 16th and 17th century im- 
prints, and manuscripts. Among the 
largest gifts were more than 1000 items 
from former Governor R. Gregg 
Cherry, primarily state documents; 
some 175 items from David L. Cozart, 
Jr., of Raleigh, all current German 
material; from Professor and Mrs. 
Allan H. Gilbert about 200 Italian 
items, containing many current post- 
ers; about 1000 pieces, principally 
pamphlets and periodical issues, from 
Dr. C. Sylvester Green of Durham; an 
Elzevir Terence (Amsterdam, 1665), 
94 volumes on African travel and as 
many miscellaneous volumes, many of 
them autographed, from Mrs. Freder- 
ick M. Hanes; and some 200 volumes 
from former Dean and Mrs. H. C. 
Horack. Many Friends have shown 
continuing interest in their earlier 
gifts: Mr. Ehlhardt has added to our 
Frost Collection; Miss Frances Brown 
continues to add to the works of John 
Buchan; Dr. and Mrs. Trent have made 
important and interesting additions to 
the Whitman and Roosevelt collections 
which they established. Mr. James T. 
Babb of New Haven, Miss Bain John- 
son of Thomasville, Mr. and Mrs. 


Henry Schuman of New York, Mr. 
David Wagstaff of Tuxedo Park, and 
others have responded to our desiderata 
lists appearing from time to time in 
Library Notes. A representative selec- 
tion of these gifts of the past year is 
now on exhibition in the Circulation 
Room of the General Library, and I 
hope you will take a few moments to 
visit it and see this concrete evidence of 
your generosity. 

Mr. George Arents, who sent us in 
1945 a collection of more than 300 vol- 
umes and pamphlets on tobacco, has 
announced his intention of adding sev- 
eral hundred more items to the same 
collection. Two large shipments of 
this new gift have been received so 
lately that we cannot attempt to de- 
scribe its wealth fairly tonight. A more 
adequate description will be made 
when it has all been received and 
cataloged and placed in our Rare 
Book Room. 

Just 48 hours ago we received from 
Mrs. Henry Bellamann three items of 
unique interest and sentimental value 
to be added to her husband's Dante 
collection which she presented a few 
years ago. One is Elizabeth Barrett 
Browning's copy of the Inferno vol- 
ume of Cayley's translation of The 
Divine Comedy — the first edition (Lon- 
don, 1851), inscribed in Cayley's hand 
"Mrs. Browning from the Translator," 
which Mr. Bellamann had purchased 
at the sale of the Brownings' library in 
London in 19 13. The second is a 
signed typewritten sonnet by Mrs. 

Bellamann, "To H. B. Dantist." The 
third is a sheaf of Mr. Bellamann's 
manuscripts which I have not yet been 
able to examine carefully, but which 
we know contains several short or 
fragmentary informal essays of auto- 
biographical and critical nature, an 
essay on the art of translation, and part 
of his own translation of Dante, which 
was never completed. The majority of 
the material is hand written in pencil 
on soft paper — obviously first drafts 
which had not been worked over or 
polished into final form. We believe 
it is all unpublished material, some of 
which we may be able to share with 
you later through Library Notes. 

In addition to these gifts, we have 
purchased from funds given by Friends 
a Lyons, 1549, Dance of Death with 
Holbein engravings, and several lesser 
items. The amount available in the 
Friends' fund for the increase of the 
Library as of today is $885. 

But man lives not by bread alone, 
nor a library by books. Many Friends 
have given services which we cannot 
exhibit in a glass case, nor set upon one 
of our several miles of shelves, nor en- 
close in a "blue levant morocco solander 
case"! You have entertained our vis- 
iting speakers, loaned your own pos- 
sessions for exhibition, entertained and 
spoken to our group of student book 
collectors, judged their contest, drawn 
posters for Library use, written papers 
and given editorial assistance on Li- 
brary Notes, contributed essential 
printing, and even purchased from 



secondhand book dealers our "lost" 
books and returned them to us! 

As publications during the past year, 
the Friends have issued two numbers 
of Library Notes, and a Christmas 
greeting which used as its design an 
engraving from one of our rare em- 
blem books. Miss Clare Leighton was 
commissioned to design a bookplate 
for our Bellamann Dante collection. 
Fifty impressions were pulled from the 
original wood block and numbered and 
signed by the artist; a like number of 
copies of a brochure (in which Miss 
Leighton described her approach to the 
problems of the design and Professor 
Gilbert's evaluative article was re- 
printed from Library Notes) were pub- 
lished. Mr. James Thornton Gittman, 
who was instrumental in directing the 
gift of the Dante collection to Duke, 
contributed generously toward the cost 
of this handsome bookplate, and has 
shown his continuing interest by fre- 
quent gifts of books. 

As Friends, you may be interested 
also in some of the internal activities of 
your Library. The largest and most 
impressive acquisitions have been the 
Emerson collection formed by the late 
•Carroll A. Wilson, which was de- 
scribed by Professor Gohdes in the last 
issue of Library Notes, and the entire 
library of the late Professor Guido 
Mazzoni of the University of Florence, 
comprising some 23,000 volumes and 
67,000 pamphlets, largely of Italian and 
comparative literature. The Mazzoni 
collection, in 151 large wooden cases, 

has reached the campus from Italy, but 
has not yet been unpacked and sorted. 
When we have the space in which to 
spread out and examine it, it will be 
described fully. It is without question 
one of the great scholarly libraries of 
the world in Italian literature, and pos- 
sibly the finest in America. 

And the daily routines of normal 
activity go on, this year under partic- 
ularly trying physical conditions, as 
many of you know. The use of the 
Library has shown a steady increase in 
almost all service departments. The 
increase in demands for reference serv- 
ice has been almost phenomenal, and 
circulation from both the Undergrad- 
uate Reading Room and the general 
collection serviced at the Main Loan 
Desk has shown a marked increase. In 
the month of March (which included 
almost a full week of holiday) circula- 
tion from the Main Loan Desk was 
approximately one-third greater than 
that in the month showing the next 
greatest circulation. A survey of serv- 
ice provided at the Main Loan Desk 
was made for one entire week last 
November to determine how completely 
requests for books from the general 
stack collection were being met. De- 
spite the confused state of our building, 
the overcrowded condition of the 
stacks, and the increase in library use 
without corresponding increase in 
staff, the wanted book or an immediate 
report on its location was supplied for 
97.65 per cent of all requests. The 
search for the remaining 2.35 per cent 



was successful in every case, and the 
300k or a report on its whereabouts 
supplied within twenty-four hours. An- 
Dther survey showed the average time 
required to fill all requests to be less 
:han two and three-fourths minutes. 
Though there is much more that the 
Library staff would like to be able to 
do for you, I believe the record this 
^ear shows that they are trying to keep 
service at a level of quality worthy of 
pur interest in and support of the 

Those of you who are members of 
:he University community have seen, 
ind heard (!) the magnificent gift of 
in anonymous Friend being translated 
into steel and stone and plaster and 
wood. We are happy tonight to be able 
:o tell you that you will not have to 
"hear" it much longer! The major 
instruction work on the enlarged Li- 
brary building is completed; parts of 
the stack remain to be erected, certain 
alterations and refurbishing in the orig- 
inal building which were not made a 

part of the general contract are still to 
be accomplished, and we are waiting 
for delivery of new furniture. But, at 
the same time, we are gradually ex- 
panding into our new lebensraum — 
almost all the staff are now out of the 
"dungeon"; we are moving our collec- 
tions into the new stack and bringing 
in from the far places the thousands of 
books which have been in storage for 
several years; setting up improved 
microphotographic equipment; and 
removing the layers of plaster dust 
which the builders left as a memento. 
These tasks will not be completed in 
the next week, or even month. But 
we hope by the opening of the new 
academic year to be all moved and in 
good order, closets and storerooms and 
dark places rid of their skeletons, floors 
waxed and brass polished, so that we 
may plan an occasion when we can un- 
blushingly open all doors and say to 
you, "Come and see and rejoice with 

— Robert W. Christ. 


Following is a list of titles by Amer- 
ican and British authors of the 19th 
and 20th centuries which are needed 
to complete the Library's holdings of 
these authors. While first editions 
would be highly prized, the Library's 
chief concern is to have on its shelves 
a good reading and study copy of any 
edition. The assistance of Friends in 
the acquisition of these titles will be 
greatly appreciated. 

Mary Hunter Austin 
The arrow ma\er: a drama in three 

acts. New York, 191 1. 
The basket woman. Boston, 1904. 
California: the land of the sun. New 

York, 1914. 
Can prayer be answered. New York, 

J 934- 

The children sing in the far west. Bos- 
ton, 1928. 

Christ in Italy. New York, 1912. 

Experiences facing death. Indianapolis, 

The fioc\. Boston, 1906. 
The ford. Boston, 1917. 
The green bough. Garden City, 1913. 
The land of journey's ending. New 

York, 1924. 
Lost borders. New York, 1909. 
The lovely lady. Garden City, 1913. 
Love and the soul ma\er. New York, 

No. 26 Jayne Street. Boston, 1920. 
Outland. London, 191 0. 
Santa Lucia. New York, 1908. 
Starry adventure. Boston, 1931. 
The trail boo\. Boston, 1918. 

Arnold Bennett 

Accident. Garden City, 1928. 

The author's craft. London, 1914. 

Body and soul; a play in four acts. New 
York, 1 92 1. 

Cupid and common sense; a play in four 
acts. London, 1910. 

Fame and fiction; an enquiry into cer- 
tain popularities. London, 1901. 

The grim smile of the Five Towns, 
London, 1907. 

Judith; a play in three acts. London. 

London life; a play in three acts. Lon- 
don, 1924. 

The love match; a play in five scenes, 
London, 1922. 

Milestones; a play in three acts. Lon- 
don, 1912. 

Polite farces for the drawing-room. Lon- 
don, 1900. 

The title; a comedy in three acts. Lon- 
don, 1918. 

What the public wants; a play in four 
acts. London, 1910. 

Mary Mapes Dodge 
Along the way. New York, 1879. 
Donald and Dorothy. Boston, 1883. 
A few friends and how they amused 

themselves. Philadelphia, 1869. 
The golden gate. Chicago, 1903. 
The Irvington stories. New York, 1865. 
The land of pluc\. New York, 1894. 
When life is young. New York, 1894. 

Mary Wilkins Freeman 
The adventures of Ann. Boston, 1886. 
Decorative plaques. Boston, 1883. 
Edge water people. New York, 191 8. 
The green door. New York, 1910. 



George Gissing 

Critical studies of the wor\s of Charles 

Dickens. New York, 1924. 
Letters to an editor. London, 191 5. 
Stories and sketches. London, 1938. 
Stray leaves from the private papers of 

Henry Ryecroft. Westport, Conn., 


Helen Hunt Jackson 
Easter bells. New York, 1884. 
My legacy. Boston, 1888. 
Pansy Billings and Popsy. Boston, 1898. 

Sarah Orne Jewett 
The Normans. New York, 1901. 
Play days; a boo\ of stories for children. 

Boston, 1878. 
Verses. Boston, 1916. 

Charles Edward Montague 
Action and other stories. London, 1928. 
Fiery particles. London, 1923. 
The front line. London, 1917. 
The morning's war; a romance. New 

York, 1913. 
Notes from Calais base, and pictures of 

its many activities. London, 191 8. 

James K. Paulding 
A gift from fairy-land. New York, 

Koningsmar\e . . . a story of the new 

world. New York, 1823. 
The new mirror for travellers, and a 

guide to the springs. New York, 1828. 
A sketch of old England. New York, 


John Boynton Priestley 
Dangerous corner; a play in three acts. 

New York, 1932. 
Eden end; a play in three acts. London, 

Laburnum grove; a comedy in three 
acts. London, 1934. 

William Gilmore Simms 

As good as a comedy; or, The Ten- 
nesseean's story. Philadelphia, 1852. 

The boo\ of my lady. Philadelphia, 

Castle Dismal; or, The bachelor's Christ- 
mas. New York, 1844. 

Charleston and her satirists. Charleston, 

Donna Florida. Charleston, 1843. 

Early lays. Charleston, 1827. 

Father Abbott; or, the home tourist. 
Charleston, 1849. 

Flirtation at the Mouline house. Charles- 
ton, 1850. 

Grouped thoughts and scattered fancies. 
Richmond, 1845. 

Helen Halsey; or, The swamp state of 
Conelachita. New York, 1845. 

Michael Bon ham; or, The fall of Bexar. 
Richmond, 1852. 

A monody on the death of General 
Cotesworth Pincbney. Charleston, 

The morals of slavery, being a brief re- 
view of the writings of Miss Marti- 
neau. Charleston, 1838. 

The prima donna: a passage from life. 
Philadelphia, 1844. 

The Quaker partisans. Philadelphia, 

The sense of the beautiful. Charleston, 

Slavery in America. Richmond, 1838. 

The tri-color; or, Three days of blood 
in Paris. London, 1830. 

The vision of Cortes, Cain, and other 
poems. Charleston, 1829. 



THE annual dinner meeting of 
The Friends of Duke University 
Library on Thursday, April 7, was at- 
tended by 123 Friends, who pronounced 
it one of the most interesting and en- 
joyable meetings in the history of the 
organization. Dr. B. E. Powell, Uni- 
versity Librarian and Chairman of the 
Executive Committee, presided, and 
Rev. James T. Cleland gave the opening 

After dinner, Dr. Powell called on 
Mr. Robert W. Christ, Secretary of the 
Executive Committee, for a report on 
the activities of the previous year. 
(This report is printed elsewhere in 
this issue.) He then called on Mr. 
Willis Smith, Chairman of the Board 
of Trustees of Duke University, to in- 
troduce to the Friends Dr. Arthur 
Hollis Edens, President of the Univer- 
sity. President Edens' gracious re- 
marks of greeting were warmly re- 
ceived and assure him a permanent 
place in the fellowship of the Friends. 
Rev. George B. Ehlhardt, Chairman of 
the Program Committee, then intro- 
duced the speaker of the evening, Mr. 
Frederick B. Adams, Jr., Director of 
the Pierpont Morgan Library and 
President of the Grolier Club of New 

Mr. Adams spoke on "The Begin- 
nings of the Pierpont Morgan Li- 
brary," emphasizing how and why it 

was started, and the elements in its 
growth. The elder Morgan's collection 
in 1883, when Joseph Sabin prepared a 
forty-page catalog of it, was not dis- 
tinguished for rarities; it was rather a 
collection primarily of books which the 
critical public had long acclaimed. Mr. 
Morgan appeared in it as a "safe" col- 
lector. Only a few items, Mr. Adams 
told the meeting, seemed to indicate 
in any way the future direction of his 
collection. There were reproductions 
of manuscript illuminations by Fouc- 
quet, some rebound volumes of Dick- 
ens, a letter of Robert Burns and a 
facsimile of his Kilmarnock Poems, 
Thomas Moore's own copy of an Amer- 
ican edition of his collected poems 
(with manuscript corrections and the 
note opposite one poem, "Not mine — 
T. M."), the first edition (1663) of 
Eliot's Indian Bible, and a collection of 
autographs of the signers of the Decla- 
ration of Independence. 

From this modest group of collec- 
tors' items, Mr. Adams traced all too 
briefly the development of the magnif- 
icent collection now available to the 
public as The Pierpont Morgan Li- 
brary. The Morgans, their librarians, 
and their agents came alive in Mr. 
Adams' interesting and amusing anec- 
dotes about their collecting activities 
and the acquisition of certain specific 
items, such as the "Golden Gospels," 
the Caxtons, and the almost unbeliev- 
able story of the reunion after nearly 



a century of a Keats letter with the 
signature which had been clipped from 

In closing, Mr. Adams remarked, 
"One is humble before the spectacle of 
those great works of art and literature 
which man has been able to create and 
to communicate through the centuries 
to his posterity. Holding in one's 
hands Countess ludith's two Latin 
manuscripts of the Four Gospels hand- 
somely written and illuminated for her 
in England a short time before the 
Norman Conquest, knowing the many 
lands in which they have taught their 
lessons of language and of line, recall- 
ing the actual names of those owners, 
nobleman and commoner, saint and 
rogue, who have possessed them and 
reflecting on their survival through 
many wars of princes and peoples, one 
is forcibly invaded by a sense of the 
history and continuity of mankind. 
And one feels a warm sense of grati- 
tude and kinship for the people 
(friends of future libraries, we might 
call them) who lovingly and jealously 
guarded such treasures through the 


THE student book collectors group 
closed its activities for the year 
with the third annual contest spon- 
sored by The Friends of the Library 
for the best student book collection. 
Nine undergraduates entered the com- 
petition, and their collections were dis- 

played in the General Library where 
they were viewed by the judges: Mr. 
Charles S. Sydnor, Mr. Norman Foer- 
ster, and Mr. Arthur Ferguson. The 
contestants were interviewed by the 
judges on April 22, and at the final 
meeting of the group on April 27 in 
the new Rare Book Room the prizes 
were presented to the winners by the 
Librarian. First prize of twenty-five 
dollars was won by Richard W. Van 
Fossen for his collection on Sherlock 
Holmes and Arthur Conan Doyle. 
Larry A. Bear's collection of general 
literature earned him the second prize 
of fifteen dollars, and third prize of 
ten dollars went to Mary Wimberly, 
who submitted a collection of French 
literature started when she was spend- 
ing her junior year in study in Paris. 
All three winners were members of 
the senior class, and Van Fossen was 
a student assistant in the Reference 
Department of the General Library. 
Dr. Robert Woody spoke at this meet- 
ing on the Flowers Collection. 

The committee directing the pro- 
gram of the student collectors for the 
past year included Professors Frances 
Brown, Louise Hall, Mary Poteat, 
Helen Bevington, Arthur Ferguson, 
William Blackburn, Lewis Leary, and 
the chairman, Lewis Patton. 


A NUMBER of interesting and un- 
usual gifts have come to the Li- 
brary since the last issue of Library 
Notes. Several are mentioned in the 



report of the Secretary elsewhere in 
this issue. Miss Mary Shotwell of Ox- 
ford has sent a Petersburg, 1841, edition 
of William Byrd's The Westover Manu- 
scripts. Mr. David A. Randall of New 
York added to our Emerson collection 
a fine copy of Borrowings, an anthol- 
ogy published in San Francisco, 1891, 
in which the famous "mouse-trap" 
quotation was first attributed to Emer- 
son. Mr. R. L. Immelen of Rome has 
sent us two plays of Andrea Calmo, 
both 16th century editions. Mr. Rich- 
ard Van Fossen presented two books 
on Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Mr. 
Thomas Simkins several tobacco items, 
and Mrs. Mary Canada Stone a number 
of current books of general interest. 

From Professor Lewis Leary came 
an interesting group of contemporary 
literary manuscripts, including several 
manuscript drafts and working copies 
of poems by Genevieve Taggard (two 
of them unpublished), a manuscript 
poem by Edward Davidson, and a set 
of lecture notes of Jesse Stuart. Mr. 
Robert E. Scudder of Washington, who 
was a guest at the annual dinner meet- 
ing of the Friends, has succeeded in 
locating a first edition copy of the 
Armed Services Edition of Robert 
Frost's Come In, and has sent it to the 
library as an addition to our Frost 

Rev. George B. Ehlhardt has recently 
given fifteen British imprints of the 
16th and 17th centuries relating to the 
Reformation in England; two phono- 

graph records of Anton Brees playing 
the Duke carillon; and a collection of 
fifty-six publications of the Grolier 
Club of New York, presented in mem- 
ory of Dr. Josiah C. Trent and Pro- 
fessor Newman Ivey White. 

With funds contributed by the 
Friends, one hundred and thirty-nine 
volumes have recently been purchased 
for the Ministers' Loan Library, and 
for the Divinity School Library a 
mezzotint portrait of John Wesley, one 
of only one hundred copies issued by 
the Methodist Historical Society of 
England in honor of the anniversary 
of the establishment of the Holy Club 
at Oxford. The balance now available 
in the Friends' fund for the increase of 
the Library is $714.73, of which 
$272.25 is reserved by request of the 
donors for the Ministers' Loan Library. 


ON FRIDAY evening, May 20, the 
Staff Association of the Duke Uni- 
versity Libraries arranged a dinner in 
the Woman's Union Building for Mrs. 
Lillian B. Griggs, who had announced 
her intention to retire as librarian of 
the Woman's College Library on June 
30. A few of Mrs. Griggs' friends 
from outside the University community 
joined with over seventy members of 
the faculty and staff to honor her for 
her accomplishments in directing the 
Woman's College Library for the past 
nineteen years. 



Mrs. Griggs had been librarian of 
the Durham Public Library from 191 1- 
1923, during which time she supervised 
the planning of its present building, 
and also put in operation the first book- 
mobile in the state. In 1918-1919 she 
was on leave for war service with the 
American Library Association in camp 
libraries both here and abroad. From 
1924 to 1930 she was director of the 
North Carolina Library Commission. 
She has also served as president of the 
North Carolina Library Association, 
the Southeastern Library Association, 
ind the League of Library Commis- 
jions of the American Library Asso- 

Mrs. Griggs came to Duke in 1930, 
svhen the General Library was opened 
mi the West Campus and the Woman's 
College Library had its attractive build- 
ng on East Campus, but almost no 
Dooks. In Mrs. Griggs' hands the col- 
ection there has grown to some 80,000 
volumes essential to the undergraduate 
work of the College, and its usefulness 
s attested both by its high circulation 
•ecord and the regard of the members 
)f the faculty who teach on the East 
Campus. Following the dinner, Dr. 
[Catharine Gilbert, Chairman of the 
Department of Aesthetics, Art, and 
Music and a former chairman of the 
Woman's College Library Committee, 
Dr. Lewis Leary, now a member of the 
Library Council as well as of the 
Woman's College Library Committee, 
md Dean R. Florence Brinkley of the 

Woman's College spoke briefly on Mrs. 
Griggs' contributions to the Library 
and to the College. At the conclusion 
of the program, Dr. B. E. Powell pre- 
sented a gift to Mrs. Griggs from the 


AS NOTED in the Secretary's re- 
^ ^-port, the contractor finished his 
work on the enlarged library building 
early in April. Since that time the 
Rare Book Room has been furnished 
and occupied, the old Manuscripts 
Room has been redecorated and re- 
furnished as a Conference Room, the 
old quarters of Public Documents and 
Subject Cataloging on the second floor 
have been converted into a Bibliog- 
raphy Room and new offices for the 
Order and Serials Sections. 

At this writing, shelving for the 
eighth floor of the new stack has not 
yet been received, nor has the air- 
conditioning unit of the stack been 
completed; construction of shelving, 
redecorating, or furnishing is still in- 
complete in the Graduate Reading 
Room, the recreational reading area of 
the Undergraduate Reading Room 
(the former Rare Book Room), the 
new entrance lobby, one special collec- 
tion room adjoining the new Rare 
Book Room, the room for audio-visual 
materials, Periodicals Room, and the 
staff lounge. 

Nearly three-fourths of the general 



stack collection has been moved to new 
locations in the enlarged stack, and 
this moving will continue through the 
summer. As soon as the eighth stack 
floor is equipped, materials remaining 
in storage in the Woman's College Li- 
brary can be brought to the General 
Library and shelved, and the boxed 
materials stored in the corridors of the 
old building can be unpacked. 

Early fall should see the present 
building and alteration program com- 
pleted, and all collections and services 
re-located. A formal opening will 
probably be held at that time, and a 
committee of the Friends is now at 
work on plans for this. 


1948-1949 has been an eventful year 
for the Staff Association of the Duke 
University Libraries. The first meeting 
was held February 1. On this evening 
Dr. Louis A. Warren, director of the 
Lincoln National Life Foundation and 
an authority on Abraham Lincoln, 
spoke to the members of the association 
and their guests upon the subject, "The 
Significance of the Lincoln Papers." 
Dr. Warren was introduced by the Rev- 
erend George B. Ehlhardt, who is a 
collector of Lincolniana and who, like 
the speaker, was present when the Lin- 
coln papers were opened at the Library 
of Congress in July 1947. The address 
was followed by an informal reception. 

On April 6 the staff had the privi- 
lege of hearing Frederick B. Adams, 

Jr., Director of the Pierpont Morgan 
Library, New York, at the Friends of 
the Library dinner. 

The next outstanding event was the 
26th meeting of the North Carolina 
Library Association, which was held in 
Durham late in April. On the after- 
noon of the 28th the Duke University 
Libraries, with the Durham Public Li- 
brary and the Durham School Libraries, 
entertained approximately 250 guests at 
tea in the University House. Among 
those who participated actively in the 
three-day meeting are Miss Marianna 
Long, who is treasurer of the organiza- 
tion; Dr. B. E. Powell, who is a mem- 
ber of the executive committee; Mrs. 
Spears Hicks, who served as chairman 
of the committee on local arrange- 
ments ; Mr. Robert W. Christ, who was 
the speaker in the Special Libraries Sec- 
tion; and Miss Lucille Simcoe, who took 
part in the panel discussion at the 
junior members round-table luncheon. 

Always a red-letter day is that upon 
which the annual meeting with the 
staff association of the University of 
North Carolina is held. This year the 
Duke librarians were entertained de- 
lightfully by their Carolina friends on 
May 3 in the Graham Memorial. Paul 
Green, the noted playwright, was the 
speaker for the occasion; Mr. Green 
chose for his topic, "What the Library 
Means to Me." 

The climax of the year's activities 
was reached May 20 when Mrs. Lillian 
B. Griggs, for nineteen years the highly 



juccessful librarian of the Woman's 
College, was the guest of honor at a 
dinner given in the East Campus 

That the association is interested in 
philanthropic enterprises devoted to the 
distribution of books is, of course, a 
Foregone conclusion. Each year as its 
:ontribution to "the public library of 
ihe high seas," it makes a donation to 
:he American Merchant Marine Li- 

brary Association. In addition, in 
December it sent a check to the Ameri- 
can Library Association for the Inter- 
national Youth Library. At present, 
however, it is concentrating its efforts 
upon the education of future librarians, 
for it is now endeavoring to raise 
money to fulfill a pledge made to the 
North Carolina Library Association for 
its scholarship fund. 

— Esther Evans, President. 








THE Duke University Library, like the University itself, has its origin 
in Union Institute, established in Randolph County, North Carolina, in 
1838. The Union Institute Academy became Trinity College in 1859, and 
moved to Durham in 1892, where it remains the undergraduate college of arts 
and sciences for men of Duke University. 

Nathan Hunt, Jr., proposed to establish a library in the Academy at 
a meeting of the Union Institute Society in 1840, and a committee was 
appointed to study his proposal; unfortunately, the minutes of the Society 
do not include a record of the committee's report. In 1846 a debating society, 
the Columbian Literary Society, was organized at Union Institute, and began 
at once to collect books for its members' use. In 1851 the Hesperian Literary 
Society was formed, and keen rivalry developed between the two societies 
in building up their libraries. The college, too, was buying books, for the 
Catalogue of Trinity College, 1 860-1 861, gives the number of books in each 
of the societies as 2200, and in the College Library as 650. A Theological 
Society, which flourished at Trinity College in 1867-1868, also had its collec- 
tion of books. 

John Franklin Crowell assumed the Presidency of Trinity College in 
August, 1887, and in the first year of his administration persuaded all three 
of the societies to consolidate their collections with that of the College, form- 
ing the Trinity College Library (an estimated 9000 volumes) which was placed 
in the old Chapel building. When the College moved to Durham in 1892, 
the Library was established in the largest room of the Washington Duke 

Rev. John C. Kilgo, who succeeded Crowell as President in August, 
1894, said in his inaugural address that the Library must be increased, and 
sought the support of trustees, alumni, and friends for this purpose. In 1899 
he appointed the first full-time, permanent librarian, Joseph P. Breedlove, 
and at commencement in June 1900 announced that Mr. James B. Duke had 
given money to erect the first library building. This was opened on February 
23, 1903, and when a Law Library was started in 1904, it was shelved in the 
same building. By 1910 the Library had grown to 40,000 volumes, and more 
than doubled again in the next fourteen years, so that some 90,000 volumes 




completely filled the building at the end of 1924 when the University was 
created and plans for the development of the present two campuses were drawn. 

The present Woman's College Library, on the old Trinity College campus, 
was completed in March, 1927, and the collection was moved there. (The 
original library building was dismantled and presented to Kittrell College in 
Kittreli, North Carolina, where it was rebuilt and still serves as a library 
building.) An enlarged faculty and student body, however, and a university 
program of graduate study and research, demanded greatly increased library 
resources. Less than four years later, when the West campus was completed 
and the Library was moved again in August, 1930, the University had a collec- 
tion of nearly 200,000 volumes. A new collection was started for the Woman's 
College Library with the opening of that College in September 1930. 

The exceptional rate of growth established in the late twenties continued 
through the thirties, and by the time of the second World War the General 
Library was overcrowded. Thousands of books had to be packed in boxes, 
removed from the stacks, and stored elsewhere in order to make room for new 
accessions. Thousands more of new acquisitions had to be packed and stored 
for lack of space in which to catalog or shelve them. It was not until 1947, 
in fact, that the gift of a friend made possible alterations and new construction 
which doubled the capacity of the General Library building. During the 
summer of 1949 the collection, including stored materials, was reshelved to 
take advantage of new stack space, services were reorganized, and the enlarged 
building formally opened on October 21, 1949. 

On June 30, 1949, the combined holdings of the University totaled more 
than 960,000 volumes cataloged and available for use. About 615,000 were 
in the General Library, 80,000 in the Woman's College Library, 45,000 in the 
Divinity School Library, 90,000 in the Law Library, and 50,000 in the Hospital 
Library, with the remaining 80,000 in the departmental libraries of Biology- 
Forestry, Chemistry, Physics-Mathematics, and the College of Engineering. 
The manuscript collection contained over 1,000,000 items, and there were in 
addition approximately 125,000 books and pamphlets which had not yet been 
cataloged for public use. 





THE General Library building occupies the southwest corner of the 
academic quadrangle on the West, or University, campus. The Divinity 
School adjoins on the West, and the Law School on the North. It provides 
air-conditioned stacks for approximately 900,000 volumes, reading rooms and 
carrells for 900 readers, office space for the staff of more than 60, special facilities 
for rare books, manuscripts, newspapers, and photographic services, and offices 
for 30 members of the faculty. 

Ground Floor 

The ground floor houses a reading room for the use of bound newspapers, 
reading machines for microfilms, and photographic services equipped with 
the most modern cameras and enlargers for making microfilm and photoprint 
copies of books, newspapers, and manuscripts. The two lower floors of the 
bookstack, adjoining these rooms, are given over to storage of bound news- 
papers. There is a room for classes using audio-visual materials, provided with 
projection equipment, record players, and the like. The remainder of this 
floor is occupied by a receiving and shipping room, storage rooms, and a lounge 
and kitchenette for the use of the library staff. The ground floor of the North 
tower contains an air-conditioned office, workroom, reading room, and storage 
area for the manuscript collections and University archives. 

First Floor 

The first floor provides reading rooms for the principal needs of students 
in their course work. An Undergraduate Reading Room, with tables and 
chairs for more than 150 readers, houses books reserved for assigned reading 
in undergraduate courses, as well as an Undergraduate Collection of about 
3000 books representing the best thought and literature of all ages, and avail- 
able for use or circulation from open shelves. A few basic reference works 
are also available here. Adjoining this large reading room is a small room 
furnished like a private library, with comfortable sofas and chairs for recrea- 
tional reading. A constantly changing collection of current literature, and 
other books of general interest fill the bookshelves lining the walls. 




A Graduate Reading Room, with accommodations for ninety readers, 
contains books reserved for graduate and senior-graduate courses, a small 
collection of reference and bibliographical tools, and other collections of 
special importance to graduate students. A Periodical Room, with tables for 
eighty readers, has cabinets with closed compartments for the current, unbound 
issues of most of the Library's periodicals; those in special subject fields are 
sent direct to the appropriate departmental libraries. There is also a Con- 
ference Room for meetings of the Library Council and similar academic groups, 
and for doctoral examinations. 

The first floor of the North Tower is devoted entirely to Rare Book 
Rooms. A large reading room, beautifully decorated in the style of a private 
collector's library, has grilled-door shelving, comfortable chairs and study tables, 
and exhibition cases. Opening from this are two smaller special collection 
rooms: the Trent Room houses the Walt Whitman collection and other rare 
books presented by the late Dr. J. C. Trent and Mrs. Trent; the other houses 
the rare printed items of the George Washington Flowers collection of 
Southern Americana and similar materials. There is also an office for the 
Curator of Rare Books, with adjoining stacks for additional book storage. 
These quarters are entirely air-conditioned. The lobby, with its exit through 
a colonnade to the campus walk, has more exhibition cases for the display 
of rare books and manuscripts. 



Second Floor 

On the second floor are the principal readers' services, and offices for the 
library staff and administration. The Public Catalog Room houses the union 
card catalog of books in all libraries of the University, and an author catalog 
of the University of North Carolina Library. Portraits of former members 
of the University faculty and administration hang on the walls of this room. 
An adjoining Bibliography Room supplements the Library's own catalog with 
trade and other bibliographies of the major publishing countries of the world, 
and the printed catalogs of numerous other libraries. 

The Circulation Department includes the Main Loan Desk for circulation 
of the general collection, and the entrance to the central stack of eight floors, 
where 250 carrells, many of them completely enclosed, offer to members of the 
faculty and graduate students comfortable facilities for private study in close 
proximity to the books needed for their research. Direct communication be- 
tween the Main Loan Desk and each floor of the stack is maintained through 
pneumatic tubes, and books are delivered to the Desk by an electric booklift 
or student pages. Two elevators for passengers and booktrucks also serve 
the central stack, and two elevators serve the public rooms and offices. 
Opposite the Main Loan Desk and flanked by open shelves for the display 


[ TO 1 

of new accessions and locked cases for timely exhibits of materials from all 
collections of the Library, is the entrance to the Reference and General Reading 
Room. Here approximately 5000 reference books and bibliographies are avail- 
able on open shelves, with study tables for 125 readers. On the walls of this 
room are portraits of members of the Duke family, trustees of the Duke 
Endowment, and others associated with the original development of the 
University. The Public Documents Room houses several reference sets and 
current issues of state and federal publications, with special catalogs and 
bibliographical tools for their use. 

In the North tower is a suite of offices for the Librarian, Assistant Librarian, 
and secretaries. Offices and workrooms for the Technical Processes Division 
occupy the entire west end of the second floor and provide for the ordering, 
physical preparation, binding, cataloging, and classification of books. 

Upper Floors 

On the third floor are a Map Room, seminar rooms, and a large reading 
room now unassigned. The remainder of this floor, the entire fourth and 
fifth floors of the Southeast tower, and the fourth floor of the North tower, 
are occupied by faculty offices. 

I 11 I 


THOUGH only a quarter-century old as a university collection, the Duke 
University Library is now one of the twelve or fifteen largest university 
libraries in the nation. The Woman's College Library is primarily an under- 
graduate library, emphasizing those fields in which instruction has been con- 
centrated on the East campus. The departmental libraries house the materials 
for both undergraduate and graduate work in the departments of Botany, 
Chemistry, Mathematics, Physics, Zoology, the College of Engineering, the 
School of Forestry, and the Divinity School. The libraries of the School of 
Law and the School of Medicine meet the special needs of students and facul- 
ties of those schools. The General Library has been developed to satisfy 
the requirements of undergraduate instruction, and the course work and 
research of graduate students and faculty in the humanities and the social 

For undergraduate study the collection is well rounded in all fields; for 
graduate research, an effort has been made to secure, basic source materials as 
well as the important publications of criticism and discussion. Annual pur- 
chases have been supplemented by the gifts of friends, and by the acquisition 
of a number of special collections and libraries in several fields now emphasized 
in the programs of graduate research. 

The Library has been particularly fortunate in securing many of the 
great monumental sets of printed documentary sources, such as Migne's 
Patrologia (both Greek and Latin series), Die Griechischen Christlichen 
Schriftsteller der ersten drei ]ahrhunderte, Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum 
Latinorum, Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae, Monumenta Germaniae 
Historica, Muratori's Rerum Italicarum Scriptores, and the Chronicles and 

Publications of the European academies, containing monographs in most 
of the fields of knowledge and contributing important sources for research 
programs of graduate students and faculty in many departments, are well 
represented with a collection of over 4000 volumes, including sets of the 
Preussische A\ademie der Wissenschaften (Berlin); Gesellschaft der Wissen- 
schaften zu Gottingen; Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften; A\ademie 
der Wissenschaften (Vienna); Academie des Sciences (Paris); Academie des 


Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres (Paris) ; Academie des Sciences Morales et Politi- 
ques (Paris) ; Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei (Rome) ; Accademia Potitificia 
dei Nuovi Lincei (Rome) ; Academia Espaiiola (Madrid) ; Accidentia de la 
Historia (Madrid); A\ademiia Nau\ (Leningrad); Daiiske Videns\abernes 
Selskab (Copenhagen) ; Norske V idens\aps-a\ademi (Oslo) ; Academie van 
W etenschappen (Amsterdam) ; Academie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et 
des Beaux- Arts de Belgique (Brussels). 

The development of the periodical collection has been one of the primary 
objectives of the Library administration from the beginning, especially in the 
sciences, including mathematics, where the journal literature is particularly 
important. The collection of periodical and serial sets in the sciences may 
now be considered strong, and the general collection good, though not out- 
standing in specific fields. Of the important English general and literary 
magazines, for instance, the Library has long runs of The Gentleman's Maga- 
zine and the London Magazine, and a complete set of the Philosophical Trans- 
actions of the Royal Society. Among more uncommon holdings are sets of 
the pre-Raphaelite The Germ, the Smart Set, and KokJ{a, an illustrated journal 
of the fine and applied arts of Japan and other Eastern countries. A collection 
of early American periodicals has been purchased on microfilm. American 
and British general and local historical societies are well represented in the 
periodical files; of similar interest and importance are the "Victoria County 
Histories." The periodical collection is being maintained with a current sub- 
scription list of over 3000 titles, and by the purchase of back files as they 
become available and funds permit. 

The importance of public documents as fundamental source materials 
is clearly recognized, and a comprehensive collection of this material has been 
assembled. The Library has been a depository for Federal documents since 
1890. State documentary publications are being systematically collected in 
cooperation with the Library of the University of North Carolina by an agree- 
ment covering a division of responsibility respecting the documents of the 
various states, to the end that those of all states and territories may be available 
in this area. A representative collection of European public documents has 
been assembled, including the British Parliamentary Papers (complete from 
1925), Calendar of State Papers, Acts of the Privy Council, Hansard's Debates, 
the Debats Parlementaires of the French Senate and Chamber of Deputies, the 
Journal Officiel and the Bulletin des Lois, the Reichs-gesetzblatt and the 
Verhandlungen des Reichstags, the Atti of the Italian Parliament, the Diario 
of the Spanish Cortes, etc. The public documents of the Latin American 


countries, especially Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Peru, and 
Uruguay form one of the strongest units of the Library. There are also files 
of the publications of the League of Nations, the International Labour Office, 
the United Nations, and other international organizations. 

Supplementing these official documents is the library of Professor Louis 
Strisower, sometime President of the Institut de Droit International, which 
contains approximately 5000 volumes dealing with international law dating 
from the seventeenth to the twentieth centuries, and includes some especially 
valuable periodical files and rare books. 

The newspaper collection numbers some 13,000 volumes in original 
issues, and 1600 rolls of microfilm. Most of the states of the Union are repre- 
sented, although a large percentage of the papers are from the Atlantic 
seaboard — about fifty per cent representing the South and thirty per cent the 
Northeast. Of the eighteenth-century titles, the states best represented are 
Massachusetts, Maryland, New York, Rhode Island, Georgia, Virginia, North 



Carolina, and South Carolina. The collection of nineteenth-century New 
England papers is strong, and the Library has at least one, and generally two 
or three different New York newspapers for almost every day of the entire 
nineteenth century. Holdings of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Vir- 
ginia papers of the Ante-Bellum and Civil War periods are extensive. The 
years of the first World War are covered by twenty-eight fairly complete files. 
Of special importance and usefulness among American newspapers are cer- 
tain major titles in long, almost complete files. The Library has the New 
Orleans Abeille, 1827-1917; the New York Tribune, 1841-1909 (the personal 
file of the editor, Horace Greeley), the New York Herald, 1848-1921, and the 
New York Herald-Tribune, 1925 to date; the New Yor\ Times, 1851 to date; 
Charlotte (N. C.) Observer, 1874 to date; Raleigh (N. C.) News and Observer, 
1880 to date; Columbia (S. C.) The State, 1892 to date; and the Richmond 
(Va.) Times-Dispatch, 1908 to date. A catalog of the holdings of United 
States newspapers was published by the Library in six parts, 1932-1937. 
Foreign newspapers include The Times (London) from 1785, and about a 
dozen virtually complete runs of European and Latin American papers from 
the i92o's and early 1930's. The current subscription list contains seventy 
titles, about one-half from foreign countries, and the remainder distributed 
throughout the United States to reflect all geographical influences in editorial 

The collection of reference and bibliographic tools has been developed 
in all fields as an indispensable aid to graduate and advanced research. The 
collection now contains recent and many older editions of all the major 
encyclopedias of the world, a large number of statistical and general hand- 
books and compends, dictionaries, biographical cyclopedias, directories, and 
similar books. There are many periodical indexes, and the collection of author 
and subject bibliographies is constantly being increased. There are good files 
of trade bibliographies, including complete sets of Boo\ Prices Current (both 
British and American), and printed catalogs of many other libraries, such as 
the British Museum, Bibliotheque Nationale, Library of Congress, the Surgeon- 
General's Library, and the Gesamtkatalog der Preussischen Bibliotheken. In 
American bibliography there are Evans, Sabin, Harrisse, the Church and De- 
Renne catalogs, etc. In other specialized fields the Library has such titles as 
the Gesamtkatalog der Wiegendrucke, as well as the older Hain-Copinger, 
Brunet, Graesse, the Catalogue of Scientific Papers of the Royal Society, the 
Catalogue of the Ashley Library, and many more. 

The manuscript collection contains more than one million items, relating 


chiefly to the South Atlantic region, many of them acquired through the 
George Washington Flowers Memorial Fund, established by bequest of his 
son, William W. Flowers, of the class of 1894, and supplemented by gifts 
from his other children. Most numerous are records of military, social, and 
economic life in the Confederate period, including letters, diaries, rosters, 
military reports, statutes of the Confederate Congress, court records, and papers 
of various departments of the Confederate Government. The collection, most 



extensive in the field of history, contains valuable information on all phases of 
social and economic life as well as politics. Outstanding among the many 
papers providing a well-rounded picture of life in the South during the nine- 
teenth century are original census returns of Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, 


and Tennessee for 1850 and i860. Numerous large collections bear particularly 
on the history of Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and 
Virginia. Of interest for historical studies are papers of P. G. T. Beauregard, 
John C. Calhoun, David Campbell, Robert Carter, Clement C. Clay, Henry 
Clay, William H. Crawford, John J. Crittenden, Jefferson Davis, Nathanael 
Greene, Andrew Jackson, Robert E. Lee, Alfred T. Mahan, Alexander H. 
Stephens, and others. For the later period the papers of Furnifold W. Simmons 
and Josiah W. Bailey, United States Senators from North Carolina, are sig- 
nificant. The papers of Col. John Dallas Langston, Assistant Director of the 
Selective Service System during the second World War, and of Capt. Francis 
Warrington Dawson, late editor of the Charleston (S. C.) News and Courier, 
are recent gifts of unusual interest. The field of American literature is repre- 



sented by papers of Thomas Holley Chivers, John Esten Cooke, Clara V. 
Dargan, Paul Hamilton Hayne, George Frederick Holmes, Alexander B. 
Meek, Thomas Nelson Page, Augustin L. Taveau, and Walt Whitman, and 
there is also the Frank C. Brown collection of North Carolina folklore, which 
is now in process of publication. Among other literary manuscripts are inter- 
esting groups of papers relating to George Moore, the Rossettis, Robert Southey, 
and Tennyson. The Library also has the official files of the Socialist Party 
of America from 1901 to 1938, and a collection of papers of George Holyoake, 
English cooperator and secularist of the nineteenth century. 

There are eleven early Greek manuscripts of importance to biblical scholars, 
chiefly lectionaries and copies of the New Testament. A thirteenth-century 
New Testament, and a liturgical scroll of the Byzantine Empire, are note- 

A Guide to the Manuscript Collections in the Du\e University Library, 
which describes the papers comprising the collections in 1942, was issued in 
1947 as Series 27 and 28 of the Historical Papers of the Trinity College His- 
torical Society. 

A few of the special collections or libraries which have been acquired 
en bloc are mentioned here as an indication both of the strength of the Library 
and of its collecting activity. There are important collections relating to three 
South American countries: a Peruvian library of about 7000 books and manu- 
scripts; a library of several thousand volumes dealing with Brazil, including 
files of the publications of many Brazilian learned societies ; and an Ecuadorian 
collection of about 2000 volumes. The Robertson collection of Philippiniana 
and the James A. Thomas collection on Chinese history and culture supply 
unusual resources for the study of the Far East. In European literature there 
are a Goethe collection of 1000 volumes; a Scandinavian collection of 3000 
volumes; Gustave Lanson's library of French literature, comprising some 
12,000 books and monographs, including many autographed, presentation, and 
association copies; the library of the late Professor Guido Mazzoni numbering 
23,000 volumes and 67,000 pamphlets and reprints in Italian and comparative 
literature; and the Henry Bellamann Dante collection of 300 volumes, rich in 
translations and criticism, which was presented to the Library by Mrs. 
Katherine Bellamann. 

The Holl church history library, dealing primarily with the period of 
the Reformation, and a collection of many thousands of church minutes and 
records of American denominational history, are of exceptional importance to 
the Divinity School. Of interest to students in the social sciences are a collec- 















tion of material on the Fourier movement, and a large collection of pamphlets 
on socialism which supplements the official files of the Socialist Party of 
America in the Manuscript Department. The George Washington Flowers 
collection contains, in addition to voluminous manuscript holdings, a notable 
collection of books, pamphlets, newspapers, and broadsides dealing with all 
phases of Southern history. A collection of more than 5000 seventeenth and 
eighteenth-century British pamphlets supplies source materials for the student 
of the political history and international relations of Great Britain. Mr. 
George A. Arents, Jr., has presented several hundred volumes relating to the 
culture and production of tobacco and the manufacture and distribution of 
tobacco products. The collection includes many rare titles, and an almost 
complete file of the important journal, Tobacco. 

In English literature, emphasis has been placed especially on the eighteenth 
and nineteenth centuries, and a number of rarities have been acquired. Two 
collections of eighteenth-century poetry and prose total about 5000 items, and 
include rare groups of Johnson, Boswell, and the novelists. In the nineteenth 
century, there are small collections of Swinburne, Tennyson, and Rossetti, and 
significant groups of annotated copies and first editions of Coleridge and 
Byron, the latter purchased with funds presented by the class of 1913. There 
are also 400 titles in a collection of English drama, principally of the seven- 
teenth century, and more than a hundred rare emblem books gathered over a 
period of years. 



20 ] 

In American literature, the Paul Hamilton Hayne library strengthens the 
nineteenth-century holdings ; a checklist of this collection was published by the 
Library in 1930. A more recent acquisition is the Emerson collection formed 
by the late Carroll A. Wilson, comprising first editions, presentation and asso- 
ciation copies, and a few manuscript letters. There is also a Bryant collection 
of some 200 items, including a number of first editions of his works. In 1943 
the late Dr. J. C. Trent and Mrs. Trent presented to the Library their Walt 
Whitman collection. Two hundred printed volumes are about equally divided 
between editions of Whitman's writings (including the first and all other 
important early editions or issues of Leaves of Grass), and books and articles 
in the field of Whitman biography and criticism. With these, nearly 300 
manuscripts, about 400 letters, more than thirty pictures, twenty-five pieces 
of sheet music, and additional miscellanea, make up a collection of major and 
international importance. A catalog of the Whitman collection was published 
by the Library in 1945. From the same donors, a small collection of Franklin 
Delano Roosevelt and many contemporary first editions have strengthened 
the Library in this important field, as has a Robert Frost collection presented 
by Rev. George B. Ehlhardt which contains all the books and nearly all the 
ephemeral and miscellaneous publications, most of them autographed and 
inscribed by the poet. 



"We Thank With Brief Thanksgiving ..." 

THE Duke University Library is supported now, as in the past, by 
funds appropriated annually by the Trustees from the general income of 
the University, an allotment from the students' University fees, gifts of books 
and money from friends, and the income from certain endowments presented 
to the University specifically for the benefit of the Library. Of these, the 
George Washington Flowers Memorial Fund provides "for the purchase of 
manuscripts, books and other printed or photographed materials dealing with 
the life and thought of the Southern States of the United States of America"; 
the Henry Harrison Jordan Memorial Foundation supports the Ministers' Loan 
Library of the Divinity School; other funds provide income for the purchase 
of books and periodicals in various fields. 

Annual gifts of books and expendable funds from many friends over the 
years — gifts ranging from a single volume to large collections and from a few 
dollars to many — have played an important part in the development of the 
Library collections, and will, it is hoped, continue to do so in the future. Of 
no less importance and equally appreciated has been the intangible gift of 
sympathetic interest which has led so many to devote their time and thought 
to the solution of the Library's problems of organization, administration, and 

To coordinate the interests and activities of those desiring to share in 
the Library's development, The Friends of Duke University Library was 
organized in 1935. The society's major purposes are: to strengthen interest 
in the work of the Library and to further a realization of the present and 
future importance of the Library to the University's advancement; and to 
increase the usefulness of the Library to the University community and to 
scholars generally. 

The society meets at least once each year to hear an address by an out- 
standing librarian, bookman, or scholar, and to discuss means of attaining its 
stated objectives. It sponsors a Student Book Collectors Group within the 
University, and offers annual prizes for the best book collections formed by 
students during their undergraduate years. The organization's bulletin, Library 
Notes, which is sent to all members, carries informative articles about the 
Library's resources in various fields, its special collections, the results of research 


in some of the Library's rare holdings, news of the Library, reports of new 
acquisitions, and lists of desiderata. 

The Duke University Library occupies a building constructed in 1930, 
enlarged and made more attractive, comfortable, and serviceable in 1949 
through the gift of an interested friend. Its collection, started by student 
societies more than 100 years ago, has grown through the enlightened support 
of the University administration and the gifts and interest of its friends to 
become one of the important research resources of the nation. The knowledge 
and skill of its staff seek constantly to increase the efficiency of its service. 
To these essential factors of building, collection, and staff, the devotion and 
activities of The Friends of Duke University Library are adding a spirit which 
will help the Library not only to fulfill its normal functions, but also to con- 
tribute to the educational and cultural benefits of the community and to the 
world of scholarship and learning. 






The Friends ofT)uke University Jfcbrary 

No. 23 January 1950 


PRELIMINARY arrangements have 
just been completed for the exhibi- 
tion at Duke University of three of 
the ancient Hebrew scrolls which were 
discovered in the Holy Land in the late 
summer of 1947. Eight scrolls were 
found by Bedouin shepherds in a small 
cave concealed in a cliff near Jericho, 
overlooking the northern end of the 
Dead Sea from the west. This is the 
area of the wilderness of the New 
Testament, where John the Baptist 
preached and where Christ underwent 
His temptation. The arid air of this 
desert region helped to preserve the 
parchment scrolls, which were wrapped 
in linen cloth and sealed in pottery jars 
characteristic of the Maccabaean Age 
(165 — 37 B.C.). The Bedouins who 
discovered the cave sold the scrolls to 
the Hebrew University and to the Syr- 
ian monastery of Saint Mark in Jeru- 
salem. Of the four scrolls purchased by 
the monastery, three will be exhibited: 
a virtually complete manuscript of the 
book of Isaiah, a large fragment of a 
commentary on Habakkuk, and a man- 
uscript containing a kind of compen- 

dium of the doctrines of a still-uniden- 
tified Jewish sect. The scrolls have 
been acclaimed by experts as the great- 
est single manuscript discovery of 
modern times, and the most important 
find ever made in the Holy Land. 

The script of the scrolls has been 
studied by some of the leading authori- 
ties on ancient writing, who date them 
in the last two centuries B.C., and the 
pottery of the jars in which the scrolls 
had been deposited is similarly dated 
by leading archaeological authorities on 
Palestine. The Isaiah scroll, 22 feet 
long and in a state of almost perfect 
preservation, is probably the oldest. It 
is easily over a thousand years older 
than the oldest dated Hebrew manu- 
script of the Bible extant, which is now 
preserved in Leningrad, and is un- 
doubtedly the oldest manuscript of a 
book of the Bible that has come down 
to us in any language. St. Luke (IV: 
16-17) describes how Jesus "came to 
Nazareth, where he had been brought 
up: and, as his custom was, he went 
into the synagogue on the sabbath day, 
and stood up for to read. And there 


was delivered unto him the book of the 
prophet Isaiah. . . ." Scholars believe 
He read from a scroll similar to this. 
Even the latest of the new documents 
are prior to the Christian era, and ante- 
date the composition of the oldest book 
of the New Testament by more than a 
century. They are thus of extraordi- 
nary scholarly importance for the light 
they throw on the text of the Old Testa- 
ment and on the background of the 
New Testament, and for their contribu- 
tion to our knowledge of Jewish litera- 
ture and history in the period between 
the Old and New Testaments. 

The scrolls were brought to this 
country by His Eminence, Athanasius 
Yeshue Samuel, Archbishop and Metro- 
politan of Jerusalem and Trans-Jordan 
and Superior of the Monastery of Saint 
Mark, through whose generous cooper- 
ation the University has been granted 
the privilege of exhibiting them. The 
three scrolls were exhibited for the first 
time anywhere in the world at the 
Library of Congress from October 23 
to November 6, 1949, and shortly there- 
after at The Walters Art Gallery in 
Baltimore. They have not yet been 
shown at any private institution. 

The scrolls will be exhibited at Duke 
from February 12 to 17 on the steps 
leading to the chancel of the University 
Chapel. The exhibition will open at 
three o'clock on Sunday afternoon, Feb- 
ruary 12, and the Chapel will remain 
open until eight o'clock. Monday 
through Friday, February 13 to 17, the 
exhibition may be seen from 9:00 a.m. 

to 7:00 p.m. The Library will exhibit 
simultaneously a selection of biblical 
manuscripts and important printed edi- 
tions of the Bible from its own collec- 

On Thursday evening, February 16, 
Dr. John C. Trever will deliver the 
Divinity School Library Lecture on 
"From Ancient Scroll to Modern 
Bible" in Page Auditorium at 8:00 
o'clock. Dr. Trever is Director of the 
Department of the English Bible of the 
International Council of Religious Edu- 
cation, and was Acting Director of the 
American Schools of Oriental Research 
in Jerusalem when the scrolls were dis- 

Volume one of a three-volume study 
of the scrolls will be published by the 
American Schools of Oriental Research 
under the general editorship of Dr. 
Millar Burrows during the week the 
scrolls are at Duke. This first volume 
will contain a reproduction of the text, 
with critical notes and commentary on 
the Isaiah scroll by Dr. Trever, and on 
the Habakkuk scroll by Dr. William 
H. Brownlee of Duke University. 

In view of the importance of this ex- 
hibition, The Friends of Duke Univer- 
sity Library will forego their annual 
dinner meeting this year, and in its 
place will hold a reception for His 
Eminence, who will be the guest of the 
University during the week of the ex- 
hibition, and Dr. Trever. All members 
of The Friends will receive invitations 
to the exhibition, lecture and reception. 


Allan H. Gilbert 

Professor Gilbert was in Florence dur- 
ing the spring of 1948 on sabbatical leave 
from his duties as Professor of English at 
Duke University, and generously agreed 
to act as agent for the Library in ne- 
gotiations for the purchase of the Mazzoni 
library. He also supervised its packing 
and shipment to Durham. The library 
was received here in the summer of 1948, 
and remained in storage until the late 
summer of 1949 when the completion of 
new book stacks made space available in 
which it could be unpacked. It is now 
being sorted, arranged, and listed. Pro- 
fessor Gilbert offers here a preliminary sur- 
vey of the collection, based on the material 
unpacked in the fall of 1949, an incomplete 
list provided to him by the Mazzoni fami- 
ly in Italy, and his own examination of the 
library there. Numbers of volumes given 
throughout this paper are estimates, for 
the library has not yet been catalogued, and 
are probably conservative. In addition to 
the books and pamphlets described here, 
the Library received also Professor Maz- 
zoni's large collection of notes (schede) 
on his wide reading, many of them of a 
bibliographical nature. — Editor. 

FOR MANY years before 1943 one 
could often have seen on the streets 
of Florence a small but distinguished- 
looking man carrying under his arm a 
bundle of books. A stranger might 
have been told, "That is Senator and 
Professor Guido Mazzoni, of the Uni- 
versity of Florence. He seems to have 
some more books for his private library, 

one of the finest in Italy." "Professor 
Mazzoni must be a rich man, then." 
"No, the contrary is true. He tells 
his children: 'I have no money, I have 
no bonds, I have no lands, but I do have 
books, and them I shall leave to you.' " 
These books, numbering about 23,000, 
were acquired by purchase in 1948 and 
are now a part of the Duke University 

Professor Mazzoni's distinguished 
career is a kind of guide to the con- 
tents of his library. For far from mak- 
ing his collection of books something 
merely to be treasured and caressed, as 
it were, he did not let his life sink into 
his library as a lesser man might have 
done, but he assembled it and used it 
as the foundation of his professional 
activity. After finishing his course of 
studies at Pisa he became a pupil of 
Giosue Carducci at Bologna. Then in 
turn he taught in schools at Lodi, Pisa, 
and Rome. In 1887 he was first in the 
competition for the professorship of 
Italian literature at the University of 
Padua. In 1894, when he was thirty- 
five years old, he was asked without the 
formalities of a competition to assume 
the chair of Italian literature, vacated by 
Adolfo Bartoli, in his native city of 
Florence. Already his publications had 
given evidence of his professional abili- 
ties; and in addition, his love for human 


beings, his vigorous convictions, and his 
outgoing disposition had shown that he 
possessed other qualities important for 
a teacher. 

Professor Mazzoni's work was of 
course chiefly in Italian literature. As 
early as 1881 he had published an edi- 
tion of Dante. This was followed by a 
volume of selections in 1924, and by 
another edition in 193 1. Later he be- 
came President of the Societa Dantesca 
Italiana. This interest is represented by 
some 650 volumes now in our Library, 
including the chief commentaries and 
editions and the pertinent periodicals. 
These, with the complementary Bella- 
mann Collection of over three hundred 
volumes, recently acquired by gift, 
bring our Dante collection to a total of 
some twelve hundred volumes. 

Besides Dante, Professor Mazzoni 
was occupied with Tasso (of whose 
works he published an edition in 1883 
and another in 1925) and Ariosto, 
whom he edited in 1932. His Tasso 
collection contains about seventy-five 
titles including the Opera in thirty- 
three volumes, and many other editions 
and special studies. His Ariosto collec- 
tion contains thirteen editions of the 
Orlando Furioso, various editions of the 
other works, some of them, such as the 
facsimile of the manuscript of the 
Satires, now rare, and the other primary 
works for the study of the poet. There 
is also a collection on the romances of 
chivalry. Mazzoni edited also Machia- 
velli's The Prince, and his edition of 

the Literary and Historical Works, done 
in 1929 with Mario Casella, is now re- 
garded as the best. With these are 
twenty-four related titles, some of them 
representing half a dozen volumes, and 
some eighty works by and about Parini, 
of whom Mazzoni produced a critical 
edition in 1925. 

Senator Mazzoni's largest work was 
his History of Italian Literature in the 
Nineteenth Century, in two volumes 
totaling about 1500 pages. This was 
issued in 1913 and went through three 
editions, of which the last was com- 
pletely redone, and there was an addi- 
tional printing. Thus the major part 
of his library was devoted to books deal- 
ing with that century. Our preliminary 
list of these covers about seventy-five 
closely typed pages, many of the titles 
representing multi-volume sets; for ex- 
ample, there are two sets of Carducci, 
one of twenty volumes, the other of 

One of the Senator's early works, 
often revised, was his Avviamento alio 
Studio Critico delle Lettere Italiane, to a 
great extent a bibliographical work in- 
tended for university students. Many 
of the works of reference and periodi- 
cals mentioned in this volume appear 
in the collection, such as the Vocabo- 
lario degli Accademici della Crusca, and 
Rassegna Bibliografica della Letteratura 

Although he was a President of the 
Reale Accademia della Crusca, Mazzoni 
did not confine himself to Italian let- 


ters. He published a translation of 
Catullus, to whom twenty-six volumes 
in the collection are devoted, and the 
entire classical section numbers about 
seven hundred volumes. His transla- 
tions of Zola and The Vicar of Wake- 
field are supported in the collection by 
a large number of French and a smaller 
number of English books. And besides 
these, other literatures as well as his- 
tory, politics, philosophy, religion, and 
the arts are well represented. 

Though best known as a scholar, Pro- 
fessor Mazzoni was also a poet who 
published a number of volumes of verse, 
entitling him to be called a man of let- 
ters in the full sense of the word. Many 
of the volumes in his library are those 
he not merely studied as a scholar but 
read and loved as a poet. 

The list of books written by Guido 
Mazzoni strides through Italian litera- 
ture from the beginning to the end, and 
so does that of the books he collected 
for his library as the basis and back- 
ground of his study and teaching. It 
well illustrates the Italian assumption 
that a professor is to be competent in 
the whole subject which he "professes," 
in contrast to our American system, 
which implies concentration on but a 
small section of his field. The effect of 
either system at its worst can be disas- 
trous, producing in one instance super- 
ficiality, in the other triviality. At its 
best, the first gives a wide view yet per- 
mits close examination of various ele- 
ments, some of them far apart; the 

other gives a firm core of knowledge 
that permits new yet firm ^interpreta- 
tion of the great authors of a single 
period and furnishes a standpoint from 
which the world may be surveyed to ad- 
vantage. One can hardly ask for a bet- 
ter representative of the Italian system 
than Professor Mazzoni. Within the 
boundaries which his genius set for him, 
he ranged all Italian literature, with ex- 
cursuses into other fields. Yet such were 
his powers for acquisition and retention 
that his knowledge of various authors 
was better than that possessed by many 
a specialist in but one. As a sign of 
this, his library is at many points such 
as a specialist may envy. Here are the 
best texts, however expensive, and the 
best works of reference published dur- 
ing his long career. There are also many 
works published earlier. The library is 
not, however, characterized by rare 
early editions; there are no incunabula, 
and few books printed before 1550. The 
student of Machiavelli will not find a 
first edition of The Prince or the Dis- 
courses on Livy, but he will see the 
important edition by Passerini and 
Milanesi, published about 1875 and now 
difficult to obtain. Though the student 
of Ariosto will not find any of the six- 
teenth-century editions, he will come 
upon the important reprint of the poet's 
three editions, issued by the Societa 
Filologica Romana forty years ago in an 
edition of but three hundred copies, and 
now almost never offered for sale. 
However extraordinary this gathering 


of books for the personal use of a 
scholar and man of letters and of gen- 
eral culture, the Mazzoni library has 
another part the like of which has per- 
haps never before been assembled by 
any individual. This is a collection of 
pamphlets and reprints estimated to 
number 67,000 items, arranged in 2239 
filing boxes. They deal chiefly with 
Italian literature, but include many 
other subjects, even chemistry and scien- 
tific topography. A large number are 
inscribed by the authors to their teacher 
Professor Mazzoni, with expressions of 
affection, respect, and gratitude. This 
gathering of reprinted articles speaks of 
his success in inspiring his pupils to 
carry on the work he had shown them 
how to undertake. It also represents 
Mazzoni the internationalist, a member 
of learned societies and friend of stu- 
dents the world over. One reason for 
the extraordinary number of these re- 
prints is that throughout his long life 
Mazzoni acknowledged, often with 
suggestions, all the reprints he received. 
When a man got such an acknowledg- 
ment for a paper that had evidently 
been read, he was likely to send another. 
Moreover, men who sent reprints 
learned that they were cherished. A 
card with the name of the author and 
the subject was made out for every 
paper when received, and further cards 
added with subject headings, and a ref- 
erence to the box containing the pam- 
phlet. When the boxes are shelved in 
order, any pamphlet can be found by 

means of this catalog. The common 
headings for the cards are authors or 
historical characters, and such words as 
Armonia, Commedia, Dramma, Leg- 
genda, Lettere, Pittura. There are also 
many earlier pamphlets other than re- 
prints, which were apparently among 
his purchases from push-cart venders of 
books in the streets of Florence. Since 
Italians have been much given to the 
printing of pamphlets, such a collection 
is of unusual value to a student of the 
literature and history of their country. 
Some of these pamphlets were issued 
for special occasions in small editions; 
they would come into general circula- 
tion only on the sale of a collector's 
library. It is probable that a great many 
of these pamphlets are to be found in 
America only in the Mazzoni library. 
Many, perhaps all, of Senator Mazzoni's 
articles in periodicals and newspapers 
are among them. 

Professor Mazzoni had for half a cen- 
tury the advantage of the great book 
mart of Florence, where everything 
likely to interest him was at once pur- 
chasable, and he bought volumes as 
soon as they appeared. Often the books 
now most difficult to obtain are those 
published in the last half century and 
out of print. Even in the present un- 
catalogued state of the collection more 
than one member of the faculty has al- 
ready found in it volumes now difficult 
to obtain, in one instance, for example, 
a volume of a periodical, in another 
Tiraboschi's work on the writers and 


artists of Modena. The Mazzoni library 
gives us the advantage of the opportu- 
nity its builder enjoyed for many years. 
Still more, it gives us the advantage of 
his understanding. Here is an instru- 
ment for study prepared by one of the 
foremost workers in the subject, as it 
were a select bibliography put into ma- 
terial form. The value of such a li- 
brary, so wisely assembled, is beyond 

This quality of the whole as embody- 
ing the daily life of their father was ob- 
vious to his children and their families. 
His son, Professor and Preside Piero 
Mazzoni, had aided him in recording 
and indexing reprints. Looking on the 
whole as their father's monument, they 
could not think of its dispersal after 
his death in 1943. Though obliged to 
dispose of it, they would not consider 
putting it into commerce; it must go 
to an institution where all its parts 
would function together in the re- 
searches of other scholars, as they had 
in that of the founder; thus the work of 
Senator Mazzoni would continue in the 

future. The heirs had no objection to 
the transfer of this monument to an- 
other land, knowing that their father 
had a vision of the unity of the intellec- 
tual world. Did not the publications 
of Guido Mazzoni, the books in varied 
languages that he bought, affirm this 
international view ? "I believe that my 
father's spirit is satisfied," declared Pro- 
fessor Piero Mazzoni when the sale to 
Duke University had been made. 

Before purchasing the Mazzoni li- 
brary, the Duke University Library had 
already acquired by slow degrees a col- 
lection of Italian books that won praise 
from Professor Napoleone Orsini, lec- 
turer here for two years, formerly of the 
University of Florence and now head 
of the department of comparative liter- 
ature at the University of Wisconsin. 
On this excellent foundation are placed 
the books and pamphlets of the Maz- 
zoni library. Duke now offers to stu- 
dents of Italian literature from the 
earliest times to the present a working 
collection worthy of comparison with 
any in America. 


Howard E. Jensen 

AMONG the important collections 
of research materials now available 
in the Duke University Libraries is that 
on Race and Race Relations. It is 
rapidly gaining recognition as one of 
the most distinguished in its field and 
is being increasingly used by visiting 
scholars. It is the chief source of in- 
formation on its subject in the South, 
and compares favorably with any simi- 
lar collection anywhere in the world. 
For example, two recent manuscripts, 
one on "The Evolution of Slave Songs 
of the United States," and another on 
"African Churches in America," have 
been written almost entirely from these 
materials. The historian and author, 
Dr. Mark Miles Fisher, has recently 
paid tribute to the adequacy of this 
collection, stating that, since becoming 
acquainted with its resources several 
years ago, he has found it unnecessary 
to continue his visits to research centers 

The collection originated in the in- 
terests in Southern History of the late 
Professor William Kenneth Boyd, who 
was for forty years connected with Trin- 
ity College and Duke University as 
Professor of History, Chairman of the 
Department, and Director of Libraries. 
In the latter capacity he contributed 
much to the development of the Li- 

brary to its present position among the 
academic libraries of the nation. In 
cooperation with Professor William T. 
Laprade and his colleagues of the His- 
tory Department and with the hearty 
support of the late President William 
Preston Few, he began a collection of 
books, pamphlets, letters, and manu- 
scripts dealing with Southern problems. 
There was naturally considerable ma- 
terial on the Negro in this collection. 
Later the George Washington Flowers 
Memorial Fund, established by the late 
William W. Flowers and supplemented 
by gifts from other members of his 
family, became available for the pur- 
chase of Southern literature and other 
material bearing upon the history, eco- 
nomic conditions, racial problems, and 
other factors in Southern life. 

With the establishment of the De- 
partment of Sociology in 1931 the col- 
lection began to take on wider scope. 
Whereas the chief interest had previ- 
ously been historical, regional, and 
practical, the new Department decided 
to use the funds available to it in de- 
veloping the collection along sociologi- 
cal, anthropological, theoretical, and in- 
ternational lines, which had heretofore 
been neglected, with a view to making 
it an outstanding research section of 
national significance in Physical and 


Cultural Anthropology, Race and Race 

Further progress was made in 1935, 
when the General Education Board of 
the Rockefeller Foundation made an 
appropriation of $50,000 to strengthen 
the library facilities of the area served 
by Duke University and the University 
of North Carolina. The present writer 
at that time suggested that the funds 
allotted to the Department of Sociology 
would best realize the purposes of the 
grant if devoted to the further develop- 
ment of this section along lines already 
projected by the Department. This 
suggestion was adopted, and has been 
continued as a basic policy of library 
development ever since. 

Sound theoretical and practical con- 
siderations have underlain this policy. 
Anthropology provides an indispensable 
theoretical background for the study 
of race, and the latter in turn consti- 
tutes the most chronic and pervasive of 
the social problems of the South. Every 
phase of Southern life is complicated by 
it, all other Southern problems are im- 
plicated in it, and every realistic pro- 
posal to deal with them must come to 
terms with it. But unless regional prob- 
lems are studied in proper perspective, 
as local differentiations within the na- 
tional and world structure of human in- 
terests and problems, the present region- 
al emphasis in social science research 
is in danger of becoming merely a new 
form of sectionalism. It was to provide 
a background for the study of Southern 

problems and to make the collection 
valuable to scholars whose interests are 
national and international in scope that 
the Department of Sociology and An- 
thropology initiated the policy which 
has given to the collection its present 
distinctive character. In this endeavor 
it has had the cooperation and support 
of the University Administration and 
of the related Departments and Schools 
of the institution. 

When Professor Edgar T. Thompson 
joined the Sociology staff in the autumn 
of 1935 he assumed responsibility for 
the further development of this project. 
During the same year a Division of Co- 
operation in Education and Race Rela- 
tions was organized in North Carolina 
through a cooperative arrangement en- 
tered into by the General Education 
Board, Duke University, the University 
of North Carolina, and the State De- 
partment of Public Instruction, under 
the leadership of Mr. N. C. Newbold, 
Director of the Division of Negro Edu- 
cation in the State Department, as 
Director. As part of the program of 
the Division a generous contribution 
was made each year from resources sup- 
plied by the General Education Board 
to supplement the regular funds of 
both Universities for the purchase of 
books, pamphlets, manuscripts, and 
other materials dealing with the Negro 
and the subject of race generally, with 
special stress, under the leadership of 
Professor Thompson, on the world- 
wide sociological aspects of the prob- 



lem. Beginning about 1938 an annual 
contribution was also made to North 
Carolina College at Durham to enable 
its Library to participate in this pro- 
gram. Since the termination of the 
work of the Division in 1945 the Li- 
brary Council of Duke University has 
continued to make special annual ap- 
propriations to secure additional signifi- 
cant materials recommended for pur- 
chase by the Department of Sociology 
and Anthropology. At the present time 
these three libraries contain more than 
13,000 volumes, exclusive of duplicates, 
and extensive periodical, pamphlet and 
manuscript material, on all aspects of 
race and race relations, historical, scien- 
tific and regional, national and inter- 
national, as well as a carefully selected 
and representative section of more gen- 
eral works in Physical and Cultural 

The original reasons which led to the 
initiation of this project have grown 
more convincing with the years. The 
events leading up to and following 
from the second World War have com- 
pelled our ever widening recognition of 
the fact that the problems which disturb 
the Southern scene duplicate the larger 
problems of the nation and of the 
world. The clash of races and cultures 
in the South represents within our bor- 
ders the same generic issues which we 
recently faced in battle over seas, and 
which continue to threaten us on the 
farther shores of the world's major 
oceans. If it should happen that we 

must fight another war, we can ill af- 
ford to enter it under the handicap of 
racial bitterness and tension. If we do, 
we cannot hope to win it against an 
enemy prepared to exploit such divi- 
sions to the fullest possible extent. Tol- 
eration of racial and cultural differences 
and the reduction of racial and cultural 
tensions may turn out in the end to be 
not merely a democratic duty, but a 
necessity of national survival; not mere- 
ly a romantic ideal, but the only realis- 
tic program of political and social 

But such a transcendence of our pres- 
ent domestic racial divisions cannot be 
achieved without perspective. When 
the attention of human beings is cen- 
tered on the achievement of immediate 
group ends, when they are busy out- 
maneuvering and frustrating one an- 
other in the struggle for position and 
power within the framework of social 
and political order, they come to live in 
an atmosphere of suspicion and appre- 
hension which enters into their souls at 
every turn. Group cleavages deepen 
and widen until all sense of the genuine 
underlying unities of interest and pur- 
pose which bind them together as a 
nation with a common past and a com- 
mon destiny, is lost in a morass of irra- 
tional impulse and blind feeling. Only 
as men gain some measure of that bal- 
ance between the immediate present, 
the historical past, and the potential 
future which is the essence of perspec- 
tive, can they achieve a more realistic 



appraisal of their problems, and choose 
more rational and constructive means 
to their adjustment. 

The race problem will not be solved 
by the multiplication of books dealing 
with it, but the large collection of race 
literature available in the Duke Uni- 
versity and adjacent libraries of North 
Carolina College at Durham and the 
University of North Carolina at Chapel 
Hill can and should be of immense 
service in contributing to the perspec- 
tives essential to its alleviation. Here 
are the materials which will enable one 
to understand the Southern race prob- 
lem in the situational context in which 
it arose and took form, in terms of the 
historical conditions under which it de- 
veloped, in the light of its costs to the 
Nation in lowered domestic welfare 
and reduced international prestige, and 
against the background of racial prob- 
lems in other parts of the world. 

But these materials will have little 
effect unless they are made readily ac- 
cessible to both the scholarly and lay 
reading public. To this end Professor 
Edgar T. Thompson and his wife, 
Alma Macy Thompson, have prepared 
an introduction and descriptive selected 
bibliography under the title, Race and 
Region, recently published by the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina Press. The 
book lists and annotates about two 
thousand titles selected from the collec- 
tions of the three institutions, and indi- 
cates the library in which each title may 
be found. Many of them are held by 

each institution and practically all of 
them are available in the Duke Uni- 
versity Libraries. 

It should be noted, however, that 
Race and Region is something more 
than a sampling of the holdings of three 
local university and college libraries. 
If it were only this its usefulness would 
be limited to the area served by these 
libraries. But such is not the case. The 
two thousand titles were taken from the 
whole body of racial literature generally 
and, as far as possible, purchases were 
made by the Duke University Library 
to fill in such gaps as existed in the 
local library holdings in the field of race 
relations. For this reason the bibliogra- 
phy ought to be useful to students of 
the subject throughout the United 
States and particularly throughout the 
South. That the book is generally use- 
ful is indicated by one reviewer, Pro- 
fessor Paul B. Foreman, who, in the 
Southwestern Social Science Quarterly, 
says: "Having devoted considerable 
time ... to the creation of a similar 
list, the present reviewer recommends 
Race and Region without qualifica- 
tion as the most complete and critical 
bibliographic guide available in this 
interest area. Obviously, it offers two 
immediate services: first, it is strong 
support for course work; second, it 
places within easy reach a dependable 
device for surveying library holdings 
and planning careful purchasing. It is 
sufficiently comprehensive in this latter 



regard to be of value in large as well 
as small schools." 

The titles have been classified to 
serve the needs of teachers, students, 
and general readers rather than research 
specialists. For it is the former who 
must create the broad basis of public 
opinion essential to the reduction of 
racial tensions, while no system of 
classification can adequately parallel 
the interests of the latter or logically 
arrange the contents of any collection. 
For the interests of research are as many 
and varied as the researchers them- 
selves, and contents of books and arti- 
cles simply will not fit into the system- 
atic categories of any logical scheme. 

What men think and feel about racial 
and cultural differences is at least as 
important in defining the race problem 
as what, on competent scientific re- 
search, these differences turn out to be. 
For men respond, not to the objective 
situations in which they find themselves, 
but to the subjective meanings which 
those situations have acquired in their 
personal and social experience. Conse- 
quently, the books selected for the 
bibliography cover not only what is 
objectively true about these differences, 
but what is subjectively felt about them. 
Their authors, says Professor Thomp- 
son, include 

... all manner of people; people who 
have, however, one thing in common, 
namely, the itch to write. They are the 
letter writers, the diary keepers, the story 

tellers, and tfyose who like to recount their 
experiences and to report their discoveries. 
They are people who feel cheated of an 
experience or of an opinion unless it is 
told. The literature on the Negro and 
other racial groups ... is extraordinarily 
varied and fascinating, a veritable human 
anthology . . . 

Most of this literature is controversial in 
character. Much of it is theological or 
pseudo-scientific, intended to prove dog- 
mas of long standing. Opinions are not 
now so dogmatic as they once were, but 
in the hands of popular writers the facts 
are capable of almost as many different in- 
terpretations as they were fifty years ago. 
Especially significant is the rise of a liter- 
ature of counter attack. 

To the student of human nature, none 
of this literature is unimportant. Even 
the literature of misconception ... is inter- 
esting and valuable as a record of the 
sentiments and attitudes which the racial 
struggle has called forth. The strange 
distortion of fact and opinion which it 
records is significant, not for what it tells 
us about the Negro or any other racial 
group, but for what it reveals of the in- 
tensity of the racial conflict and of the 
nature of the passions involved. 

This bibliography contains samples of 
all these varieties of race literature, but the 
emphasis is upon the more serious studies 
of social scientists. Competent and system- 
atic studies of race and the relationships 
of race are appearing in larger number 
than ever before. The definitive study of 
race relations, however, has not yet ap- 
peared. With such a wealth of racial and 
human material awaiting scientific inter- 
pretation before them, social scientists in- 
terested in this field have no need to oc- 
cupy themselves with mere historical and 
literary trivia. 


Robert R. Hubach* 

IN THE possession of the Univer- 
sity of California at Berkeley is an 
uncollected letter of Walt Whitman 
addressed to David L. Lezinsky, a one- 
time resident of Berkeley and a mem- 
ber of the 1884 graduating class of the 
University there. Since it is dated 
November 30, 1890, Lezinsky was evi- 
dently a young man at the time. Al- 
though the time and place Whitman 
met him are unknown, the tone of the 
note seems to indicate that the two men 
were well acquainted. It is written in 
the despondent mood characteristic of 
much of Whitman's later life. The 
paper on which it appears is rather frag- 
ile and yellowed and the handwriting is 
shaky. The contents furnish additional 
details about the poet and help complete 
the picture of his declining years: 1 

Camden New Jersey 

Nov: 30 1890 
My dear D L 

Yr's of 21 st rec'd & welcomed — 
the C[letter illegible, but probably an a]l: 
papers rec'd — I am sitting here 2 d story 
room 2 in big ratan chair with wolf-skin 
spread back — pretty cold spell of weather 
here but sun out today pleasant. Am 
getting along much in the same old way, 
rather a let down in health even fr'm 
what it was — grip (pretty bad) bladder 

* Dr. Hubach is Assistant Professor of English at 
Bowling Green State University, Ohio, and came upon 
this unpublished Whitman letter in the course of 
research for his doctoral dissertation, Walt Whitman 
and the West, presented at Indiana University. 

1 The letter is quoted with the kind permission 
of the University of California (Berkeley) General 

trouble & (probably) catarrh of bowels — 
but I keep up sort o' & was out yesterday 
noon [for] a short jaunt in wheel chair — 
have a good oak fire & comfortable & 
plenty to eat (but no appetite) — Ed Stead 
(driver hansom) was here Aug: 20 last — 
haven't seen him since — I never heard 
whether you rec'd the books I sent you 
by express package directed to you care 

K Ferris Hotel Butte City Montana 
(sent June 4 last from here) — when you 
next write tell me. — Ingersoll's lecture on 
me 3 here is to be printed in a litde book 
in N. Y. & I will send it [to] you soon as 

1 get it — Warren Fritzinger is still with 
me — Mrs: Davis is well 4 — Have had a 
depress 'd gloomy week — my brother Jeff 
(T. J. Whitman) died last Tuesday in St. 
Louis, Mo: was a civil engineer — Hear 
often fr'm Dr Bucke my Canada friend — 
Horace Traubel comes in every day 5 — I 
contemplate a little 2 d annex to L of G. 
& am fashioning at it 6 — am writing a 
little for outside (for order) — but pieces 
I volunteer (to magazines &c) are quite 
always sent back rejected. I suppose you 
got my last I sent. 

God bless you. 

Walt Whitman 

2 Whitman's bedroom in his house at 328 Mickle 
Street, Camden. 

3 Shortly before this Robert Ingersoll delivered a 
Whitman benefit lecture in Philadelphia entided 
"Liberty in Literature." 

* Warren Fritzinger was Whitman's young male 
nurse and Mrs. Davis was his housekeeper. 

B Dr. Richard Maurice Bucke of London, Ontario, 
and Horace Traubel were intimate friends of Whit- 
man; Bucke wrote the first biography of the poet, to 
which Whitman himself contributed many passages, 
and Traubel wrote the three-volume With Walt 
Whitman in Canada. These two men, with Thomas 
Biggs Harned, were Whitman's literary executors, 
and Bucke's own collection of Whitman books and 
manuscripts forms the core of the Trent Whitman 
collection in the Duke University Library. 

8 The second annex to Leaves of Grass, entitled 
Good-Bye My Fancy, was published the following 
year in Philadelphia by David McKay. 



THE FRIENDS of Duke Univer- 
sity Library joined the Trustees 
and Faculty of the University in enter- 
taining a large number of distinguished 
guests at the formal opening of the en- 
larged General Library building on 
Friday evening, October 21, 1949. The 
Library opening was planned as a fea- 
ture of a three-day program marking 
the installation of Arthur Hollis Edens 
as President of the University; exercises 
in Page Auditorium at 8:30 o'clock 
were followed by the President's in- 
augural reception in the Library build- 

Mr. Willis Smith, Chairman of the 
Board of Trustees of Duke University, 
presided at the program in Page Audi- 
torium. After welcoming the guests, 
he called on Dr. William H. Irving, 
chairman of the Department of Eng- 
lish, to introduce the speaker, Mr. Nor- 
man Cousins, editor of the Saturday Re- 
view of Literature. Following Mr. Cous- 
in's address, Mr. Smith acknowledged 
the gift which had made possible the 
Library building program and an- 
nounced that the donor was Mrs. Mary 
Duke Biddle, a life member of The 
Friends of Duke University Library. 
Mrs. Biddle was seated on the platform 
and rose to acknowledge the applause 
of the audience. Mr. Smith then pre- 

sented the keys to the building to Dr. 
B. E. Powell, Librarian, and invited 
members of the audience to attend the 
reception in the Library, when they 
would have an opportunity to inspect 
the newly completed building. 

President and Mrs. Edens received in 
the Public Catalog Room at the head 
of the main stairway in the southeast 
tower, and refreshments were served in 
the Reference and General Reading 
Room. From the Reference Room 
guests were directed by members of the 
student staff of the Library on a brief 
tour of the principal parts of the build- 
ing, terminating in the new Rare Book 
Room, where Mrs. Biddle received. 
Copies of a special issue of Library 
Notes, published in celebration of the 
opening of the building, were presented 
to guests in the Rare Book Room. 

An exhibit of representative books 
from eight of the Library's special col- 
lections was arranged near the Main 
Loan Desk, and in the Rare Book 
Room and adjoining lobby there was an 
exhibit of the work of famous printers 
and printing presses of all periods. 
Members of the faculty assisted the 
Library staff as hosts, and some 1500 
guests attended. 

On her arrival at the Library from 
Page Auditorium, Mrs. Biddle was pre- 
sented by The Friends of the Library 
with a sheaf of red roses and a finely 



printed scroll signed by the entire 
Executive Committee. The scroll read 
as follows: 

"The Friends of Duke University 
Library wish to express to you, Mary 
Duke Biddle, deep appreciation for 
your gift of the magnificent addition to 
the General Library Building which 
we formally open tonight. 

"The development of the collections 
of printed and manuscript resources on 
this campus to a position of national 
importance has been watched with in- 
terest and with pride. The inadequacies 
of the Library building for the suitable 
care of priceless possessions, resulting in 
serious handicaps to scholars engaged 
in research, have been a source of con- 
cern in recent years. This new addition 
provides exceptional facilities for the 
preservation of materials, and comfort- 
able and attractive quarters for their 
fruitful use by students, faculty, and 
staff. Its completion has contributed 
significantly to the morale and spirit 
of the University community. No gift 
could bring more satisfying response 
than the expressions of gratitude heard 
daily from those who use the Library. 

"It is, therefore, with real understand- 
ing and appreciation of the great signifi- 
cance of your gift to Duke University 
that we, the Executive Committee of 
the Friends of Duke University Library, 
thank you on behalf of the many 
friends of the University and of the 


TWO RECENT acquisitions of 
more than usual importance and 
value will be of interest to Friends. The 
Rev. George B. Ehlhardt presented to 
the Library, in recognition of the open- 
ing of the enlarged building on October 
21, a copy of the new World Bible, de- 
signed by Bruce Rogers and printed in 
an edition of only 975 copies. This new 
Bible, a folio King James version, was 
projected to meet the need for a suit- 
able gift to churches, schools, and other 
institutions as a memorial to those lost 
in the Second World War, and to ap- 
peal to lovers of fine printing in gen- 
eral. It is printed in Goudy Bible, a 
new type face adapted by Mr. Rogers 
from Frederic Goudy's Newstyle and 
used here for the first time. The deco- 
rations, made entirely from type orna- 
ments, are intended to give a slightly 
oriental flavor to the volume in recog- 
nition of the Syriac and Hebrew sources 
of the text on which the King James 
translation was based. Presswork is by 
A. Colish of New York, and the paper 
was especially made for this work by 
the Worthy Paper Company. The 
volume is bound in heavy boards cov- 
ered with maroon buckram stamped 
with various Biblical emblems in gold. 
Another Greek manuscript lectionary 
has just been acquired by purchase from 
Martin Breslauer of London. This will 
become Duke Greek MS 12 in a collec- 
tion of New Testament manuscripts in 
Greek believed to be exceeded in size 



by only six other collections in this coun- 
try. The manuscript dates from the lat- 
ter half of the nth or early 12th cen- 
tury and is written on vellum (220 
leaves) in two columns of twenty-nine 
lines. The text is in a fine regular 
hand, and there are interesting initial 
letters and chapter headings drawn by 
pen in red ink. The manuscript is 
large (10 x 13 inches) and in superb 
condition, protected by a modern bind- 
ing of heavy oak boards backed with 
purple morocco and fastened with two 
clasps of plaited morocco thongs. Sev- 
eral years ago Professor Kenneth W. 
Clark described for readers of Library 
Notes the Greek New Testament manu- 
scripts then in the collection (GK. 
MSS. 1-7).* When he returns from 
his current sabbatical leave, it is hoped 
that he will supplement this with a 
paper on GK. MSS. 8-12. Professor 
Clark is spending the year in Jerusalem 
as annual professor at the American 
Schools of Oriental Research. 

Mrs. Newman Ivey White has pre- 
sented to the Library the manuscripts 
and personal papers of her husband, the 
late Professor White, and several hun- 
dred volumes from his library. Among 
the papers are Professor White's corre- 
spondence with former students, his 
publishers, and with Shelley scholars 
throughout the world. 

Mrs. James A. Thomas has added to 
the furnishings of the Thomas Room 
in the Woman's College Library two 

* Library Notes, no. 16 (June 1946), pp. 1-5. 

pairs of large antique Chinese vases of 
exceptional beauty. 


THE student book collectors group 
held its first meeting of the year 
in the Rare Book Room on November 
14, when Professor Arthur B. Ferguson 
outlined the history of book-binding, 
describing and demonstrating the vari- 
ous techniques of hand-binding, and 
showing examples of his own work. 
The January meeting will be held at 
The Seeman Printery in Durham, where 
Mr. Edwin Fowler, President, will de- 
scribe the processes of book manufac- 
ture and show various presses and other 
machines in action. 

Professor Lewis Patton again heads 
the Friends' Advisory Committee di- 
recting the activities of the student 


MR. J. Welch Harriss and Dr. 
Warner Lee Wells have accepted 
invitations to serve on the Executive 
Committee of The Friends. Mr. 
Harriss, a graduate of Duke in 1927, 
is President of Harriss and Covington 
Hosiery Mills of High Point, and a trus- 
tee of the University, elected by the 
alumni. Dr. Wells, a practicing sur- 
geon in Durham, is a graduate of the 
class of 1934, and of the School of 
Medicine, 1938. He is at present in 
Japan with the Atomic Bomb Casualty 



The Friends of T)uke University J^iprary 

July 1950 

Number 24 



Copyright, 1950, Duke University Library 


THE death of Newman Ivey White on December 6, 1948, took from the 
realm of English letters one of its most eminent figures, and from Duke 
University a brightest star in its group of scholars and teachers. To a wide 
circle of friends, colleagues, and students there came the shocking sense of 
irreparable loss. The Duke University Library, and especially the organiza- 
tion of the Friends of Duke University Library, were deprived of a devoted 
friend, wise counsellor, and generous donor. At a meeting of the Executive 
Committee of The Friends on December 15, 1948, the following statement 
was read into the minutes: 

The Executive Committee of the Friends of Duke University Library wishes 
to attempt some expression, however imperfect, of its sense of loss at the death 
of its distinguished, loyal, and beloved member, Newman Ivey White. 

Professor White was a member of the Friends from the beginning, and 
indeed promoted their aims long before the organization itself came into 
being; there is scarcely any part of the Library which has not known his 
beneficent influence. For nearly thirty years he advised in the development of 
the Library's resources in his several fields of interest. Furthermore, his fame 
as a scholar gained him acquaintance with private collectors abroad and brought 
to the Rare Book Room some of its most prized volumes. He also enriched 
the Library's holdings by his personal gifts. But in another and perhaps still 
more important way he was a benefactor to the Library: he used the materials 
from its collections and the skill of its staff to aid him in his scholarly and crea- 
tive work; thus he brought to fruition the very purposes for which the Library 
was founded. We like to remember that much of the arduous labor which 
went into his life of Shelley was done in our stacks and in his study within 
the walls of our building. His acknowledgments of assistance from the Li- 
brary carried its name around the world. It was only natural that in 1947 
Professor White should be made a Life Member of the Friends; in honoring 
him we honored ourselves. 

The word "Friend" is especially appropriate to Newman White — this firm, 
kind, zealous friend, whose place in our councils and in our hearts can never 
be adequately filled. 

It is not without significance that the last published writing from Newman 
White's pen should have been a poem in the July, 1948, issue of Library Notes 
on the pleasures of reading rare book catalogues. So it is peculiarly appro- 


priate that the Friends of Duke University Library should have the privilege 
of offering this special issue of their bulletin as a memorial to him. Through 
the kindness of Mrs. White, a considerable body of hitherto unpublished 
material has been made available to us. The papers selected for inclusion 
here represent two types of writing at which Newman White was equally 
successful — the formal, scholarly (though never dull) address, and the in- 
formal essay. From a sheaf of verse, a group of sonnets on Wordsworth shows 
his insight into the philosophy and personality of the poet; "The Inner For- 
tress" gives us a glimpse of the charm of his own personality and the sources 
of its strength; other poems, expressing his joy in nature and his belief in man, 
show his exceptional lyric gift. 

Professor James Cannon III, a friend since undergraduate days at Trinity 
College, and Professor Lewis Patton, his colleague in the English Department 
since 1926, have prepared the biographical sketch. The editor has contributed 
the bibliography. Publication of this issue has been made possible by gifts to 
the Friends designated in memory of Newman White. 

Who are we 
To speak of beauty fading? It abides 
Within the mind more firmly, being gone : 
... , 

the loveliness that glides 
Not past, but forward, always moving on. 




FEBRUARY 3, 1892 - DECEMBER 6, 1948 
James Cannon III and Lewis Patton 

NO HUMAN BEING has ever completely understood another personal- 
ity. There are veils upon veils (to use a Shelleyan figure) which con- 
ceal (or should I say protect?) that utter loneliness which stands desperately 
at bay or seeks desperately to escape, in the far recesses of every human 

Thus wrote our friend Newman White in his "Adventures of a Biogra- 
pher," and his words must rouse misgivings in the mind of anyone who sets 
himself the serious task of telling the story of a life. Certainly the force of 
this quotation is not lost upon the present writers. But as White went on to 
say of Shelley, "some of the outermost veils are penetrated by the biographer," 
and just as he felt that "I cannot claim that I have ever seen Shelley plain," 
so we who write this sketch of him, even though we knew him outwardly 
for many years, do not claim completely to have grasped the meaning of his 
full and fruitful life, lived in the Trinity College and Duke University com- 
munity for thirty-five years. Fortunately, a man of letters leaves upon his 
readers an impression of himself which, though often subtle and evanescent, 
is yet truthful and significant. In the verse and prose of Newman White, 
some of which is preserved in this issue of Library Notes, will be found the 
qualities of the inner being. Our account will be largely of the outer life, 
the life which the world could see. 

Newman Ivey White was born on February 3, 1892, in Statesville, North 
Carolina; later the family moved to Greensboro, where his father, James 
Houston White, died in 1912. His mother, Harriet Moore Ivey, survived 
until 1943. His maternal grandfather, the Reverend George Washington 
Ivey, was a celebrated minister of the Methodist Church who is commemo- 
rated in the Ivey Professorship of the History of Religion and Missions in 
the Duke Divinity School. An uncle, the Reverend Thomas Neal Ivey, was 
also an influential minister in the Methodist Church, and an editor of several 
of its principal organs. Other uncles are J. B. Ivey of Charlotte, and George 


F. and E. C. Ivey of Hickory, North Carolina. An aunt, Mrs. George M. 
Foard, lives in Statesville, where Newman White is buried; his sister, Mrs. 
Hugh J. Toland, lives in Asheville, and a brother, James Ivey White, in 

Newman White entered Trinity College in the fall of 1909. Here he 
received the nickname used universally in early days, "Ni." He embraced 
college life with gusto. He had a passion for sports, and had played football 
in high school, but Trinity College in those days had no team, so he had to 
content himself with basketball, baseball (he was a southpaw pitcher), track, 
and tennis. His success was the more remarkable when one considers that 
he was handicapped then, as later, by poor vision. Concentrating chiefly on 
tennis, he was a member of the varsity team for three years, and captain and 
manager for two. He later coached the Trinity-Duke tennis teams for many 
years, and if the authors' memories serve them, his crafty left-handed shots 
were still too much for the undergraduates when he finally gave up the game. 
Visitors to the Whites' house may recall seeing in a cupboard an array of 
trophy cups, won in many matches. 

But he was from the first a student and writer. Besides his active partici 
pation in the literary and scholastic societies, he was a notable contributor to 
the literary magazine, The Archive, in which he published much excellent 
verse. He was elected editor of The Archive for his senior year, but for some 
reason did not serve, possibly because he was also editor-in-chief of the Chanti- 
cleer, the yearbook which he had helped to found in his junior year, and 
which he had named: 

The feathered songster, Chaunticleer, 
Han wounde his bugle home, 
And tolde the earlie villager 
The commynge of the morne. 

In looking back through the Chanticleer for 1913, one of the present writers 
recognized his own thumb-nail sketch of Newman White, the editor: 

'Ni' — A man of varied talents — athlete, writer, editor — one of the brightest of 
the many stars of 191 3. Great on figuring, both on questionable and creditable 
propositions. Has figured out the creditable parts of this volume, and also a 
method o£ blaming the poorer parts on assistants. A poet of note, a terror 
of a tennis player, and an appreciative hearer of all things humorous and 
esthetic, queer as the combination may be. Man of many interests and faith- 
ful to all. Ambition is to teach English, for which he is abundantly fitted. 


A teacher White was born to be. His trend to the academic began in 
college where he was an assistant in Latin and in English, and also in the 
library. Following his graduation in 1913, magna cum laude and with high- 
est honors in English, he remained at Trinity for a year as a graduate student 
and assistant in English, and obtained his M.A. in 1914. He proceeded to 
Harvard University where he earned the degrees of M.A. in 1915 and Ph.D. 
in 1918. In the meantime, he had filled an instructorship in English at Ala- 
bama Polytechnic Institute (1915-1916), and was promoted to a professorship 
there. But after receiving his doctorate at Harvard, he went instead to Wash- 
ington University in St. Louis as instructor in English for the year 1918-1919. 
Then was resumed his long and vital connection with his alma mater. From 
1919 to 1948 he was professor of English at Trinity (and Duke), and from 
1943 chairman of the English Department. His teaching career also included 
the summer sessions of other universities: Texas in 1930, Harvard in 1939, and 
Minnesota in 1941. Calls to other universities were not infrequent, but it 
was his deliberate choice to invest his talents and his life in his own univer- 
sity. Perhaps he remembered the words of the Harvard sage, George Herbert 
Palmer: "Attach yourself to institutions." In truth he loved Duke and the 
state of North Carolina. It is to the credit of the University that he found 
here an environment and an atmosphere, which he had no small part in 
creating, congenial to his powers and tastes. He moved in all circles of the 
University, and was respected in all. 

As a teacher White was remarkable not for any single or spectacular 
quality, but rather for the richness and comprehensiveness of his endowment. 
Sound, honest, witty, natural, often inspiring — he practiced his profession on 
the highest level, as the results abundantly proved, for an unusually large 
proportion of his students went into teaching, literature, and allied professions. 
The same qualities contributed to his equal distinction in research, and made 
him an excellent example of how sound teaching and productive research 
may be combined in one individual, as he himself believed they could and 
should be. "The antagonism of teaching and research is not a natural, but 
a manufactured one," he wrote in an article, "Teaching versus Research," 
in School and Society for January 23, 1932. 

If we consider the qualities most essential to the real value of both research 
men and teachers we find them surprisingly similar. By common agreement, 
they are honesty, tolerance, industry, mental alertness. Parenthetically, the 
same may be said of preachers. The good teacher, however, needs one quality 
that is not essential to the research worker, namely, a pleasing personality, since 


his contribution depends largely on personal contacts. But when we analyze 
this quality we find its chief ingredient to be a kind of imaginative sympathy, 
something that is also necessary to the good research worker. 

Famous chiefly for his interpretations of the Romantic poets, he was also 
deeply conscious that literature is a living thing. Through his verse-writing 
class, especially, which for many years met often at his home, he exerted a 
great influence upon student writers of many college generations. One remem- 
bers particularly the brilliant Archive group of 1926, but there were many 
others, before and since. Readers of this issue of Library Notes are indebted 
to these verse-writing classes, for some of the poems printed here spring from 
his inability to resist joining in the fun. 

No account of Newman White's life would be complete without mention 
of the powerful influence of Mrs. White in inspiring his scholarly achieve- 
ments and promoting his social enjoyments. She was Marie Anne Updike, 
born in Belleville, Illinois, and reared in St. Louis, where she was educated 
in the public schools and in Washington University, from which she received 
the A.B. degree in 1915 and the M.A. in 1919. She met Newman White in 
1919 as a member of his graduate class, and they were married on August 10, 
1922. A daughter, Marie, born in 1926, died in infancy. In 1927, Mrs. White 
began a distinguished career as a teacher at Duke, most notably as a lecturer 
on the modern drama. As a hostess she has made an equally great contribu- 
tion. Their home was a place of liberal thought and free discussion, as well 
as of lively merriment. It was the center for a group of devoted friends both 
in the University and in the city of Durham, and the place of entertainment 
of many guests from other universities. The Whites were masters of apt 
quotation and repartee, serving beautifully as foils for each other's wit. 

One of the many interests which they shared and enjoyed together was 
one for song. It is characteristic that this interest was not confined to an 
academic zeal for collecting and annotating; they liked to sing and did so on 
frequent occasions in a most agreeable manner. As a scholar, Professor White 
was especially learned in Negro song and made two major contributions in 
the field of Negro folklore: An Anthology of Verse by American Negroes 
(with W. C. Jackson), 1924, and American Negro Fol^-Songs, 1928. This 
last was one of the series of works published by the Harvard University Press 
in realization of the aim of Kittredge and Child to give permanent form to 
American folklore. Its publication brought him recognition as a leading 
authority on folklore, and he was consulted in this capacity by the staff of 
the Library of Congress, who recommended his book as a model for other 


works in the field. Many of the songs in this collection were contributed 
by Negro friends who came to the Whites' house to sing them, Mr. White 
transcribing the words and Mrs. White the music. Newman White en- 
joyed this opportunity of extending his friendships among the Negro race. 
The interest in folklore was dormant until 1943, when he assumed the gen- 
eral editorship of the Frank C. Brown Collection of North Carolina Folklore, 
to which he had from time to time contributed many items, including re- 
cordings of songs. This monumental work, financed by the Rockefeller 
Foundation and Duke University, was interrupted by his death. 

Great as was his contribution to folklore, the realm of scholarship to 
which White's name will be forever linked is the study of the poet Shelley. 
For the origin and growth of this interest, we have White's own statement 
at the time of the publication of his Shelley: 

I first became interested in Shelley through a term paper in Professor Irving 
Babbitt's class at Harvard in 1915. My first attitude toward Shelley was rather 
hostile than sympathetic. The term paper grew into a Ph.D. thesis on Shelley's 
Dramatic Poems in 1918. But from 1916 to 1928, though I was publishing a 
number of articles in scholarly journals on Shelley and his contemporaries, 
probably my major interest was Negro poetry and folk-song, on which I pub- 
lished two books and several articles. During these years I was teaching Shel- 
ley's poetry every year, and writing articles and notes about him. After 1928 
the Shelley interest intensified, and produced more articles. I have done my 
library research mainly in the following libraries: Harvard, New York Public 
Library, Library of Congress, Bodleian, British Museum, Duke University — 
though I have corresponded with scores of libraries and individuals everywhere. 
I was particularly fortunate in having the interest and encouragement of the 
late Mr. T. J. Wise, friend of many of the Victorian Shelleyans and owner of 
the greatest collection of Shelleyana, who had written much on Shelley himself. 
He placed at my disposal his whole library, including important basic materials 
never accessible to other Shelleyans since Dowden used them. During his 
last illness, he talked with me several hours a week, placing his memory at 
my disposal and offering hints for the location of lost material. It was he 
who first encouraged me to write a biography of Shelley. 

Leaving aside articles in learned journals (listed in the bibliography of 
White's published work), the first published fruit of his interest was the 
anthology of Shelley's writings called The Best of Shelley (1932). This still 
remains the most comprehensive and authoritative commentary on Shelley; 
in the few places where it is obsolete, it is usually because of White's own 
later researches. In the next book on Shelley, The Unextinguished Hearth: 


Shelley and his Contemporary Critics (1938), White exploded the view that 
Shelley was a neglected poet in his day and revealed instead that "Shelley's 
contemporary critics were not blind to his genius, but merely afraid of it." 
This fear was based on both political and aesthetic considerations. The 
researches done in preparation for these volumes expanded White's knowl- 
edge of source materials and made ever more secure his understanding of the 
thought and personality of the poet. He felt at length prepared for the great 
work of his life, and that he was not mistaken is apparent in the easy mastery 
which pervades the pages of his Shelley, which Alfred Knopf published in 
two volumes in 1940. 

To speak properly of this book it may be better to shift to the comments 
of others, rather than to risk a charge of undue local pride. Though the 
tone of the excerpts quoted is that of high praise, it can be said that their 
estimate has never been challenged by responsible judges. One of the earliest 
reviews said in part: 

There have been a few occasions — I wish they had been much more nu- 
merous — when I have finished a new book with a strong feeling that what 
I had read was a genuine contribution to literature, a book I intended to keep 
and to re-read and to introduce to other readers. This is how I feel about 
Mr. White's Shelley, which looks to me like the definitive life of that great 
poet — certainly the best documented, the most accurate, and probably the most 
sympathetically sensible, life yet written. It is a long book, well over one 
thousand pages without the notes; yet at no time did I feel any desire to skip 
or that Mr. White was being too detailed. — Richard Aldington, in Saturday 
Review of Literature, December 7, 1940. 

Harvard's brilliant scholar, poet, and critic, Theodore Spencer, who, like 
Newman White, was stricken by untimely death, wrote: 

It would be difficult to imagine a more satisfactory biography of a poet than 
Professor White's life of Shelley. It is complete, serious, and of an almost 
more than adequate magnitude. The product of twenty-five years' careful 
labor, it will remain, as it deserves to remain, the most thorough, sensible, and 
well-balanced life of Shelley that research and careful judgment can produce. 
New materials may turn up in the future (the Esdaile papers have still to be 
thoroughly examined) and new critical estimates will be made from time to 
time, but it is most unlikely that so thorough and just a presentation will ever 
be made again. — The Atlantic Monthly, January, 1941. 

When the end of the war made possible the publication of Shelley in 
England in 1947, Harold Nicolson, a master of the biographical art, both in 


its theory and practice, reviewed it in the Daily Telegraph (London) of 
September 12, 1947. Since Shelley had already been available for nearly seven 
years, it is probable that this represents a considered opinion: 

He has brought to his great task a simple narrative style, an admirable 
sense of proportion and construction, and a modest objectivity of approach 
which never distorts, but always illumines, the innumerable facts which he 
has collected. In these two volumes we are able to follow Shelley's life, 
and the development of his genius, almost day by day. From time to time 
Professor White interrupts the easy flow of his narrative to analyse the mean- 
ing of some poem or pamphlet or to explain the inner secret of Shelley's 
recurrent moods of depression. His notes are informative and abundant, his 
appendices of great interest, and his chapter on Shelley's posthumous reputa- 
tion is a masterpiece of industry and analysis. . . . This is unquestionably the 
most important contribution to Shelley scholarship which has been published 
in this generation. 

In order to give the general reader a more accessible form of the Shelley — 
one free of the paraphernalia of notes, necessary for scholarship but cumber- 
some — Professor White published in 1945 his Portrait of Shelley, which is 
the text of Shelley somewhat revised. It is hard to imagine a more charming 
and satisfactory work of literary art. 

Those who knew Newman White in only one aspect did not know the 
man; to be understood, he must be known as an integrated being with various 
facets. He was recognized as standing for progressive movements not only 
at Duke but in wider educational and public movements as well. He ex- 
pressed his views by voice, and especially by his fluent pen, whenever occasion 
demanded, but was never boring or vituperative. Certainly one would have 
little appreciation of him who did not know him as a citizen; a citizen, he 
evidently felt, was one who in times of crisis did those things that were 
necessary to do, however hard they might be. A manifestation of this trait 
appeared in the presidential campaign of 1932. White had come to admire 
the intellectual honesty and humanitarian zeal of Norman Thomas, and 
therefore regretted that, under North Carolina election laws, Thomas did 
not have a place on the ballot. He lost little time in setting about to correct 
this defect by circulating a petition, and correct it he did by dint of arduous 
campaigning for signatures. After 1932, as the depression persisted, he be- 
came more and more concerned not with partisan politics but with the relief 
of human suffering. Probably at no time for the remainder of his life did 
a year go by in which he was not seriously interested in some deeply thought 


out scheme for the aid of those in want. In the depression years of 1934-1936 
he became interested in the West Durham Nursery School, for which he 
organized support, collecting and contributing funds. This particular in- 
terest he continued at a later time with the Child Care Association, of which 
he was chairman and member of the board of directors from 1944 to 1946. 

His most distinctive social effort was manifested in the Durham Labor 
and Materials Exchange, which he organized and directed almost single 
handed. The Exchange operated from February 3 to August 26, 1933, when 
conditions among the unemployed in industrial Durham were at their worst. 
Organizations and public spirited citizens saw this admirable project and 
gave it aid because they were convinced of Professor White's ability and 
unselfishness. The City Armory was made available as headquarters; the 
Duke Hospital and the Duke Legal Aid Clinic cooperated. Employment 
and materials were found for many needy people by the exchange of goods 
and services. Employment was provided by odd jobs, and recreation and 
reading rooms were maintained for the unemployed. The Community Relief 
organization was highly appreciative of this supplement to its work. 

This interesting social experiment was described by White in an article, 
"Labor Helps Itself: a Case History," published in the South Atlantic Quar- 
terly for October, 1933. In this article he gave a detailed account of the 
operations of the Exchange, together with a statement of its principles: 

The principles on which the L. and M. has consistendy operated have been 
six: (1) to build up credit by fulfilling all its obligations; (2) to serve the 
unemployed in every way possible and keep itself adaptable; (3) to emphasize 
self-help rather than charity; (4) to resist the tendency to lower wages; (5) 
to avoid entangling alliances and competition; and (6) to promote in every 
way possible cooperation among the unemployed, and between the unemployed 
and the employed. 

At the outbreak of the Second World War, White took a prominent part 
m the work of the Duke University Defense Council. As Chairman of its 
Committee on National Unity, he arranged for the preparation and publica- 
tion m the daily press of a series of articles by members of the Duke faculty, 
and wrote one article, "What the Nazis did in Germany and might do in 
America," in the series. He gave both money and precious time to British 
War Relief, United Nations War Relief, and Red Cross activities, and spoke 
publicly in their interests. 

His sense of social responsibility showed itself also in the affairs of his 
University and his profession. Of his services in these realms we can enumer- 


ate only a few. Although the Duke Chapter of Phi Beta Kappa was not 
organized until 1920, White and his lifelong friend, Hardin F. (Stitch) 
Taylor were elected as alumni members. He was on many of its committees 
and served one term as its president. He was a prominent member also of 
the American Association of University Professors, and was designated by 
the national office to investigate two colleges alleged to have infringed aca- 
demic freedom. His findings appear in the Bulletin of the Association. He 
was for a number of years secretary of the Duke University Research Council, 
and a member of the Executive Committee of the Friends of Duke University 
Library, to which he made frequent and valuable gifts. 

White served as a member of the board of directors of the English In- 
stitute from 1939 to 1942. He was also a member of the American Folklore 
Society, and was for two terms president of the North Carolina Folklore 
Society. He was a member of the Modern Humanities Research Association, 
and in the Modern Language Association was on the Committee on Mono- 
graphs and advisory editor for articles on Shelley scholarship. To the annual 
bibliographies of the Journal of English Literary History (ELH), from 1937 
to 1947, he contributed bibliographical and critical notes concerning publi- 
cations in the field of English Romantic literature. Among English societies, 
he was a member of the British Society of Authors, and the Charles Lamb 

Despite all these activities, superimposed on a busy life of teaching and 
research, Newman White was a diligent and faithful correspondent. His 
index of correspondents contains over three hundred addresses of individuals, 
libraries, and institutions with which he maintained contact. He answered 
everything that came to him, usually in longhand, faithfully and fully. He 
even "suffered fools gladly," or at least patiently, and gave large amounts of 
his time to many persons and causes that had no real claim upon him. The 
burden of correspondence and interviews became particularly heavy after 
the worldwide reputation that came to him in his later years, but still he 
continued to give of himself. 

The last year of his life was filled, as usual, with accomplishment and 
enjoyment. During the summer of 1948 he motored with Mrs. White to 
California to study the William Godwin materials in the Huntington Li- 
brary. Continuing his work on Godwin, of whom he proposed to write a 
biography, he went on sabbatical leave, in the fall of 1948, to Harvard. There 
he spent several happy months, in a university and among friends who had a 
great hold on his affections. Aside from the separation from his wife, this 


was one of the happiest periods of his life. He had planned that in the spring 
of 1949 he and Mrs. White should travel to Europe, but during the night of 
December 6 death fell upon him quietly. 

His funeral was held in the Duke University Chapel, where the service 
was read by his friend of forty years, the Reverend James Cannon III, and by 
a newer friend, the Reverend George Brinkmann Ehlhardt. Of the many 
affectionate and admiring tributes paid to Newman White, it is hardly possible 
to make more than a random choice. One we like particularly to remember 
speaks of his relation to his alma mater, which he loved so well that he could 
never rest in his zeal to improve it; Professor William B. Hamilton wrote 
for the student newspaper, the Duke Chronicle, of December 10, 1948: 

Duke University has become so large, the interests of its students so diverse, 
that all the undergraduates do not have general acquaintance, even by hearsay, 
with any one member of our body. It is well for us to know, therefore, that 
the life of N. I. White, who died on Monday, added dignity and stature to 
each student and teacher in this University. 

His achievement in the literary world is enough to expect from one man, 
but it is not the only gift to us from Professor White. He so comported him- 
self outside his study that we are still richer for him. He was no radical 
nor rebel, but he had the courage to espouse unpopular causes and a willing- 
ness to look authority in the eye which gave heart to many a weaker member 
of this University. His concern for the less privileged led him to interest 
himself in behalf of the worker (before he could fight for himself) and of 
various underdogs. He tried to assist the laborers of Durham when the de- 
pression had brought them to sore straits. He sponsored Norman Thomas 
when (and probably because) that gentleman was considerably less tolerantly 
regarded than he is now. At a time when many members of this University felt 
themselves frustrated by an atmosphere of inadequacy, secretiveness and lack of 
trust — a failing of that academic comradeship we need here in our common 
enterprise — White lent his prestige and force to the protestants, bolstering their 
self-respect. The urbane geniality with which he received the young, student 
or teacher, had the same effect. In these matters he made to Duke University 
throughout his thirty years here an inestimable contribution as a man, distinct 
from his service as a teacher and a scholar. Because of White, we are each of 
us more learned. We are more highly regarded. And what is most important, 
we have more pride in ourselves and more faith in our fellows. 



Into the void we go, where things unknown 

Move formless, in a dull vacuity. 

A world of blankness Here the memory 

Seizes no once-familiar touch or tone 
Of that forgotten world so late our own; 

And as our fathers long ago, so we 

Must wrestle with strange shapes we cannot see- 
Unfriended, and most utterly alone. 

Yet we shall face them. They shall yet forego 
The bestial triumph; they shall not instill 

The ancestral dread; nor shall they overthrow — 
These sullen out-world shapes — that steady will 

That men have framed together; they shall know 
There is a spirit terror may not kill. 

N. I. W. 



Why should we murmur, Clais, that the press 
Of little things engulfs us, that we go 
Girt round with gnats, and emulantly sow 

Like other men, our crop of nothingness? 

Others have come this sterile way no less 

Harried than we, some howling in their woe 
And some that, beaten, yet disdain to throw 

Against the placid stars their dull distress. 

Let us be scornful too, but pitiful 

Of those that lacking Scorn's transcendent dower, 
Shrink fevered in this vile Maremma blast; 
Knowing but this, that life is always dull 
To cowards only, and that men have power 
Antean in themselves, while Scorn shall last. 


Come, let us tend our Nothings lovingly 
And fiercely; and despite the ancient saw, 
"Ex nihil, nil" let us from Nothing draw 

Things that are fair and true for you and me. 

Alike regardless if men cannot see 

Or if they think they see and stand in awe 
Let us contain, within ourselves, a law, 

And in ourselves a faith, and dignity. 

And should men come — as no one ever will — 
Exclaiming (do not smile!), " 'Tis marvellous. 

How grew you these where goodman never delves?' 
Better be, Clais, lighdy scornful still, 

And say, " 'Tis naught; a whimsy mastered us; 
We grew them only from and for ourselves." 



So, bearing mail against our secret need 

We shall not stand defiantly at bay 

Against all comers. Often, by the way 
Shall we not pause and render thrilling heed 
To old intrepid thought and gallant deed? 

Shall we not stand and marvel and be gay 

When beauty stirs, renascent from decay, 
Through wind and sun and youth and flower and weed? 

But when the fog that lifted closes down 

And through the wrack the horrid Monster peers: 
Dragon or demon, grif, or unicorn 
(As men first saw him), or Jehovah's Frown, 
Or Endless Time, or baseless human Fears — 
Be with me, Clais, and be with us, Scorn. 

N. I. W. 



And yet this very morning we behold 

Where yesterday the sodden leaves were dank 
Green jonquil stems upthrusting, rank on rank, 

Fighting their way as stoutly as of old. 

Some bear aloft on their triumphant lances 

Thin, rotted leaves that cannot stay the thrust — 
Transfixed oppressors — who shall turn to dust 

Before the yellow harvest blooms and dances. 

Oh light footsoldiers of the stripling Spring, 

Through endless time invincibly elate, 

Whose blooms store future triumph when they wilt, 
Have you not seen men grieving by the gate 

Of Babylon, for Sion's harrowing? 

Have you not seen the Temple they rebuilt? 

N. I. W. 

EASTER, 1941 

To match Thy resurrection with the Spring's, 

O risen Lord, was Easter wisely set? 

Or did those ancient, pious men forget 
That every time the earth is freed it swings 
Once more to icy chains? That iron rings 

May seal the tomb once broken, and beget 

Within its empty darkness, black as jet, 
Another faith, of horrid blasphemings ? 

We thank Thee, Lord, that rock-cut catacombs 
Guard now those early sainted optimists 

From lictors grown more pitiless than Rome's, 
From tortured minds and poisoned Eucharists, 

From stolen altars, bloody aerodromes, 

From Hope that walks astray, if it exists. 

N. I. W. 



An address delivered by Newman Ivey White at the Pierpont Morgan 
Library in New York on March 21, 1942, as the last of a series presented 
by noted scholars in connection with the Library's exhibition on the 
theme of "The British Tradition." 

DEAD MEN, we have heard it grimly asserted, tell no tales. According 
to poets, however, some so-called dead men cannot die; they continue to 
live as "kings of thought." "Weep not for Adonais," they say; "he is not 
dead"; it is in fact only the so-called living, fighting uselessly with phantoms 
and "invulnerable nothings," who are dead and dying. 

Not to pursue such a subject into the realm of metaphysics, this paper 
wishes only to point out that from the point of view of our own moment 
in time, the great Romantic poets are anything but dead. Such ancients as 
Wordsworth, Coleridge, Shelley, and Byron, never knew even that they 
were ancients. They lived, as we do, in a world of revolution, war, and 
counter-revolution all at once, and they talked about it very much as we 
would or should talk, if we could talk as well and be as fully alive. The 
quarter-century in which most of their poetry appeared (1792-1817) offers 
so many striking parallels to our own days that the mention of only a few 
of them should give us a feeling of fellow-citizenship. 

These men, like present-day Englishmen, knew the threat of invasion 
as no other Englishmen had known it since the days of the Norman Con- 
quest or the Spanish Armada. Several abortive attempts were actually made 
by the French, the largest at Bantry Bay, in 1797-98, and the most remarkable 
that of a small landing force on the Welsh coast. After suffering light casual- 
ties in stealing a calf, this expedition surrendered because its officers mistook 
the red petticoats of numerous peasant women gathered on the surrounding 
hills for the red uniforms of heavy British reinforcements. 

Sea-coast residents all had their government instructions curiously like 
those recently issued — they must destroy all supplies and road-signs, and break 
the axles of all vehicles as soon as the enemy landed. Mothers stilled fractious 
children with threats of "Boney's" appearance. Staid civilians rushed to the 


enlistment stations. Among the volunteers who never saw battle were nearly 
all the poets old enough to enlist — Burns, Scott, Coleridge, Wordsworth, 
Southey, and Leigh Hunt — while Landor, and later Byron, saw some service 

Then, as now, religious alarms and animosities complicated the struggle. 
If on the eve of the present war England had her Nazi societies promoting 
revolution and disloyalty, she had then her societies of friends of the Revolu- 
tion, supposed by many good patriots to be doing the same thing. Tom Paine, 
prodded by a prophetic warning from William Blake, reached France only 
a jump or two ahead of the officers who were to have arrested him. Civil 
rights, then as later, yielded to public dangers or fears. The right of habeas 
corpus, for centuries the unviolated citadel of British freedom, was suspended 
annually from 1794-1801 and again in 1817 — the latter occasion followed by 
a hurried exodus of radical writers to America. Byron, writing his flippant 
Beppo in Italy in 1817, seized the opportunity to include habeas corpus in his 
mocking catalogue of England's various attractions: "I like the Habeas Corpus 
(when we've got it)." 

Spies, official or self-appointed, were then, as now, a feature of the scene. 
The Romantic poets received some attention from them, but came off with 
unimpaired prestige. The town clerk of Barnstaple, an amateur sleuth, ar- 
rived at Lynmouth to investigate young Percy Bysshe Shelley only to find 
that his quarry had already given him the slip. The professional spy who 
dogged Coleridge and Wordsworth for a while in 1797 asked to be discharged 
because he was convinced that they were aware of him. He had crept up 
behind a bank on which the two poets were sunning themselves and discussing 
the philosophy of Spinoza; and in this position, as he reported it, he had 
heard them make repeated reference to "Spy-Nosey." Modern parallels even 
for these absurdities might be adduced. 

The revolutionary spectacle in France had a number of aspects quite similar 
to those we have recently witnessed, even though some of them pertain in 
one case to a cause on the whole approved, and in the other to a cause detested. 
Our modern inflations, currency experiments, and price ceilings were all fa- 
miliar to Revolutionary France. "Heads will roll in the dust" was Hitler's 
phrase, but it was earlier the French Revolution's practice. The revulsion 
from the execution of royalty, best expressed in England by Burke, has been 
stimulated again in our own day by the fate of the Russian royal family. The 
Nazi revolution financed itself largely by confiscating the property of labor 
unions and Jews, the French Revolution by confiscating that of the Church 


and the nobility, so that the guillotine was sometimes called the mint. The 
Nazis developed a super-intense feeling of nationalism and eventually imposed 
it by force and treachery on their neighbors; the French did much the same 
thing in the name of an equally intense feeling of international brotherhood. 
The French Revolution, or its immediate aftermath, even parallels the Nazi 
racial persecution of the Jews with a brief persecution of Negroes. The sheer 
impossibility — to our orthodox economists of the 1930's — of a financially de- 
funct Germany arming itself till it could overpower the rest of Europe would 
not have seemed so impossible to the generation of the Romantic poets which 
had seen France in the early 1790's accomplish the same supposed miracle. 

The assumption for war purposes of tax burdens previously deemed vir- 
tually impossible was as characteristic of the Romantic generation as of our 
own. No whimsical complainant in these days will ever surpass Sydney 
Smith's outburst on taxation in 1820: "Taxes upon every article which enters 
into the mouth, or covers the back, or is placed under the foot — taxes upon 
everything which it is pleasant to see, hear, feel, smell or taste— taxes upon 
warmth, light, and locomotion — taxes on everything on earth, and the waters 
under the earth . . ." etc., etc., through a highly specific catalogue, ending 
with "and the dying Englishman, pouring his medicine, which has paid 
seven per cent, into a spoon that has paid 15% — flings himself back upon his 
chintz bed, which has paid 22% — and expires in the arms of an apothecary 
who has paid a license of a hundred pounds for the privilege of putting him 
to death." 

The generation of the Romantic poets, like our own, saw revolution con- 
verted into autocracy and proceeding from conquest to conquest by means 
often as unscrupulous as those we have witnessed — broken treaties, political 
assassinations, and the enslavement of nations. Poles and Italians fought 
Napoleon's battles, though not under quite the same duress as Rumanians 
and Magyars have fought Hitler's. Toussaint L'Ouverture was taken treach- 
erously under a flag of truce, somewhat as Hitler has taken whole nations. 
Napoleon kidnapped from neutral territory and later executed the Due 
D'Enghien, just as Hitler kidnapped from Switzerland, Holland and Austria 
several victims whom he executed or imprisoned. Napoleon executed the 
Swiss patriot Hofer for continuing to resist after his government had ceased 
fighting, and Hitler almost daily executed scores of Poles and Serbs for similar 
reasons. Marat and the Czar of Russia were assassinated; several attempts 
were made to assassinate Napoleon and George III; one English prime minis- 
ter was assassinated and another, William Pitt, was later accused by Lafayette 

i> j 

of having instigated assassination in France. It remained for our contempo- 
rary Japanese, however, systematically to develop assassination as a means of 
political persuasion. 

We have our phrase, and the reality, of total warfare and a nation in arms, 
but it was the French Revolution which first applied it. We have our ex- 
periences with new military techniques, but the same or similar things were 
known also to the early nineteenth century; Napoleon, like Hitler, paralyzed 
his enemies by a previously unknown and unorthodox speed of movement, 
weight of metal, and massing of troops against one nation to use them sud- 
denly against another. 

Even specific incidents of the two wars contain curious parallelisms. Eng- 
land's chief weapon then, as later, was the blockade and the encouragement 
of Continental resistance by means of subsidy. England attacked and crippled 
the French fleet in 1940 for precisely the same reason that impelled her to 
attack and destroy the neutral Danish fleet in 1802 on a forty-eight hour ulti- 
matum — because she could not risk its falling into the hands of the Conti- 
nental dictator. The very names that were significant in Napoleon's invasion 
of Russia are in some cases the same as today; for instance, Napoleon first 
planned, like Hitler, to stop his retreat at Smolensk. Even the reactionary 
aftermath of the earlier struggle bears some resemblance to the outcome of 
our first World War, though one hopes it will not resemble that of the second. 
For the Romantic generation, as for ours and others, there was also the "peace 
offensive." Burke's fear in 1796 that Pitt would make peace called forth his 
greatest eloquence, practically from his death-bed, in Letters on a Regicide 
Peace. Eighteen years later, when Napoleon was desperate after Leipzig, 
Southey issued an impassioned poetic warning against compromisers, "Who 
Counsels Peace at this Momentous Hour?" 

One aspect of our modern struggle, the underlying conflict between capital 
and labor, was largely absent from the former one. But the conditions which 
were to generate it were recognized in different ways in their very infancy 
Iby Wordsworth, Coleridge, Southey, Byron and Shelley. As early as 1804 a 
letter of Coleridge shows his apprehension of future disaster from the de- 
humanizing tendencies of modern commerce and industry. Wordsworth in 
his Excursion saw and cried out against the stultifying effects of the new in- 
dustrialism. Southey, though by that time, like Wordsworth, a Tory, protested 
strongly against the evils of child labor in the mines and factories. Byron 
made a bitter speech in the House of Lords against the bill which authorized 
the hanging of laborers for breaking machinery, and Shelley boldly advocated 


repudiation of the national debt on the grounds that it had been pyramided 
largely by a new moneyed class who were in the main both the makers and 
holders of the debt, while labor paid the interest. 

One would not insist too strongly on the basic character of all the paral- 
lelisms here mentioned. No one generation ever completely repeats the ex- 
perience of another. The French Revolution, we like to think, is not to be 
compared with the Nazi one on the basis of merit, nor Napoleon with Hitler, 
nor even the Treaty of Vienna with that of Paris. It is sufficient for our 
purposes if we realize that psychologically, at least, the Romantic poets be- 
longed to a generation which must have reacted to its times pretty much as 
we react to ours. We may then proceed to examine more in detail how the 
Romantic poets behaved in this psychological environment so similar to our 

The older group of Romantic poets faced a problem of divided loyalties 
which should not seem entirely strange to our generation. For many of us 
there have been divided loyalties in attempting to harmonize a hatred of 
dictatorship and a military comradeship with dictators; or a hatred of Nazism 
with a respect for German thoroughness and industry and a love of the older 
German music, philsophy, and Gemutlichkeit; or a traditional belief in 
eighteenth century American political democracy with a new and disturbing 
creed of economic and social democracy. 

Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Southey all grew up in a liberal Whig tra- 
dition which honored the English Revolution of 1688 and had shown some 
sympathy with the American Revolution. Wordsworth, in particular, came 
from the most naturally democratic social and political environment that 
England afforded. In common with a great many young English Whigs, 
they hailed the French Revolution with joy. Its principles seemed to them, 
as Wordsworth said of his own feelings, so natural as almost to be taken for 
granted. Young Coleridge at Cambridge read all the revolutionary news 
and pamphlets and so stored his marvellous memory each morning that in 
the evening he was used by his associates as a kind of animated newspaper. 
Young Southey at Oxford was full of the same enthusiasm; Coleridge and 
Southey collaborated in a poetic drama on the fall of Robespierre and in 
planning their well-known Pantisocracy scheme for a revolutionary society 
on the banks of the Susquehanna River. 

Wordsworth, meanwhile, had paid a visit to France and had noted with 
warm sympathy the universal greeting of "Citizen," the enthusiastic local 
celebrations of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity, and the raw revolutionary 


pikemen moving to their frontier posts. The next year when he persuaded 
his guardians that he needed a residence in France to prepare himself as a 
teacher, one strongly suspects further motives never stated by Wordsworth 
himself. He came soon to feel like one who has stepped into a new and 
glorious inheritance: 

Bliss was it in that dawn to be alive, 
But to be young was very Heaven! 

That he could write these lines years after he had come to believe that his 
enthusiasm was in part misguided is an eloquent testimony both to his intel- 
lectual honesty and to the intensity of his youthful feelings. 

But the causes which incite our enthusiasm have their own ends to serve. 
They exist for themselves and are guided partly by uncontrollable circum- 
stances to which they must conform and partly by their own human strength 
and weaknesses. Hence they generally fall short of our enthusiastic ideals. 
It is also true that the young enthusiast, like his cause, is subject to a variety 
of stresses of which he is partly unconscious. 

Who, then, shall assess the extent to which Wordsworth's trend away from 
the Revolution was due to financial pressure from his guardians, or to a sub- 
conscious fear that he was jeopardizing his whole precious future by a mis- 
alliance with Annette Vallon, or to the inevitability either of conforming to 
England's constant state of warfare with France or else of seeing his plans 
and ambitions completely frustrated ? The fundamental purpose of all Words- 
worth's poetry was to find a basic, tenable harmony between individual man 
and his environment. Such a person was surely less likely to maintain an 
individual warfare against a country which he loved and upon which his 
whole fortune depended than he was to discover a basis for harmonizing his 
beliefs with inevitable conditions. 

We, who have seen the awful power of national will organized to subvert 
individual opinions, should understand Byron, Shelley, Hazlitt, Browning, 
Paul Elmer More, or Mr. Fausset, for suggesting in various ways that Words- 
worth may have been an unconscious victim of such pressure — that he de- 
serted his earlier opinions by a process now known as rationalizing. In our 
own day we have seen dimly, and shall yet see more clearly, individual ex- 
amples of the same tragedy that the young Wordsworth was tough enough 
to surmount, in which causes have outrun the sympathies of their adherents, 
or in which it is necessary to effect a modus vivendi between strongly held 
opinions and an invincible environment hostile to them. 

I repeat that we can by no means be sure how Wordsworth's change was 

[2 4 ] 

effected or how much his most fundamental opinions really changed. We 
know that in The Prelude when he came to state his reasons for leaving 
France he did so quite briefly and vaguely and was sufficiently dissatisfied 
with the wording to change it later. We know that after his return to Eng- 
land he boldly took issue with some anti-revolutionary principles published 
by the Bishop of Llandaff — but failed to publish his answer or even to send 
it to the Bishop. We know of both Wordsworth and Coleridge that their 
disapproval of mass executions and of assaults upon religion was not sufficient 
to turn them against the Revolution. Both men sincerely believed that they 
deserted the Revolution only when the Revolution deserted the principle of 
national freedom and embarked upon the conquest of weaker neighboring 
countries. Finally, we know that both men came to be ticketed later by their 
younger contemporaries as conservatives. We see Wordsworth a little later 
publishing a magnificent series of patriotic sonnets, yet criticizing again and 
again, with the boldness of a Hebrew prophet, England's moral and spiritual 
weaknesses, accepting a sinecure from a reactionary government, opposing 
the Reform Bill and Catholic Emancipation, criticizing democratic government 
in America, yet remarking that he was at heart half a Chartist and maintain- 
ing and believing that these positions were in accord with, and not contrary 
to, his early principles. 

How did the other poets meet the same necessity for readjustment ? With 
Scott there was no revulsion. He was and always had been a Tory, with an 
instinct for tradition and conformity combined with a great personal gen- 
erosity and kindliness. He could get along sufficiently well with Whigs to 
maintain friendliness for a while with the founders of the Edinburgh Review 
and even to like Lord Byron, but his later encouragement of the more savage 
Tory reviewers and his actual campaigning against Catholic Emancipation 
represented no real change in outlook. 

Thomas Campbell began his poetry with what might have become a 
revolutionary strain. But it scarcely went beyond the sound traditional Whig 
liberalism of such an eighteenth-century poet as Cowper. To the end of his 
days he remained a mild liberal influence in English literature, more in jour- 
nalism than in poetry. He was so much more the patriotic Englishman than 
the devotee of abstract freedom and justice that he could write his most 
spirited poem, "The Battle of the North," in praise of an attack upon a neu- 
tral fleet after the lapse of a sudden, forty-eight hour ultimatum. 

The case with Robert Southey was different. There was no doubt about 
the strongly revolutionary character of his youthful Joan of Arc and Wat 


Tyler. Yet Southey's sympathy with France (though not with republicanism) 
was largely terminated by the fall of the moderate Girondist leaders. The 
fundamental bias of Southey's character was not revealed until after his 
marriage. It was practical rather than idealistic, and his sense of responsi- 
bility was far more personal than social. His most pressing obligation was 
the support of a family — two families, after he assumed Coleridge's duties. 
They all drew their principal nourishment, as he once phrased it, through one 
quill. This quill he conscientiously employed on as many as three or four 
books or articles at once, and yet found time for occasional poems and stories 
for his own children and very jolly letters to them. Southey had to be prac- 
tical, and fortunately it cost him only a temporary pang — when the Girondists 
were overthrown — after which he was happy in his work. He was quite 
willing in 1807 to accept a small literary annuity from the reactionary Tory 
Government, to become in 1809 one of the principal contributors to the arch- 
conservative Quarterly Review, and in 1813 poet laureate. 

A course comparatively so untroubled would have been impossible for 
Wordsworth or Coleridge. To the extent that they were men of vastly greater 
philosophic grasp and imaginative sympathies than Southey, they suffered 
longer and more deeply from the period of civil war within their own bosoms. 
The period of Wordsworth's greatest suffering, from 1792 to about 1795, is a 
relatively blind spot in his biography, but from his own account in The Pre- 
lude it was unquestionably the darkest and most dismal period of his life. 
He tells us that he sought everywhere in vain for some intellectual and moral 
anchor, until 

I lost 
All feeling of conviction, and, in fine, 
Sick, wearied out with contrarieties, 
Yielded up moral questions in despair. 

Coleridge, who from the depths of his own despondency so admired 
Wordsworth's strength, would scarcely have doubted, had he known Words- 
worth at this time, that the "cheerful confidence" which Wordsworth even- 
tually achieved must have been inevitable from a deep, innate affirmative 
bias. With a social and personal conscience more sensitive, perhaps, even 
than Wordsworth's, Coleridge did not possess this last invincible redoubt of 
the stronger poet. He possessed only the penetration and honesty to perceive 
his own deficiency. And so his inner civil war was probably more poignant 
even than Wordsworth's. Like Southey and Wordsworth, his sympathy with 
the French Revolution was bound up mainly with the Girondist ascendancy. 


He hailed the early Revolution with joy, celebrated with a poem the destruc- 
tion of the Bastille, wrote a sonnet to assert that Liberty could not be im- 
prisoned with Lafayette, and was grieved, but not alienated, by the Jacobin 
Reign of Terror. His criticism of England at this time was both more strin- 
gent and more affectionate than Wordsworth's. His "Ode on the Departing 
Year" (1796) condemns England as 

Abandon'd of Heaven! mad Avarice thy guide, 

At cowardly distance, yet kindling with pride — 

Mid thy herds and thy corn-fields secure thou hast stood, 

And join'd the wild yelling of Famine and Blood! 

The nations curse thee! 

Even then, however, England seems to him "Not yet enslaved, not wholly 

Two years later, in 1798, he wrote both his "Ode to France" and his "Fears 
in Solitude." In the former he gives a true account of his devotion to "di- 
vinest Liberty" and his steadfast association of that cause with France even 
at the expense of assailing his beloved England as France's enemy. He then 
denounces France as a suppressor of liberty through her attacks on the Swiss: 

The Sensual and the Dark rebel in vain, 
Slaves by their own compulsion! 

He concludes that true liberty is a vain dream, realizable perhaps in nature, 
but not in human society. 

His "Fears in Solitude" calls upon Englishmen to 

repel an impious foe, 
Impious and false, a light yet cruel race, 
Who laughs away all virtue, mingling mirth 
With deeds of murder. 

The same poem contains a strong indictment of England's sins and concludes 
with a passionate assertion of his love for England. A year later the love of 
England was to be, as in Wordsworth's case, one of the strongest personal 
feelings evident in his poems written in Germany. It was England that he 
loved, however — her countryside, her plain people, but not her government 
or her history. 

Coleridge's renunciation, in the "Ode to France," of the search for political 
freedom was apparently final. Until the end of his life the gospel which he 
handed down in his prose writings and conversation was to be based largely 
on a passion for intellectual, rather than political freedom. Through a decade 


and a half after 1798, England was still in danger and still in need both of 
national inspiration and of fearless criticism, but Coleridge was silent. It 
was Wordsworth who assumed this office. 

Their struggles within themselves, caused by the strong dissension of 
their times, is an aspect of the Romantic poets every shade of which may be 
duplicated by the observation of thoughtful people today. Although the spec- 
tacle contains no particular present inspiration or encouragement for us, it 
should at least help us understand some of our contemporaries. For a more 
positive stimulation we must inspect two other aspects of the subject, namely, 
the spiritual stimulation offered England by her poets during the long strug- 
gle with Napoleon, and the comments of the younger Romantic generation 
on the peace. 

Except for Wordsworth's, few of the many war poems of the time are 
remembered or deserve remembrance today. Wolfe's "The Burial of Sir 
John Moore," Campbell's "Ye Mariners of England" and "The Battle of the 
North" are exceptions. But Campbell's battle lyrics, though spirited, lack 
imaginative power and philosophic grasp, and can only be called splendid 
examples of the "up guards and at 'em" type. The numerous turgid odes on 
Waterloo, including those of Southey and of Wordsworth — the latter with 
the deplorable line, "Carnage is thy [God's] daughter," which so justly in- 
furiated Shelley and Byron — are all about as deadly as the battle itself. 
Scarcely a line could be remembered, wrote Francis Jeffrey in 1816, of all 
the poems written on Waterloo by "all our bards, . . . great and small, and 
of all sexes, ages, and professions." 

At this point and in this particular, at least before Waterloo, Wordsworth 
towers above the rest like a majestic oak above the surrounding scrub. No 
English man of letters save possibly Milton has ever functioned so grandly 
as a trumpet-call to the best spirit of his time and nation. For thirteen years 
of intermittent danger, disaster, and triumph his voice may be heard above 
the confusion of cross-purposes, speaking calmly in tones that far transcend 
the mere emotion of the moment. 

It is a strangely ironic fact that this trumpet-call was heard by his con- 
temporaries more as a belated echo than as an instantaneous stimulus. The 
many sonnets written between 1802 and 1807 inclusive were not published 
until 1807, the sonnets and poems written between 1807 and 1815 were not 
published until 1815, while some fifteen poems were written in 1816, after 
the battle of Waterloo. Nor, when Wordsworth wrote these poems, was he 


sufficiently well-known to the general reading public for them to have had 
their fullest effect had they been published at once. 

In all, there are some seventy of these poems. They begin with Words- 
worth's sojourn in Calais in 1802, during the brief peace following the Treaty 
of Amiens. These sonnets show an expectation of invasion, a sense of France's 
spiritual deterioration and of Napoleon's moral weakness as a great leader, 
and an anxiety over England's spiritual defects coupled with a confidence that 
she is nevertheless the worthiest remaining champion of Freedom. During 
the next year, 1803, when it seemed that England might be invaded at any 
time, he wrote several sonnets on the anticipated invasion; he even went so 
far as to write one congratulating the men of Kent for their intrepid repulse 
of a wholly imaginary invasion. 

To read these poems is almost to call the roll of crises and stirring events 
of the times. The imprisonment of Toussaint L'Ouverture, the subjection of 
the Swiss, the anti-Napoleonic leanings of the King of Sweden, the extinction 
of the Venetian Republic, the brave, unsuccessful effort of Major Schill to 
arouse Prussia against Napoleon, the death of Charles Fox, Napoleon's crush- 
ing victories of Austerlitz and Jena, the mounting tide of Spanish resistance 
to Napoleon, Waterloo, and (four years after the event) Napoleon's disaster 
in Russia — all receive their comment. Never once was he really despondent, 
even though he never underestimated the danger, and even though he was 
fully aware of England's spiritual weaknesses. Again and again he calls at- 
tention to these: 


The world is too much with us; 

Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour: 
England hath need of thee: she is a fen 
Of stagnant waters : altar, sword, and pen, 
Fireside, the heroic wealth of hall and bower, 
Have forfeited their ancient English dower 
Of inward happiness . . . 


No grandeur now in Nature or in book 
Delights us. Rapine, avarice, expense, 
This is idolatry; and these we adore: 
Plain living and high thinking are no more. 

But England nevertheless seemed spiritually superior to France; there was 
a historic "Flood of British freedom" which had challenged the world's ad- 


miration for centuries and which it seemed impossible "in bogs and sands 
should perish." She had had great men, whereas France had produced "no 
master spirit." Napoleon himself lacked all the elements of the truly great 
"happy warrior": 

Wisdom doth live with children round her knees; 
Books, leisure, perfect freedom, and the talk 
Man holds with week-day man in the hourly walk 
Of the mind's business. . . . 

Throughout all these poems true greatness, whether national or individual, 
is the basic note. "What has tamed great nations" is a spiritual and not a 
material force, while "the power of armies is a visible thing." "The martial 
courage of a day is vain;" the abiding forces are national tradition, the courage 
of daily life, simple, plain living, and persistent, manly determination. In 
the worst moment of depression, in 1806, when the Continent lay at Napo- 
leon's feet and William Pitt on his deathbed was saying "Fold up the map" 
of Europe, Wordsworth was writing. 

Another year! — another deadly blow! 
Another mighty Empire overthrown! 
And We are left, or shall be left, alone; 
The last that dare to struggle with the Foe. 
Tis well! From this day forward we shall know 
That in ourselves our safety must be sought; 
That in our own right hands it must be wrought; 
That we must stand unpropped, or be laid low. 
O dastard whom such foretaste doth not cheer! 

We shall exult, if they who rule the land 
Be men who hold its many blessings dear, 

Wise, upright, valiant; not a servile band, 
Who are to judge of danger which they fear, 
And honour which they do not understand. 

Five years later, while writing sonnets to encourage the Spanish patriots, 
he furnishes perhaps the greatest testimony of all: 

Here pause; the poet claims at least this praise, 
That virtuous Liberty hath been the scope 
Of his pure song, which did not shrink from hope 

In the worst moment of these evil days; 

From hope, the paramount duty that Heaven lays, 
For its own honour, on man's suffering heart. 


Never may from our souls one truth depart — 
That an accursed thing it is to gaze 
On prosperous tyrants with a dazzled eye; 

Nor — touched with due abhorrence of their guilt 

For whose dire ends tears flow, and blood is spilt, 
And justice labors in extremity — 
Forget thy weakness, upon which is built 

O wretched man, the throne of tyranny! 

With the overthrow of Napoleon at Waterloo came the reaction. Eng- 
land's most lively poets now were men who had been children, or unborn, 
at the time when the older generation hailed the French Revolution. Cole- 
ridge, Scott, Campbell, Southey as poets were almost silent. Wordsworth, 
not altogether silent as a poet, was definitely the Lost Leader so far as political 
liberalism at home was concerned. The torch was now being carried by 
men like Byron, Shelley, Keats, and Moore. Two of these may be omitted 
from the present discussion — Keats, as a political liberal whose poetic bent 
was primarily non-political; and Moore, because his liberalism, though genu- 
ine, nevertheless spoke in a voice scarcely to be remembered in comparison 
with the voices of Shelley and Byron. 

The Congress of Vienna was still propping up old Kings and new bound- 
aries, and the older poets were still celebrating Waterloo as the gateway to a 
millennium when Byron visited that battlefield in 1816 and expressed there 
his scornful doubts as to what was becoming of Liberty in the shuffle: 

Fit retribution! Gaul may champ the bit 

And foam in fetters; — but is Earth more free? 

Byron, though he secretly relished being compared to Napoleon, somewhat 
agreed with Wordsworth's characterization of him, but, like Shelley, was 
inclined to think that Napoleon's tyranny was at least preferable to the tyran- 
nies he overthrew. 

Both Byron and Shelley saw it as a mission to oppose reaction at home 
and to encourage liberal revolutions abroad. Byron supplied arms and counsel 
to the Italian Carbonari and died in the struggle for Greek independence; 
Shelley hailed with joyous poetic encouragement the Neapolitan, Spanish and 
Greek uprisings, while he assailed the reaction at home in prose and poetry 
which he addressed sometimes, as in Prometheus Unbound, to the most ad- 
vanced minds of the day, and sometimes, as in The Masque of Anarchy, to the 
intelligence of the average laborer. 

With Shelley freedom was a religion to which in boyhood he had dedicated 


a missionary zeal maintained thereafter with amazing intensity as the guiding 
principle of his life. In 1817, when he thought he might die before placing 
his love of freedom fully on record, he wrote his longest poem, The Revolt 
of Islam. This poem was an attempt to meet the greatest moral problem of 
the post-Waterloo era. Everywhere reaction was rampant, men were looking 
back upon the old Revolutionary ideals as a silly, evil dream, and were turning 
cynical and apathetic. A few years earlier, in 18 14, Wordsworth had attacked 
the prevailing pessimism in his own way in The Excursion. Wordsworth had 
sought to restore an embittered former Revolutionary sympathizer to a posi- 
tive, cheerful philosophy by the recipe of "plain living and high thinking" 
in a simple, healthful, natural environment among plain, honest people. He 
seemed to assume that the former enthusiasm was itself partly a disease. Per- 
haps this is why, after eagerly starting to read The Excursion aloud, Shelley 
and Mary entered in their journal, "Much disappointed; he is a slave." Shel- 
ley wished to restore and improve the revolutionary enthusiasm, rather than 
find a substitute. He first urged the task upon Byron, and assumed it him- 
self only on Byron's default. In The Revolt of Islam he can hardly be said 
to have succeeded, except for a very select type of reader and on one important 
point. That point, reasserted in several later poems, is that the struggle for 
freedom can never be totally suppressed, that its many apparent defeats are 
only the times in which it gathers strength for a new outbreak. To Shelley 
this was a point which rendered relatively insignificant the success or failure 
of any particular revolt against tyranny. 

From this fact proceeds a seeming paradox. The one Romantic poet who 
was most totally and passionately devoted to freedom is also one who writes 
relatively little solely about definite occasions. True, he seized upon the death 
of the liberal Princess Charlotte as an occasion for a prose pamphlet pointing 
out that the real funeral should be for Liberty; true, he wrote poems on every 
European revolutionary movement, upon the Manchester Massacre, and upon 
the general state of England in 18 19. But even these poems were always 
escaping from the particular to the general. Though his Masque of Anarchy 
contains one of the best commonsense definitions of practical freedom that 
English poetry affords, Shelley could never confine himself to a particular 
occasion when the subject was liberty. Even in his Hellas, dealing with the 
Greek Revolution, the actual battle scenes are drawn more from the ancient 
Greeks than from current accounts, and the present struggle was to Shelley 
far less important than the eternal one which it symbolized. 

This was because Freedom was for Shelley the essence of all life and of 


life in all times. Shelley's only God or Goddess was ideal beauty, or Love, 
by which he meant universal sympathy; and ideal beauty simply could not 
exist without freedom. Life would be death, he proclaimed; hope would be 
despair, truth a lie and love merely lust, 

If Liberty 
Lent not life its soul of light, 
Hope its iris of delight, 
Truth its prophet's robe to wear, 
Love its power to give and bear. 

It is not surprising, therefore, that Shelley's grandest poem of Freedom, 
Prometheus Unbound, should be deliberately as far removed as possible from 
the shackles of any local or temporal circumstances. The action covers endless 
time and limitless space, and the subject is the struggle against oppression in 
every imaginable form. It was so far from being intended merely for the 
present crisis that Shelley doubted if more than twenty contemporaries would 
really understand it fully. Yet it reaches its conclusion on a note which is 
applicable to every crisis of freedom and is certainly one of the most awfully 
impressive of all poetic passages on Liberty. Jupiter has been overthrown, 
and Demogorgon, the agent of his downfall, realizes, as Shelley had long 
since realized, that Tyranny is never overthown finally and forever. He 
therefore calls together the most inclusive audience imaginable to hear him 
assert the qualities by which alone Freedom can be kept or re- won: 

To suffer woes which Hope thinks infinite; 
To forgive wrongs darker than death or night; 
To defy Power, which seems omnipotent; 
To love, and bear; to hope till Hope creates 
From its own wreck the thing it contemplates; 
Neither to change, nor falter, nor repent; 
This, like thy glory, Titan, is to be 
Good, great and joyous, beautiful and free; 
This is alone Life, Joy, Empire, and Victory! 

Byron, though he failed to carry out Shelley's suggestion and even con- 
fessed privately that he could not understand Shelley's execution of it, served 
the same cause in his own way. In Canto IV of Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, 
written while Shelley was writing The Revolt of Islam, he champions Italian 
freedom, excoriates the reviving tryranny of Europe, and asserts that Freedom, 
led by some nobler champion like Washington, must triumph in the end: 


Yet, Freedom! yet thy banner, torn, but flying, 
Streams like the thunder-storm against the wind! 

Byron was himself a partly cynical and embittered product of disillusion, but 
he was never cynical about Freedom. Even in Don Juan, which is so largely 
a collection of witty cynicisms, his attitude toward Freedom affords an almost 
startling contrast of earnest idealism. 

The reaction which the younger Romantic poets combatted offers a rather 
general parallel to the spiritual defeatism which so largely characterized our 
own post-war thinking after 1918, and had its part in leading up to our 
present crisis. If it should have to be faced once more, perhaps from these 
poets we may be able to draw some of the strength needed "to defy Power, 
which seems omnipotent," "neither to change, nor falter, nor repent," and 

to hope till Hope creates 
From its own wreck the thing it contemplates. 



Seeing a starved girl tend a wretched cow, 

" Tis this we fight against," Beaupuy exclaimed. 
Young Wordsworth's Northern visage slowly flamed 

And "Aye," he said. The word fell like a vow 

From lips whose tightened passion even now 

(More than a hundred years since it was tamed) 
Sets youthful men afire to seek, unshamed, 

That goal by him forgotten, none knows how. 

Later he often mourned that earth and sea 

And sky spoke always something that had fled — 
A magic something he could not revive — 

Was it of France he thought? . . . The Loire. . . . Beaupuy. 
Annette. . . . and Freedom? Then it was he said, 
"Joy was it, in that day, to be alive." 

Strange paradox, to tend a vital fire 

And flee from it, and after years of doubt 

And misery find Joy, raising the shout 
Of victory in flight; and to inspire 
With solid courage struggles in the mire 

Of weary circumstance — to turn about, 

A fugitive himself, and stay the rout, 
And still self-righteous, take a tyrant's hire! 
"Not so," said Shelley, holding that same course 

By him forsaken. "Who betray themselves 
Die, soul and word, a total suicide" — 
O Irony! — O infinite resource 

Of resolute Mind that sinuously delves 
And never doubts, because self-justified. 


How surely Nature fits into the Mind 

And how the Mind fits Nature's ordinance, 
The Joy that is man's natural heritance, 

The individual worth of human kind, 

He strongly uttered. When the state inclined 
Ignobly, he rebuked, the arrogance 
Of unripe science chastened, and his glance 

Lent Sorrow strength to know itself resigned. 

Take we our joy and strength of him, secure 

That one great mind he probed not to the end, 
Nor reached one smothered vision in its cell. 

And we that search his weakness — oh, be sure, 
As through the winding caverns we ascend, 
Long quiet ghosts we slew will rise as well. 

But what of him whose vision could not stray 
From that starved girl and flashing river-side, 
Beaupuy, who wrote no poems, but relied 

Upon "the sense of youth"? Still day by day, 

Through swift assault or stupid blind delay, 
With ragged, singing soldiers at his side 
He fought for his first love until he died — 

Winning a moment's fame that passed away. 

But Wordsworth, when he later calmly wrote 
Of happy warriors — simple men inspired, 
"Kept faithful with a singleness of aim," 

(His brother and Lord Nelson?) — Memory smote 
For once unasked, and young Beaupuy, "attired 
With sudden brightness" swept him like a flame. 

N. I. W. 



A paper read by Newman Ivey White before the English Club of Duke 
University on December 12, 1940. 

WHEN a man has written and talked for years largely on one subject, 
he eventually gets the idea that people would prefer his expressing him- 
self about something else. Generally he gets it too late, but if he is married 
there is a chance that he may still get it in time to save humanity some need- 
less suffering. That is one reason why I am not talking to you this evening 
on the general subject of Shelley; the other one is that I am afraid I can add 
nothing to what I have already written on that subject. 

In choosing for my subject the Adventures of a Biographer I may be jump- 
ing from the frying pan into the fire. But I submit that anyone already in 
the frying pan is invincibly constrained to jump somewhere, and the fire 
has not yet been proved the worse fate. Perhaps we shall settle that doubt 
this evening, if nothing more. 

The trouble with the present subject is that it is so undisguisably egotistic. 
There is no way that I can discover to call it by any other name. Every 
avenue of evasion that I have explored leads straight to the diaries of Adam 
and Eve. According to herself, Eve exclaimed the moment she saw a strange 
bird, "Well, I do declare, if there isn't the dodo!" And Adam testified that 
her reason for this was that she could see at a glance that it looked like a 
dodo. So they called it by its proper name. And since my subject looks like 
egotism, I see nothing but to call it that. 

Adventure, of course, is not the main business of a biographer. His main 
business is to sit at a loom for some hundreds or thousands of hours; to throw 
out inquiries everywhere in an effort to discover materials in archives, libraries, 
and human memories all over the world; to assemble a mountainous mass 
of old rags of all descriptions, each containing at least a possible thread or 
two for his loom; to pick to pieces one by one each of those rags and sort 
out only the threads that may belong to his pattern; to study those threads 
minutely until he can perceive the general outlines of the one and only pat- 
tern into which all of them can be harmoniously woven — a pattern never 
before fully perceived even by the human being who lived it; and finally to 


take those innumerable threads and weave them carefully into that pattern 
with nothing of real significance omitted or over- or underemphasized, with 
every thread duly tested for genuineness of color and fabric, with every possible 
sign of the weaver and his loom removed. 

This is the biographer's main business, at which no biographer has ever 
been fully successful. But it is also his biggest adventure — an adventure-serial, 
so to speak, full of disappointments and excited moments, full of long quests 
ending in blind alleys and long quests ending in minor triumphs, thrilling 
moments of supposed insight which turn out after patient investigation to have 
been sometimes leaps into the dark and sometimes leaps into a sudden bright 
clarity of understanding. Every biographer has had such experiences. If I 
had time and skill enough I could elaborate them all in turn from personal 
experiences. For examples: Of disappointment — a ten years' search, practi- 
cally fruidess as yet, for the hidden connection which there is reason to suspect 
existed between Shelley and the mysterious journal called The Theological 
Inquirer; or the long, tedious pursuit of clues which I hoped vainly might 
lead me to the vanished third volume of Hogg's life of Shelley. Of success — 
the equally long search through numerous periodicals, indexes, catalogues, 
obituaries, and memoirs, to discover the identity of the nameless Newspaper 
Editor who evidently knew Shelley fairly well in his youth. And this time 
I succeeded, when I was able to establish through internal evidence that the 
Newspaper Editor whose reminiscences appeared in Frasers Magazine was the 
Gibbons Merle whose obituary I finally traced down in a Paris newspaper, 
Galignani's Messenger. It is quite true that what I had found was little 
more than a mere name — little more, in fact, than a perfectly glorious mo- 
mentary thrill. 

This moment of elation was followed in just about an hour by one of 
my memorable moments of deflation — thirty minutes of it, to be exact. My 
discovery of Gibbons Merle was made in the British Museum Periodical Col- 
lection at Hendon, outside London. As I made it my eye was constantly on 
the clock, for I had to keep an appointment on the other side of London 
with a gentleman who I hoped would put me on the track of Hogg's lost 
volume of Shelley's life. With great difficulty I had located him as the son 
of the man who had last handled the lost volume when it was in the hands of 
the publishers. He and his wife conducted a rather exclusive school which 
fitted boys for one of the Oxford colleges. Having miscalculated the time, 
I arrived half an hour early and had to wait for the gentleman's arrival. His 
wife evidently felt that I would expect to be entertained in the interim; she 


was prepared to suffer fools, but not gladly. I could see her glance occasionally 
at a French novel she had just laid aside, and I could feel a calm detachment 
and a supercorrectness of manner that showed me what a boorish interloper 
I was, even though she chose, officially, to ignore the fact. She was a cool, 
beautiful Frenchwoman who had had years of experience making awkward 
schoolboys feel superfluous. If during that half-hour I had gone suddenly 
insane I would surely have imagined myself an automobile tire with a slow 

Eventually I was rescued by her husband, who conducted me to the more 
cheerful atmosphere of his den. He talked about his own literary work and 
gave me an autographed copy of his book; he also recalled various interesting 
stories about the publishing house that had failed to publish Hogg's third 
volume. But on the all-important point of my quest he put a final quietus, 
so far as that line of investigation was concerned. He told me that he knew 
his father had handled the volume I was trying to trace, but that soon after- 
wards his father had retired from the firm's employ under such embittering 
circumstances that he had never talked in his family thereafter about the firm's 
affairs. So I was deflated again. But there is still one clue left by which it 
is barely possible to solve the mystery, if I can find some way into the confi- 
dence of an American collector who simply ignores all my letters. 

Having mentioned moments of supposed "insight" I must offer an illustra- 
tion of that also. I had always felt a little uncertain about the alleged attack 
upon Shelley in Wales. But my doubts were only general doubts, and against 
these was the statement of a Welshman long after the event, that he himself 
was the attacker. In the face of this it was idle to express a doubt without some 
substantial backing. Then it suddenly dawned on me that there was some- 
thing curious about the time element. In 1812 a young man of twenty had 
been overthrown in single combat by a midnight marauder who could hardly 
be supposed to be much younger himself. But that same marauder, telling 
his story for the first time in the early 1860's (to three little girls who lived 
in the house where the adventure occurred), had been described as hopping 
about in a lively manner as he told the story. This seemed to me rather odd 
in a person who must have been between seventy and eighty at the time. I 
knew that there was something wrong, and when I went to Wales a little 
later one of my primary purposes was to find out the truth about this doubt- 
ful witness. I located his great-nephew, who knew and believed the story; 
I even had tea with an old lady in the same house in which the adventure 
had occurred — one of the three little girls to whom the marauder had made 


liis boast in the 1860's. She remembered him and the incident quite well and 
said she had never believed his story. But nobody could help me to find his 
birth or death certificate, which would settle definitely that curious matter 
of his age. How I found the certificate after my return to America is another 
story in itself — it actually came to me through the unpublished papers of a 
deceased Welshman who had investigated his similar doubts. But the docu- 
ment, when I did find it, showed that Shelley's professed assailant was hardly 
three years old at the time of the assault. 

A less successful instance of the same sort has to do with Shelley's labors 
for the Tremadoc Embankment in Wales. Having observed his desire for 
newspaper notice in Ireland a few months before, I felt that there must have 
come a time in Wales when this young reformer simply had to receive a com- 
ment in the newspapers. I found out the name of the nearest English news- 
paper at that time — the North Wales Gazette, of Bangor. I located a file 
of the Gazette in the University College at Bangor, and decided when the 
supposed publicity would be most likely to break out. When I went to Bangor 
it took me just about five minutes to find precisely the newspaper article I 
had predicated, at almost exactly the time I had supposed most likely. But 
I had hardly done so before I discovered that another scholar, Mr. Roger 
Ingpen, had already found the article and had included it in his edition of 
Shelley's works, in an out-of-the-way location in which I had failed to notice 
it. The discovery was no discovery at all. Yet psychologically it had the same 
value for me as if it had been, for it gave me confidence in my handling of 
my subject. 

My most sensational discovery was one for which I can claim very little 
credit. Any third-rate lawyer could have made it and would have made it if 
it had involved the settlement of an estate. For a hundred years people in- 
terested in Shelley had wondered about several vague references in his letters 
to "My Neapolitan charge," as he called her — a little girl who had died in 
Naples in 1820. These seemed to be linked with the story of a mysterious 
English lady, a devoted admirer of Shelley about whom the poet had told 
his friend Medwin, who had also died in Naples about the time Shelley took 
over his "Neapolitan charge." Everyone had wondered about these two 
circumstances, which were commonly supposed to be connected, but no one 
had done anything. Even Shelley's story of the mysterious lady had not been 
examined closely enough to reveal certain inconsistencies with proved facts. 
All that was needed in her case was a realization that an English woman of 
wealth and station could hardly have died in Naples in December 1818 with- 


out some record remaining in one of several places — in the Gentleman's 
Magazine's notices of deaths abroad, in the Neapolitan newspapers, in the 
papers of the English consul who would have to handle her effects and inform 
her relatives, or in the official death-records of Naples. In the case of the 
child, all that was necessary was to examine the Neapolitan birth-records for 
December 1818 and death-records for June, 1820. Having attended to all the 
other matters myself and discovered no lady who could possibly be the mys- 
terious lady of Shelley's story, I asked the American Consul-General in Naples 
to engage an investigator to search the birth and death records. The investi- 
gator's report, as I expected, revealed no trace of the mysterious lady. She 
was evidently a myth. But the report on the child was shattering. I had 
expected a long list of children who had been born within certain dates in 
Naples and another of children who had died there at a certain time. By 
study and comparison of these lists I had hoped, just possibly, to identify 
Shelley's "Neapolitan charge." The last thing I expected, under the circum- 
stances, was to find a child bearing Shelley's name. What I received was 
three official documents, the birth-record, baptismal record, and death-record 
of Elena Adelaide Shelley, who was described over Shelley's own signature 
as the daughter of Percy B. and Mary Shelley. 

Then I suddenly realized that it was utterly impossible for this child to 
have been Mary Shelley's. The real quest was only begun. I had to account 
for that child, and to do it I had to penetrate the determined secrecy of long 
dead witnesses, the only three or four people who had ever lived who could 
have accounted for it satisfactorily. For over a year I searched and re-searched 
every possible letter, every possible journal entry, every imaginable circum- 
stance that might have a bearing, consulted with doctors and lawyers for 
technical information, thrashed over every hypothesis again and again with 
all the best judges of human behavior that I knew. I wrote and rewrote at 
least four times my chapter dealing with this mystery, because what I found 
was so complicated that I despaired of ever presenting it clearly and simply. 
My first conclusion was that the child was an illegitimate daughter of Shelley 
and Claire Clairmont. My ultimate conclusion, that the whole episode was 
designed to cloak the adoption of a Neapolitan child, is still unproved and I 
fear is incapable of absolute proof. A few reviewers of my book have been 
inclined to doubt it, but I believe most readers accept it as probable. A far 
more important matter to which the reviewers have paid little attention is the 
general situation out of which this episode grew and to which it directed 
closer attention. In the end it resulted in a completely new view of Shelley's 


domestic life in the fall and winter of 1818-1819, and in a new interpretation 
of nearly every poem he wrote during that time. 

Meeting a number of very interesting people is an important part of every 
biographer's adventures. Chief among these, of course, is the subject of his 
biography. I cannot claim that I have ever fully seen Shelley plain; no 
human being has ever completely understood another personality. The imagi- 
nation itself is unequal to the task, and words, our only medium of com- 
munication, are totally inadequate to convey even what the imagination is 
equal to. There are veils upon veils (to use a Shelleyan figure) which con- 
ceal (or should I say protect?) that utter loneliness which stands desperately 
at bay or seeks desperately to escape, in the far recesses of every human per- 
sonality. But some of the outermost veils are penetrated by the biographer. 
Knowing, a little more closely, one great human spirit is one of the most 
exciting of all possible adventures, whether or not the knowledge may be 
adequately communicated. It is so thrilling that it always makes one seem 
queer to his friends, especially when a fourth at bridge is needed. 

No one ever wrote a real biography without becoming acquainted with a 
most interesting collection of his own contemporaries. I have always admired 
the way in which Charles J. Finger some years ago took cognizance of this 
fact in dedicating his Frontier Ballads to "My horse Turpin, that died under 
the saddle at Palliaike; Agnes of the three-masted schooner, Martha Gale . . . 
Mysterious Billy Smith . . . Turner who fell at Bloomfontein . . . A. B. Calder, 
world's champion raconteur . . . Bruce Smith, police expert . . . Boozy Dick, 
shipwrecked with me near Cape Horn" — and about a dozen others. As it 
happens no such gloriously flamboyant acquaintances beset my path, but, like 
every biographer, I can name a few very vivid personalities. To wit: 

The elderly Cambridge spinster, relict of the spacious times of Dr. Eliot, 
whose brother had been present when Captain Silsbee had prevailed upon 
the half-reluctant Dr. Eliot to accept several precious Shelley manuscripts as 
a gift. I was trying to discover what had happened to one of the manuscripts 
which the library had no record of ever receiving. But the lady thought I was 
a graduate student writing a thesis, and furthermore that I was intimating 
something dishonorable about her brother or Dr. Eliot — and she trampled 
upon me accordingly. 

The enterprising, semi-invalid young man in a Pennsylvania town who 
had developed a clever skin-game in answering scholars' advertisements for 
information, and whom I met only by correspondence, in the rather amusing 
process of being skinned by him. 


Mr. T. J. Wise, one of England's greatest bibliographers and book-collec- 
tors, latterly charged obliquely with being also one of her cleverest forgers of 
first editions. Mr. Wise was a former friend of Browning, Swinburne, and 
Morris, and a life-long admirer of Shelley. I had corresponded with him for 
years before I met him. When I last saw him he was suffering from the re- 
sults of a recent stroke; his enunciation was thick and sometimes almost im- 
possible to understand; and he was under the constant care of a nurse. But 
he insisted on my spending an hour or two with him every Saturday after- 
noon, during which he would concentrate fiercely on suggesting clues to be 
followed in the solution of some ten different searches for vanished materials. 
Several of these quests were successfully concluded through his aid, though 
all of them seemed lost hopes. 

A nameless Welsh graduate student who happened to be hanging around 
the reading room of the University College of North Wales at the moment I 
discovered the newspaper account of Shelley's Welsh activities that I spoke 
of earlier. It was spring vacation; there was no one around except the libra- 
rian; I had another engagement which prevented my copying the article at 
the time, and there seemed no way at the moment to get it copied. This 
student, never having seen or heard of me before, overheard part of my con- 
versation with the librarian and interrupted to offer to make a copy for me — 
nor would he accept any pay for doing so. 

Bob Owen, M.A., of Creosor, Penrhyndeudraeth, North Wales, a self-edu- 
cated former colliery clerk who had lost his job in the hard times and had 
turned antiquarian. He knew all the family histories and records of the 
region and had been given an honorary degree of M.A. by University College. 
Reaching his home was an adventure in itself. He lived in a little hamlet on 
the side of a mountain and could be reached only after winding several miles 
around a mountainside on a road that was exactly the width of an automobile. 
A bicycle could hardly have passed us. I have never seen a house so crammed 
with books and papers. Books in the sitting-room, books in the bedrooms, 
the pantry, the dining-room — books everywhere — he showed them all to us. 
Except for the children, there didn't seem to be much else. 

Bob Owen himself is a very dynamic little Welshman. He didn't bother 
with collar and tie, but the burnished head of a gold collar button in the neck- 
band of his shirt was like a big gun with which he kept you covered while 
he talked. Over very lively black eyes that bored through you he supported 
a thick pent-house of the longest eyebrows I have ever seen. They fascinated 
me even in memory, and I resolved, when I was thrown into his company later, 


to satisfy myself as to their length. After some calculation I decided that they 
were between an inch and an inch and a half. His talk had an explosive 
energy, and if you stood within close range you actually got some of the 
shrapnel. Later I had a whole series of adventures with him in Carnarvon, 
where he was helping me with some local inquiries. I hope that in presenting 
the picturesque vigor of Bob Owen I have not overshot the mark and held 
him up to ridicule, for in many ways I respect him more than most of the 
more pretentious scholars I know. Considering the limitations under which 
he worked, I have never met a scholar who made me feel more humble by 

If there were only time I should like to sketch briefly a dozen or more 
characters, acquaintance with whom I might honestly call an intellectual 
adventure: the grandson of Shelley's friend Ned Williams; the great-nephew 
of Thomas Jefferson Hogg; the retired art-critic and book notes editor of the 
London Times who flitted like a bird about his amazingly dusty, murky old 
library collecting faded clippings that might furnish me with stray clues; the 
town clerks of four or five British towns and villages whose courteous, efficient 
aid filled me with admiration for the British Civil Service; the delightfully 
hospitable old lady who lived for eighty years or more in Shelley's house at 
Tremadoc; the old gentleman of Carnarvon who took me in off the street, 
on my own introduction, to try to help me find further information about 
his great-grandfather who had once gone bail for Shelley; (here my helper, 
Bob Owen, proved a liability by engaging in a violent dispute on Welsh and 
Irish characteristics which I feared might get us thrown out of the house); 
the English scholar who remembered forty years back, to the time when his 
father had made a copy of a vanished letter I was seeking, and who searched 
among the family papers and finally produced it for me; the English librarian 
who told me how we had recently discovered a new letter of Keats which it 
happened by an odd coincidence I had discovered myself; Miss L. A. Jones, 
who lived with a dog and her stock of antiques in a little stone cottage by a 
Welsh country lane and assured me that she had an unknown diary of Shelley, 
his desk, with a secret drawer; and who gave me a snuff box which she said 
had been left in the region by the "dear boy" — and a great many others whom 
I should be loth to forget. But time presses, and I must give an instance or 
two of still another type of biographer's adventures. 

The first of these resulted in considerable agitation for some of the officials 
of the British Museum. To show you that some days of a biographer may be 
actually crowded with adventure, I must mention that it happened on the 


same day as my discovery of the anonymous newspaper editor's identity and 
my experience at the boy's preparatory school, as previously related. I was 
on the trail of several documents which at one time or another had been sold 
at Sotheby's auction rooms in London. Sotheby's sales-catalogues, with notes 
of the purchasers, had been deposited in the British Museum. I explained 
to the proper official that the only possible way of searching scores and scores 
of such catalogues was to go to the catalogues rather than have them brought 
to me. He agreed, and made an engagement for me to meet an official of 
the library at a stated time and place next morning. A colleague of mine 
who wanted a look at the same catalogues asked leave to accompany me, so 
two of us turned up at the rendezvous. Our guide was as silent and impres- 
sive almost as a guide in a Gothic novel. Gravely he led us through several 
rooms and halls, to an empty room where he told us to stand near the wall. 
He pressed something on the wall, and the square of floor began sinking with 
us. We had hardly recovered from our realization that this was a lift when 
we stopped on a cement floor only some six feet below. We left this room by 
a winding vaulted passageway of rough masonry, so low we had to stoop to 
traverse it. After that we walked some two hundred yards through a perfect 
maze of rooms and passages till we reached the room where the catalogues 
were stored. Here our guide was leaving us, but we insisted on knowing first 
how we were to get out. "Oh," he said, "we'll send a man for you at lunch 
time, and if you wish to get out earlier you can hail some attendant who may 
be passing within ear-shot." 

As it happened, we soon discovered that the catalogues would not help us. 
We heard and hailed a passing attendant and were shown out by another way. 
My companion remained in the Reading Room of the British Museum, and 
I went to the periodical library at Hendon to discover the identity of Shelley's 
unknown newspaper editor. About the middle of the afternoon my friend in 
the Reading Room became aware of some commotion about him. Attendants 
were going about, peering at the various readers. Eventually one came to 
him, looking worried. "Aren't you Professor X?" he demanded, "and weren't 
you with Professor White examining the Sotheby catalogues this morning?" 
Receiving an affirmative answer, he exploded, "Then where is Professor 
White? We have been looking everywhere. He is lost somewhere down 
there under the Museum." 

A few weeks before this experience we had an adventure which at the 
time seemed capable almost of international complications. We were on the 
way to Barnstaple in North Devonshire, where I wished to search the very fine 


collection of local records to find some trace of the conviction of Shelley's 
servant there for disseminating radical literature. Incidentally, the reason 
I found nothing there to my purpose was that during several years in the 
early 19th century all the records of Barnstaple for several centuries had been 
regarded as worthless and were kept in open boxes in a kind of porch. Small 
boys who passed by had a habit of taking a few papers home for their mothers 
to cover jam-pots with. In this way most of the early 19th century records 
vanished before the documents were again put under cover. 

On the way to Barnstaple we stopped at Bristol over Easter Sunday. Rather 
late in the afternoon we wandered into the fine old 14th century church of 
St. Augustine the Less. A service had evidently just been concluded; the 
doors were open and the church was dimly-lit, but there was no one about 
except one man, pacing thoughtfully up and down, whom we took to be a 
verger. We thought it strange that he looked directly at us, and yet ignored 
us completely. We looked about the church for a while and then sat down 
in a pew to see if our Baedeker contained anything of its history. The silent 
attendant walked within a yard of us as if we had never existed. He then 
paused before a door and stood perfectly still for several moments, after which 
he opened the door and vanished. 

A few moments later we were ready to leave also. But the door was 
locked. Every other door was locked. The windows were too high to be 
reached. Every time we prowled past the box in which visitors were supposed 
to leave contributions we felt particularly enraged. I shook the front door 
vigorously and yelled, but nobody heard — the church sat back some distance 
from the street and on a higher level. We finally came to the conclusion that 
the only means of escape before the next service was to break down the rather 
flimsy front door. But I was deterred by a vision of the next day's headlines : 
"American Vandal on Easter Sunday Wrecks 600-years-old Church!" I re- 
sumed pounding and yelling, and this time some one came. 

A very suspicious voice outside wanted to know what was wrong. For- 
tunately the man believed my story that we had been locked in by a malicious 
verger; he even offered to batter down the door. I sent him for the police 
instead, and in a few moments was telling my story through the keyhole to 
two officers. They undertook to find either the verger or the rector, and in 
thirty minutes our door was unlocked. We boiled forth, about as angry as 
it was possible to be. The two policemen stood even more stiffly on the other 
side. I immediately pitched in with a demand for an explanation. But our 
rescuer was the rector; and he was not amused that I had mistaken him for the 


verger. He simply maintained with great dignity and conviction that the 
whole episode was impossible — he had known the verger for many years and 
the thing simply could not have happened. 

After considerable discussion of the possibility of what had happened, we 
returned to our hotel, and I decided to write the rector a note demanding a 
full investigation. His answer to this note, received two weeks later, cleared 
up the whole mystery. Our jailer was not the verger, but the organist, who 
had remained after service to practice. He was a man almost completely blind, 
and had never seen us in the church, but before locking the door he had 
paused and listened for a moment to see if he could hear anyone. I am afraid 
the principal result of this adventure was to make us very cautious about 
entering strange churches. 

Such episodes as these must serve only as samples; it would take a great 
deal of time to tell a dozen or so more on the same scale. With a certain 
amount of exaggeration they might be presented, if not as detective stories, 
then as a prospectus for a collection of such stories, with some such chapter 
headings as the following: 

I. Adventure of the Lousy Book. 

How the Author, on returning home one day, found his manuscript 
being officially de-loused, because a pair of robins were raising a 
family on the window-ledge adjoining his study desk. 

II. Adventure of the Substituted Portrait. 

How a protrait of Leigh Hunt in 1822 became a portrait of Shelley 
in 1905. 

III. The Death of a Grandfather. 

How the Author of a Biography Rejoices when his first important 
character is liquidated. 

IV. Adventure of the Wandering Documents. 

How the Author Went to England to Find Certain Documents that 
Were in America, and How They Came Back to England while he 
was there. 

V. Adventure of the Belated Dinner Guests. 

How, After Dining Well with a Poet and Fellow-Shelleyan, it was 
necessary to Walk a Mile to a Pub to Procure a Taxi. 

VI. The Author Commits Theft. 

How He Could Not Escape from the Bibliotheque Nationale Until 
He had Stolen a Card from a Frenchman. 


VII. The Lawyer's Attic. 

How a Lawyer's Attic in a Welsh Town Yielded Up Papers After 
130 Years, and How the Same Attic Yielded Similar Papers Some 
Months Later. 

VIII. Adventures in Psychologizing. 

How the Subject Evinces a Strange Tendency to Reproduce in his 
Own Life Episodes from Books. 

IX. Adventures in Handwriting. 

How records were confused and how they were again clarified, 
Mirror-writing that had no significance, the Newspaper Handwriting 
Expert who read Claire Clairmont's character. 

Possibly that would be enough to indicate that the biographer, like his 
subject, has moments of adventure. Perhaps because he has to submerge 
himself while writing his book, it may partly excuse his coming forth after- 
wards and parading himself. But in any event, here the story ends. An 
unseen auditor, a slender, pink-cheeked, tousle-haired and very earnest look- 
ing young man, who was entitled to a larger place in this lecture, has been 
making remarks audible only to your speaker. "At a time like this, when 
all civilization seems threatened by an evil tyranny, why not say something 
about the invincible spirit of liberty?": 

Yet were life a charnel where 
Hope lay coffined with Despair; 
Yet were truth a sacred lie, 
Love were lust — If Liberty 
Lent not life its soul of light, 
Hope its iris of delight, 
Truth its prophet's robe to wear, 
Love its power to give and bear. 

"Why not try to show what it demands to win and hold true freedom?": 

To defy Power, which seems omnipotent; 
To love, and bear; to hope till Hope creates 
From its own wreck the thing it contemplates; 
Neither to change, nor falter, nor repent; 
This, like thy glory, Titan is to be 
Good, great and joyous, beautiful and free: 
This is alone Life, Joy, Empire, and Victory. 


"Why not assert once more," he demands, "that imagination, true insight 
of which poetry is a principal voice, lifts the veil from the hidden beauty of 
the world — a beauty which I have repeatedly personified?" 

For she was beautiful; her beauty made 

The bright world dim, and everything beside 
Seemed like the fleeting image of a shade. 



The question before us, gentlemen, 

Is our good friend Arthur Pearse, 

Who didn't mind working, 

But couldn't stand listening every Wednesday 

noon to a lot of windbags who might have 

talked better but who couldn't possibly 

have talked worse. 
He said he'd rather work his farm out there at 

the fork of the roads 
And fight nematodes. 

And everybody knew he was still about 

as hard as when he was a top sergeant in Cuba, 
Or when he went to Africa and swore at 

Kru-boys in a mixture of Nebraskan and Yoruba, 
And that he wasn't a squealer 
About eating raw fish for a year in Japan or 

fighting bugs in Venezuela; 
And when he was whirling at the end of a rope 

over a Guatemalan cenote 
He didn't howl like a coyote 
But only got dizzy, and some of the Indians thought 

he was drunk but others thought "Is he?"; 
And when he was prone on his belly 
(With a tortilla inside of it) hunting parasites in a smelly 
Bat-cave that had a very narrow enclosure, 
His comparatively elevated and slowly vanishing 

rear-end still preserved a strong and dignified composure; 
And when he collected a bag of snakes in the Eno 

swamps and they got loose in the kitchen sink 
He met the situation with senatorial calm and 

gathered them up again when the Branscomb kids 

next? door raised a stink, 
And, ignoring the metaphorical smells, 
He wrote another chapter in his philosophical magnum 

opus, Hell's Bells. 


But since he always said what he meant and meant 

what he said, 
Nobody could stop him when he swore he was quitting 
And all the litde gab-fest boys could 

do by way of benediction 
(And without risking any possible homicidal friction) 
Was to say that it was fittin' 
That somebody should write a poem on Arthur 

Pearse as a kind of token 
Of a lot of things better left unspoken. 
They thought he might listen 
To a poem like this'n, 
As a kind of return for all the poems on them that 

he had written; 
And even if it couldn't be as mendacious 

or as terse 
As all those kindly birthday poems by 

Poet Laureate Pearse, 

One thing was sure — 
It could be truer. 

But all it says is, at the Wednesday table 
A chair stands always waiting and no one 

shall fill it 
But Arthur Pearse — 
Nobody else is able. 

N. I. W. 

* Newman White was one of a group of eight or ten members of the faculty at Duke University, 
from various departments, who have for many years met weekly on Wednesday for luncheon and good 
table-talk. This poem, occasioned by the retirement in June 1948 of Arthur Sperry Pearse, Professor of 
Zoology since 1926, is typical of Newman White's affectionate banter. 




See, in the corner, flung 

Long underfoot, 
Dusty and loosely strung 

The harp! long mute. 

Where the stiff branches swing, 

Silent, the bird 
Sits — but in leafy spring 

Music is heard. 

So, in the soul's recesses 

Dead Genius lies, 
Whom then a Voice addresses: 

"Lazarus! Rise!" 


The honeysuckle will remount completely 

The gray wall where your garden lies in bloom, 

And fill the air, each May again, more sweetly, 
With all the world's most wonderful perfume. 

They will come back, the dark-winged swallows, nesting 
Beneath your chamber window as before, 

And, flitting past, will seem to call, half-jesting, 
"Come to the window, Dear; come to the door." 

— But not the self-same birds that seemed to hover 
(Because your beauty held them, and my yearning) 

And call our names — the loved one and the lover — 
They will not be the self-same birds returning. 

N. I. W. 



Robert W. Christ 

THIS bibliography is intended to provide a complete record of Newman 
White's published work, with the exception of newspaper articles, inter- 
views, and the myriad book reviews he wrote over a long period of years 
for many newspapers and periodicals. (He was a regular reviewer for the 
South Atlantic Quarterly.) Several "review articles" are, however, included 
on the ground that the book in question served here only as the stepping 
stone for a critical paper. 

The bibliography is arranged in two principal groups: separate publica- 
tions, and writings in periodicals or collected volumes; the second group is 
again divided into prose and poetry. Within each group the arrangement is 
chronological. His scholarly writings, beginning with a paper on the col- 
lection of folklore in 1916, show the maintenance and development of his 
two principal literary interests: Shelley and the English Romantics, and 
American folklore, especially that of the Negro. 

Newman White edited and contributed to his high school yearbook in 
Greensboro in 1909, then entered Trinity College in the fall of 1909; the very 
next item in this bibliography is a poem in the October, 1909, issue of The 
Archive, the undergraduate literary magazine (i.e., The Trinity Archive 
through vol. XXXVII, no. 3, for December 1924; with the establishment of 
Duke University, the name was changed to The Archive. It is cited through- 
out under this current form of the name.) Beginning with his sophomore 
year (1910/11), there is a contribution from his pen in every issue save two 
throughout his undergraduate years. In 1913/ 14, when he remained at Trinity 
as a graduate student and assistant in English, he contributed to all but one 
issue, and the continuing contributions throughout later years testify to his 
interest in creative literary endeavors on the campus. In all, more than sixty 
poems and several short stories or articles appeared in The Archive, and many 
book reviews (not included here). Many of his contributions appeared over 
his nickname, "Ni," the pseudonym, "N'importe," or were unsigned. In 
his own copies of The Archive for 1910-1915 (vol. XXIV-XXVIII), now in 
the Duke University Library, he has signed in ink his full name to many of 


these anonymous or pseudonymous writings, and many bear his manuscript 
corrections. An asterisk (*) in the bibliography indicates items which are 
attributed solely on the basis of the pseudonym or internal evidence. 

Newman White's doctoral dissertation (Harvard, 191 8) was Shelley's Dra- 
matic Poems; this has not been published in full. Also unpublished are two 
major addresses: "Shelley as I See Him," read before the Friends of Duke 
University Library on March 25, 1940; and "Legend and Fact in Biography," 
delivered at Yale University on December 6, 1943 as one of the series of Bergen 
Lectures. The first volume of the projected five-volume edition of the 
Frank C. Brown Collection of North Carolina Folklore, which he was editing 
at the time of his death, is now in press. His personal papers and corre- 
spondence have been placed in the Duke University Library, where the manu- 
script and author's proof of the Portrait of Shelley are also preserved. 

I. Separate Publications 
G. H. S. Annual, 1909. [Greensboro, N. C, 1909.] 88 p. 

Newman I. White is listed as head of the Editorial Staff of this yearbook of 
the students of Greensboro High School. 
The Chanticleer, v. 1, 1912. Durham, N. C, 1912. 232 p. 

N. I. White is listed as an Assistant Editor of this yearbook of the students 
of Trinity College. 
The Chanticleer, v. 2, 1913. Durham, N. C, 1913. 240 p. 

N. I. White is listed as Editor-in-Chief. 
Folk-Lore primer. [Auburn, Ala.] : Folk-Lore Committee of the Alabama Associa- 
tion of Teachers of English [1917?]. 20 p. 

Published in the name of the Committee, of which White was chairman for 

the year 1917-1918. 

An Anthology of verse by American Negroes; edited with a critical introduction, 

biographical sketches of the authors, and bibliographical notes by Newman Ivey 

White . . . and Walter Clinton Jackson . . . with an introduction by James Hardy 

Dillard. (Trinity College Publication.) Durham, N. C: Trinity College Press, 

1924. 250 p. 

American Negro folk-songs. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1928. 

501 p. 
The Best of Shelley; edited, with an introduction and notes, by Newman Ivey 
White. (Nelson's English series.) New York : T. Nelson and Sons, 1932. 531 p. 
Second printing, New York, Ronald Press, 1945. 
Report [of the] Committee for investigation and recommendation on student affairs; 
March 8th, 1934. [Durham, N. C.]: Trinity College, Duke University [1934]. 
11 p. 

Signed by the committee of twelve members, including White. 


The Unextinguished hearth: Shelley and his contemporary critics. (Duke Univer- 
sity Publication.) Durham, N. C: Duke University Press, 1938. 397 p. 
Shelley. New York: A. A. Knopf, 1940. 2 v. 

Also London : Seeker & Warburg, 1947. 
Portrait of Shelley. New York: A. A. Knopf, 1945. 482 p. 

A condensation of his Shelley, 1940. 
Duke University and the future. Durham, N. C: [Duke University Chapter of the 
American Association of University Professors] 1946. 8 p. 

A paper read at a meeting of the Chapter on November 27, 1945. 

II. Writings in Periodicals and Collected Volumes 
1. Prose 
"A Historical incident [humorous story]." G. H. S. Annual, 1909: 35-36. 
"Catullus and the Alexandrian school of literature [essay]." The Archive, XXIV: 

229-233 (Mar. 1911). 
"A Volume of Keats [story]." The Archive, XXIV: 291-296 (Apr. 1911). 
"Ye 'Prentice turned alchemist [story]." The Archive, XXV: 168-173 (Jan./Feb. 

♦"College ideals [essay]." The Archive, XXVIII: 188-190 (Feb. 1915). 
*"The Confessions of a theme-reader [essay]." The Archive, XXVIII: 286-288 

(Apr. 1915). 
*"The Compact [story]." The Archive, XXIX: 51-56 (Nov. 1915). 
*"Mike's debut [story]." The Archive, XXIX: 103-111 (Dec. 1915). 
"The Collection of folk-lore." Proceedings of the Alabama Educational Associa- 
tion, XXXV: 1 19-126 (June 191 6). 
[Trinity College songs]. The Archive, XXXI: 180-181 (Dec. 1917). 

Long extract from a letter to President Few, relating to the need for more 
Trinity College songs. 
"Racial traits in the Negro song." Sewanee Review, XXVIII: 396-404 (July 1920). 
"The Historical and personal background of Shelley's Hellas." South Atlantic 

Quarterly, XX: 52-60 (Jan. 1921). 
"Shelley's Swell-foot the Tyrant in relation to contemporary political satires." Pub- 
lications of the Modern Language Association of America, XXXVI: 332-346 
(Sept. 1921). 
"American Negro poetry." South Atlantic Quarterly, XX: 304-322 (Oct. 1921). 
"Racial feeling in Negro poetry." South Atlantic Quarterly, XXI : 14-29 (Jan. 1922) . 
"The English Romantic writers as dramatists." Sewanee Review, XXX: 206-215 

(Apr. 1922). 
"Shelley's Charles the First." Journal of English and Germanic Philology, XXI: 

431-441 (July 1922). 
"Wilfred Blunt's diaries." South Atlantic Quarterly, XXI: 360-364 (Oct. 1922). 


A review article based on W. S. Blunt, My diaries, 1888-1914, New York, 1921. 
"Shelley's debt to Alma Murray." Modern Language Notes, XXXVII: 411-415 

(Nov. 1922). 
"An Italian 'imitation' of Shelley's The Cenci." Publications of the Modern Lan- 
guage Association of America, XXXVII: 683-690 (Dec. 1922). 
"The Shelley Society again." Modern Language Notes, XXXIX: 18-22 (Jan. 1924). 
"The Beautiful angel and his biographers." South Atlantic Quarterly, XXIV: 73- 
85 (Jan. 1925). 

A review article based on Andre Maurois, Ariel: the life of Shelley, New 
York, 1924; and O. W. Campbell, Shelley and the unromantics, New York, 

IQ2 4- 
"Literature and the law of libel: Shelley and the radicals of 1 840-1 842." Studies in 

Philology, XXII: 34-47 (Jan. 1925). 
Shelley's Prometheus Unbound; or, Every man his own allegorist." Publications 

of the Modern Language Association of America, XL: 172-184 (Mar. 1925). 
"John Masefield — an estimate." South Atlantic Quarterly, XXVI: 189-200 (Apr. 

!9 2 7)- 

A review article based on John Masefield, The Collected worlds . . . New 
York, 1925. 
"The White man in the woodpile; some influences on Negro secular folk-songs." 

American Speech, IV: 207-215 (Feb. 1929). 
"Shelley and the active radicals of the early nineteenth century." South Atlantic 

Quarterly, XXIX: 248-261 (July 1930). 
"Teaching versus research." School and Society, XXXV: 109-113 (Jan. 23, 1932). 
"Labor helps itself: a case history." South Atlantic Quarterly, XXXII: 346-364 
(Oct. 1933). 

The story of the Durham Labor and Materials Exchange, organized by White 
and operated under his direction from February 3 to August 26, 1933, to 
supplement Community Relief during the darkest days of the depression. 
"Shelley at Oxford." Times (London) Literary Supplement, Nov. 16, 1933, p. 795. 
A letter to the Editor, calling attention to a letter in the Anti-Jacobin Review 
for February, 1812, which refers to Shelley and appears to be the first pub- 
lished account of the poet. 
"Shelley's biography: the primary sources." Studies in Philology, XXXI: 472-486 

(July 1934). 
"Keats and the periodicals of his time." (With George L. Marsh.) Modern 

Philology, XXXII: 37-53 (Aug. 1934). 
"Academic freedom and tenure : Converse College." (With Harry DeMerle Wolf.) 
Bulletin of the American Association of University Professors, XX: 434-447 
(Nov. 1934). 
"The Romantic movement: a selective and critical bibliography for the year 1937 
[-1947]." ELH: a Journal of English Literary History, V (1938) [-XV (1948)]. 



„ ^ ~~ ^~ fj7_jr^^ 

A page of Newman White's final manuscript draft of Shelley, published 
in two volumes in 1940; this passage appears on p. 91-92 of volume two. 

White contributed bibliographical and critical notes to these annual bibliog- 
raphies in the March issues of ELH. 
"Unpublished letters." Times (London) Literary Supplement, Sept. 10, 1938, p. 584. 
A letter to the Editor, calling attention to unpublished letters of Shelley, 
Burns, Coleridge, Hazlitt, and others in a grangerized edition of Moore's 
Byron in the British Museum. 
"Probable dates of composition of Shelley's 'Letter to Maria Gisborne' and 'Ode to 

a Skylark.'" Studies in Philology, XXXVI: 524-528 (July 1939). 
"Shelley in Wales." Min y Traeth, II: 184-194 (July 1939). 

Min y Traeth is a publication of the Portmadoc (Wales) County School. 
"The Development, use and abuse of interpretation in biography." English Insti- 
tute Annual, 1942. New York: Columbia University Press, 1943. Pp. 29-58. 
"Academic freedom and tenure: Winthrop College." (With William McGufrey 
Hepburn.) Bulletin of the American Association of University Professors, 
XXVIII: 173-196 (Apr. 1942). 
"Organization of the Frank C. Brown collection of North Carolina folklore." Year- 
book of the American Philosophical Society, 1945. Philadelphia: The Society, 
1946. Pp. 218-219. 

A report made as the recipient of a research grant. 
"The Shelley Legend examined." Studies in Philology, XLIII: 522-544 (July 1946). 

Robert Metcalf Smith and others, The Shelley legend, New York, 1945. 
"Thomas James Wise: friend of Duke University Library; passages from his cor- 
respondence with Professor Newman I. White." (Compiled by Ellen Frances 
Frey.) Library Notes; a Bulletin issued for the Friends of Duke University 
Library, no. 18: 3-15 (July 1947). 

Contains long passages from letters of White to Wise, regarding the develop- 
ment of the University Library; the correspondence is now in the Duke 
University Library. 

2. Poetry 
"Noughty Nine." G. H. S. Annual, 1909: 32. 
*"Deliverance will come." G. H. S. Annual, 1909: 47 

Printed as the senior hymn, "revised by poet;" N. I. White was senior class 
poet at Greensboro High School, 1909. 

"To ." The Archive, XXIII: 21 (Oct. 1909). 

"The Dreamer." The Archive, XXIV: 3 (Oct. 1910). 

"The Demagogue (To T. R.)." The Archive, XXIV: 30 (Oct. 1910). 

"At a Way-station." The Archive, XXIV: 74 (Nov. 1910). 

"A Sonnet (After Wordsworth) [humorous poem]." The Archive, XXIV: 149 

(Dec. 1910). 
"Reciprocity [humorous poem]." The Archive, XXIV: 149 (Dec. 1910). 
"A Farewell to 'Math' [humorous poem]." The Archive, XXIV: 150 (Dec. 1910). 


"An Idyll in Silhouette." The Archive, XXIV: 173 (Feb. 1911). 

[Humorous poem: "If a Laddie in the Street . . ."] The Archive, XXIV: 212 (Feb. 

"To Paul Lawrence Dunbar [sonnet]." The Archive, XXIV: 301 (Apr. 1911). 
"Winds of Destiny." The Archive, XXIV: 302 (Apr. 1911). 
"To a Musician." The Archive, XXIV: 364 (May 191 1). 
"To the Thomas Cat (A Parody on Milton's 'To the Nightingale') [humorous 

sonnet]." The Archive, XXIV: 376 (May 191 1). 
"Scene Shifts." The Archive, XXV: 3 (Oct. 191 1). 
"Wanderings [sonnet]." The Archive, XXV: 19 (Oct. 1911). 
"A Geometrical Soliloquy [humorous poem]." The Archive, XXV: 38 (Oct. 191 1). 
" 'When 'Orace Smote 'Is Bloomin' Lyre'— (See R. K.'s 'Barrack Room Ballads') 

[humorous poem]." The Archive, XXV: 38 (Oct. 1911). 
"Insect Philosophies." The Archive, XXV: 61 (Nov. 191 1). 
"The Silent Songs." The Archive, XXV: 75 (Nov. 191 1). 
"Jim Key's Bonehead Philosophy [humorous poem]." The Archive, XXV: 89 

(Nov. 1911). 
"Time Wreckage." The Archive, XXV: 132 (Dec. 191 1). 
"An Essay on Pie: a Devilish Composition by the Printer's Devil [humorous 

poem]." The Archive, XXV: 150-151 (Dec. 1911). 
"The Idealist." The Chanticleer, I (1912) : 60. 

"The Will-o'-the Wisp." The Archive, XXV: 181-182 (Jan./Feb. 1912). 
"The Sons of Adam." The Archive, XXV: 213-214 (Mar. 1912). 
"The Illusionist." The Archive, XXV: 269 (Apr. 1912). 
"Minutes." The Archive, XXV: 299 (Apr. 1912). 
"Rondeau of the Indignant Optimist [humorous poem]." The Archive, XXV: 314- 

315 (Apr. 1912). 
"Flower Fancies : 'Est Rosa Flos Veneris.' " The Archive, XXV : 333 (May 1912) . 
"Flower Fancies : The Violet and I." The Archive, XXV : 333-334 (May 1912) . 
"The Shades." The Archive, XXVI: 3-5 (Oct. 1912). 
"Catullus V [translation]." The Archive, XXVI: 22 (Oct. 1912). 
"The Inn-Tower Speaks." The Archive, XXVI: 50-51 (Oct. 1912). 
"Catullus VII [translation]." The Archive, XXVI: 122 (Nov. 1912). 
"Blue Eyes." The Archive, XXVI: 149 (Dec. 1912). 
"Campus Singing." The Chanticleer, II (1913) : 184. 
"The Inn's Farewell." The Archive, XXVI: 321-322 (May 1913). Revised and 

reprinted, in part, in The Archive, XXXVII: 251 (Mar. 1925). 
# "To Chlais [sonnet]." The Archive, XXVI: 337 (May 1913). 
"Campus Strolling." The Archive, XXVI: 366 (May 1913). 
"A Distant Song." The Archive, XXVII: 19 (Oct. 1913). 
"Catullus XXXI (On Coming Home from Foreign Travels) [translation]." The 

Archive, XXVII: 51 (Nov. 1913). 


"The Co-Ed Annabel Lee." The Archive, XXVII: 70-71 (Nov. 1913). Reprinted 
in The Chanticleer, III (1914) : 250. 

"Altar Lilies." The Archive, XXVII: 101 (Dec. 1913). 

"Jim Key on the Repression of the Poor." The Archive, XXVII: 152 (Dec. 1913). 

"Song of the College Mail [humorous poem]." The Chanticleer, III (1914) : 256. 

"Summons." The Chanticleer, III (1914) : 114. 

"The Romanticist Awakes." The Archive, XXVII: 161 (Feb. 1914). 

"Cry of the Battle- Weary." The Archive, XXVII: 232 (Mar. 1914). 

"Birthdays." The Archive, XXVII: 258 (Mar. 1914). 

"Ballade of Smiles (Being a Complaint of His Lady)." The Archive, XXVII: 287 
(Apr./May 1914). 

"Alumni Poem (Read at Alumni Dinner, Commencement, 1914)." The Archive, 

XXVIII: 169-171 (Dec. 1914). 
*"The Ravings of a Whitmaniac [burlesque poem]." The Chanticleer, IV (1915) : 

"Song of Trinity." The Archive, XXXI: 157 (Dec. 1917). 

"We'll Go No More to Beaufort Town." The Archive, XXXII: 131-132 (Jan. 

"Foolish Time." The Archive, XXXII: 211 (Feb. 1920). 

"Radio." The Archive, XXXVI: 305 (Apr. 1924). Reprinted in R. P. Harriss, ed., 
The Archive Anthology; verse by little-known and well-known writers, Dur- 
ham, N. C: Duke University Press, 1926, p. 66. Also reprinted in W. M. 
Blackburn, ed., One and Twenty; Duke narrative and verse, 1924-1945, [Dur- 
ham, N. C] : Duke University Press, 1945, p. 187. 

"To his Young Cup Bearer (Catullus 27) [translation]." The Archive, XXXVI: 
322 (Apr. 1924). 

"Sonnet: Upon this day let all things quiet be . . ." The Archive, XXXVIII, 1: 14 
(Oct. 1925). Reprinted under the title "For a Birthday" in R. P. Harriss, ed., 
The Archive Anthology, 1926, p. 35. 

"Clais Returns." The Archive, XXXVIII, 2: 3 (Nov. 1925). Reprinted in R. P. 
Harriss, ed., The Archive Anthology, 1926, p. 43. Also reprinted in W. M. 
Blackburn, ed., One and Twenty, 1945, p. 189. Also reprinted in The Archive, 
LXII, 2 : 16 (Jan. 1949) . 

"In a Grave-Yard." The Archive, XXXVIII, 5: 4 (Feb./Mar. 1926). 

"Nosce Te-Ipsum: A Medieval Parable (With Apologies to La Fontaine)." The 
Archive, XLIV, 1: 7-8 (Oct. 1931). 

"Barabbas to his Lieutenant on Mount Calvary [sonnet]." The Archive, XLIV, 
1: 8 (Oct. 1931). Reprinted in W. M. Blackburn, ed., One and Twenty, 1945, 
p. 188. Also reprinted in The Archive, LXII, 2: 16 (Jan. 1949). 

"The Fox and the Lion." The Archive, XLIV, 4: 17 (Jan. 1932). 

"Examination Grades [humorous sonnet]." The Archive, XLIV, 4: 18 (Jan. 1932). 

"Spring Warning [sonnet]." The Archive, XLIV, 5: 9 (Feb. 1932). Revised and 


reprinted under the title "Mid-March in Hope Valley" in W. M. Blackburn, ed., 
One and Twenty, 1945, p. 190. Also reprinted in The Archive, LXII, 2: 16 
(Jan. 1949). 

" 'If There were Dreams to Sell, What Would You Buy?' " The Archive, XLIV, 
5: 13 (Feb. 1932). 

"The Crow and the Serpent." The Archive, XLIV, 5: 13 (Feb. 1932). 

"On 'A Catalogue of Rare and Valuable Books' [sonnet]." Library Notes; a Bul- 
letin issued for the Friends of Duke University Library, no. 20: 1 (July 1948). 


Now that we see, miraculously white 

This scattered dogwood, shaded by a band 
Of slender, guardian pines — dark trees, that stand 
Distinct and calm, brown-boled, erect and slight — 
And now that in their depth, where filtered light 
Irregularly reaches, we command 
Remoter glimpses — beauty still at hand 
Yet so sequestered that our trivial sight 
Should never have obtruded — Who are we 
To speak of beauty fading? It abides 

Within the mind more firmly, being gone: 
Diana, Flora, slim Persephone, 

We know you now — the loveliness that glides 
Not past, but forward, always moving on. 

N. I. W. 




No. 25 

The Friends ofT^uke University library 

January 1951 


Mattie Russell 

THE ability with which George 
Washington Cable (1844- 1925) 
recorded his observations of Creole life 
in New Orleans won for him a promi- 
nent place among local color writers in 
this country. From the first his stories 
were well received in the North, but 
they aroused a storm of protest among 
the Frenchmen of his native city. To 
reveal that all of their tribe were not 
of "unsullied white descent" and to 
have them speak in a quaint dialect 
was to insult the more sensitive of this 
proud and high-strung people. 1 And 
they, as well as most other Southerners, 
could not tolerate his sympathetic atti- 
tude toward the Negro. Upon him was 
heaped such abuse as can scarcely be 
imagined today. 2 

It would be difficult to find a way 
of life more foreign to the gay, impul- 
sive, and luxury-loving Creoles than 
that of the hardworking, strict-Pres- 
byterian Cable, and Edward Tinker 
has suggested that in weaving these 
fascinating characters into his stories, 
he may have experienced a degree of 

psychological release from his own in- 
hibited existence. 3 Early he became a 
zealot for religion and social better- 

Cable's literary reputation rests 
largely on only three of his more than 
twenty volumes. These are Old Creole 
Days, a collection of eight stories, and 
The Grandissimes and Dr. Sevier, two 
novels; all were published before 1884. 
The explanations some historians of 
American literature have given for the 
deterioration of his writing are that 
"his evangelistic predisposition" came 
to subordinate the creative artist and 
that he moved North and left his source 
material. 4 Arlin Turner contends, 
however, that in only one of his novels 
did he "become more reformer than 
novelist," and no one knows whether 
he would have been able "to impart 
freshness to any stories after the first 
few" even if he had stayed in New 
Orleans. 5 

Cable was very conscious of criti- 
cism, especially from Creoles, whom he 
had drawn with affection and, as he 


and some of them thought, with fair- 
ness and accuracy. Whether or not this 
is the reason he left the South is un- 
known, but by 1916 all was forgiven, 
even by the Creoles, 6 and he is now 
recognized as the first Southern writer 
to treat "objectively and realistically 
the life he saw around him." 7 

The letters printed here, from orig- 
inal manuscripts in the George Wash- 
ington Flowers Collection of Southern 
Americana in Duke University Library, 
span a great part of Cable's literary ca- 
reer. Most of them are addressed to his 
good friend and editor, Robert Under- 
wood Johnson (1853-1937), of Charles 
Scribner's Sons. This company pub- 
lished nearly all of Cable's writings, 

many of them appearing first in its 
magazine, Scribner's Monthly, and its 
successor, The Century, of which John- 
son was for many years associate editor 
and editor-in-chief. These letters give 
not only some insight into Cable's 
methods of writing, revision, and pub- 
lication, and his genuine friendship 
with Johnson, but interesting side- 
lights also on his interest and associa- 
tion with the American Copyright 
League, American Academy of Arts 
and Letters, and the Home-Culture 
Clubs; his views on sectionalism; his 
reading and lecture tours; the death of 
his first wife, his second marriage, and 
other personal matters. 

New Orleans, Dec 24th 1879. 
My dear Mr. Johnson: 

After some unavoidable delay to supply chapter head'gs I send you Mar proofs. 
Please send Apl early. 8 

Your last two kind letters are highly appreciated & I am going to have a long pen 
& ink chat with you before long. Literature, as a profession, may be nearer to me now 
than ever before & I want your people to be ready to say what my expectations may 
reasonably be in that direction. I shall have my choice. At present am in full charge of 
the business — an excellent one — of the house I have been in so many years; 9 but if 
some capitalist should offer to buy it out — for instance — you see? — I might rush to the 
embrace of the muse — dear old girl! 

This is confidential to you and Mess. Scribner & Co. 

I will write again. 

Yours truly 
G. W. Cable 

New Orleans, Jan 24th 1880. 
My dear Johnson: 

Your very pleasant letter of 20th rec'd, also Ap'l proofs. The latter are corrected and 
go forward. I have changed the order of some of the earlier paragraps [sic]. The way it 
now stands will never do — is disjointed, running from past to present & back again & 


back again. As it will be when changed the preliminary talk is somewhat long, but 
bears upon a common focus and, once said, is not returned to. The story then moves 
on upon this track laid down and presendy enters the episode of Bras Coupe. It will 
not do to divide this; at least it seems so to me. 

As soon as I can I shall let you know what I shall do in the future, but have very 
litde notion that I shall cease writing. Have served two masters so long that one might 
make me lonesome. I see no good reason why I should leave Louisiana; why should I? 
What advantage is supposeable? Your account of your struggle to live in the metropolis 
is — what you did not intend it should be — pathetic. I found myself wishing there was 
some way that I could make it easier for you. 

I wish I had a chance to write another novel. I believe I know how to do it now. 
Every time I get a batch of proof I wish I could write my book over again. But that 
would not be best. I am ready now with a good theme & a good plot & only want time. 
I did not keep run of Russell. 10 Knew he was in New Orleans, saw him once or 
twice. He persecuted me with allusions to one or two trivial favors I had done him & 
I avoided him. I might say a gentle word or two here for the poor wanderer, but I am 
painfully impressed with the cheapness of the charity we pour out over the dead whom 
we shunned while they lived. You have a right to know that he always spoke warmly 
& gratefully of "Mr. Johnson". 

Yours truly 

Wm. C. Black & Co 

per G. W. Cable 

New Orleans, Apl 12, 1880. 
Mr. R. U. Johnson; 
My dear Mr. Johnson: 

Enclosed with this find July proof; also Mr. King's 11 letter, which is very flattering 
but is easier to swallow than your Irish editor's. O, that was fearful! So hurraed on I 
could write a novel now & hope to do so some day when I am not forced to cram the 
time with more remunerative occupations in order to keep the wind in my sails. 

Yours truly 
G. W. Cable 

You asked me once my favorite author. I failed to answer, never remembering your 
question at the right time until now. I have none. As for Thackery [sic] I hope to 
read him this summer. Have never read more than a few lines of his. 12 

G. W. C. 

New Orleans, Feb'y 16, 1881. 
Dear Johnson: 

With this I send you the proofs of parts 2 & 3 Madame Delphine, 13 and also return 
the article of "G. W. C. to the front again". I am informed by this that I am no South- 
erner in heart. Well, what is a Southerner? Are there any Northerners? Are people 
treated as recreants because they do not subscribe themselves "Northerner?" You are an 
American, I presume; or — do I mistake? — maybe you are proud to be a Westerner, and 


are always true to the West as distinguished from the E. N. or S. Notwithstanding 
which, you do implore the E. N. & S. to have done with sectional feeling! Ah! Alas! O! 
Oh! fie! fudge! pish! tush! zounds! 

But to business. I insert a little slip cont'g a f which I hope you can still put into 
my first installment. Cannot I get something for Madame Delphine, to appear simul- 
taneously in French or German somewhere? Or can the French & Prussians do without 
it? I would like to take off a second pecuniary crop from it in Dutch if possible — a sort 
of collards, as we might say. Wouldn't it work? There is Mr. Frechette translat'g 
O. C. Days 14 for the Gauls & Herr Jiingling drandtslading dot Krawntissheemps into 
the horse dialect; why not put Madame Delphine on a hook and drop her over the side? 
I'm in earnest. 

I lately made a pleasant discovery: An entomologist. At my request he has prepared 
a colored illustration of a splendid new sphynx moth which he discovered last summer 
at Spanish Fort (our Coney Island). The illustration now lies on my desk. He has 
written an account of the larvae & imago (I'm weak on these terms — don't criticize) and 
I am sure you would accept it for publication as a scientific memorandum but have given 
it back to him advising him to write it as a popular paper. Tomorrow or next day I 
shall send the paper and illusttf to you. The moth is a splendid fellow & if the discovery 
is genuine (w'h I think will be found to be the case) it ought to be a very notable one 
in Entomology. Let me give you the spread of his wings with a pair of dividers: [a line 
drawn diagonally across the sheet indicates the spread.] 

The conversational description of my bug-hunter's adventure was something rich. 
"I yoost drempled so I tropt her twyce" — speaking of the brilliant green & gold larvae 
which he discov d by the light of the electric lamp, feeding on its natural diet of pickerel 
weed in a marshy spot near the edge of the lake. 

While I was writing on the foregoing page I was interrupted by the entrance of Mr. 
Livingston, artist, 15 and Major Walthall, 16 a southern writer whose name you may have 
noticed in connection with the preparation for the press of Jefferson Davis's book. 17 
He is separated from that enterprise now & came in to make my acq'ce for the purpose 
of advising with me concern'g his wish to write up (& to have Mr. Livingston illustrate) 
the Northern Gulf of Mexico coast with its watering places. I gave him the right advice, 
i.e. to do something & submit it to you. I believe you can get something desirable from 
them by just a litde training. 

I wish I could go right on writing to you. It doesn't bother me & you're too far off 
for me to hear your complaints at my prolixity. 

Thank you for mentioning my shocking omission in the matter of a letter to Mrs. 
Herrick. 18 I shall write within 24 hours. 

Hope Mrs. Johnson is now well. Mrs Cable is just now able to be out after 3 
months illness. Alas! the poor women — there is no glory in their warfare; it is all fighting 
& suffering. 

Yours truly 

G. W. Cable 


New Orleans, Feb'y 26, 1881. 
My dear Mr. Johnson; 

that is to say — You dear old Johnson: 

I have been making a forced march to escape the prodding of the government 
printers & am just sending off the 1st installm t of my "N. Orleans". 19 Now I turn 
to repair a broken pledge concerning my entomologist. With this I mail his picture of 
his new sphynx & larva and an a/c which he has written of it. He is infantile in litera- 
ture — as you will see; but if you will exercise some of the patience & obstinacy that you 
show to me when I am under your sheep-shears he will turn out a readable account of 
his discovery. His MS. (w'h I enclose) will not pass muster as it is, of course; I have 
told him so & he expects it sent back with editorial corrections & suggestions. Only don't 
cast him off. 20 

Yours truly 
G. W. Cable 

Oh! me! I almost forgot to ask your congratulations. I told our Baron von Reizen- 
stein that he ought to name his pet. He had forgotten that point & now insists on call- 
ing it after me. I will try humbly & gratefully to do my duty as a godfather. (Tears.) 
Another omission: He says he once sent a newly discovered moth to Philadelphia 
& had the pleasure of seeing it brought out a year later by a Phila. naturalist as the 
latter's discovery. Don't let him fall into such a trap this time. 

Yours i 

G. W. C. 
His name is L. von Reizenstein 
send to my care. 

Editorial Department 
The Century Magazine 
Union Square, 
New York. 
Nov 19, 1883. 

Mr Courtlandt Palmer; 21 

Dear Sir: 

Much against my wish I find myself unable to call on you before leaving New York 

for the East. 

I shall be back on the 5th Dec r . I am told that by furnishing a mem. of the names of 

persons whom I should like to have invited to hear my lecture before your club I can 

have that gratification without transcending rules. 

There are several thousand others whom I should have liked to add to this modest 

list, but not wishing to crowd your drawing-room I enforce upon myself that self-denial 

for which I am famed. 

Yours truly 

G. W. Cable 


Simsbury, Conn, 22 Sep 4/84 
Dear Johnson: 

I shall drop in on you Friday (tomorrow) somewhere about 2 o'clock. Can't you 
arrange to give me a good long seance on my Saratoga 23 paper & other things? Please 
do. I'll drop in at 2. 

Yours truly 
G. W. Cable 

Northampton, Mass. 24 Feb'y 1st, 1887. 
Dear Johnson: 

Enclosed find c'k for $5. for whatever I owe on dues to the C'right League. 25 I 
think this exceeds my dues by $1 — which please make as a contribution. 

Yours truly 
G. W. Cable 

Northampton Mass. Sep 23, 1887. 
My dear Mr. Hill: 26 

Thank you much for the newspaper matter rec'd from you. I have read it with much 

I have not forgotten our plans for good work. I have been busy in every direction, 
talking & writing in that interest. Yesterday I completed the first draught of an essay 
which the London Contemporary Review invited me to write. I shall hope ere long to 
show it to you. It is on "The Negro Question in the U. S." 27 I may send you a type 
written copy in advance of publication & ask you for comments & queries. But even 
now I want your aid. Can you get for me the figures (Gov t figures) of the taxable 
wealth of various states & territories? If so I can make excellent use of them. 

Yours truly 
G. W. Cable 

Paradise Road, 

Northampton, Mass., July 16 1888 
My dear Mr. Johnson: 

Are you still the War editor or is Russia now your department? I send with this a 
MS which in spite of its blue ribbons I think is a very charming bit of Russian narra- 
tive. I know the writer, a Russian gentleman, the Count Podgorsky, 28 residing here. 
Will [you] kindly let me hear what the Editor's verdict on this is? The first two 
pages are entirely superfluous. The account should begin with the second f on p. 3. 

Yours truly 
G. W. Cable 

Paradise Road, 

Northampton, Mass., July 3, 1889. 
Dear Buel: 29 

I have at length completed my editing of the War Diary of a Union Woman in the 
South. 30 When I say that I have carried this MS about with me for thousands of miles 
and that it is nearly a year since I began to edit it — and that the work has been only 


editing — & that I have stricken out largely in single lines & often in single words 
nearly 9000 words, you may be sure I'm glad to call it finished. 

As it stands now it ought to make between 22 & 23 pages of The Century & divides 
neatly near the middle. I send you a type-writer [sic] copy much scratched; but this 
is only the last scratching. If you think best for your own purpose to have a fresh copy 
made I should like to have this scratched copy back again. It is a study of laborious 
condensation that I should value. But you need not do it for my sake; I don't care 
that much about it. It is a good illustration of how tremendously a thing can be boiled 
down without altering its flavor or quality. 

Know [sic] your liking for expedition I hurry my introductory note to the typewriter 
& will mail all within 24 hours. Hoping for early rec't of proofs — for you know I am 
eager to issue in book form, 31 

I am Yours 

G. W. Cable 

Paradise Road, 

Northampton, Mass., Jan. 2 1890 
My dear Johnson: 

Your Dec 31, '89 rec'd. It will be utterly out of the question for me to go to Chicago 
to take part in the Authors' Reading for the good cause of Copyright. With hearty 

Yours truly 
G. W. Cable 

Paradise Road, 

Northampton, Mass., Nov. 17, 1890. 
R. U. Johnson, Esq., Sec't'y &c. 
Dear Sir: 

With thanks for the honor I accept my re-election to the Council of the Am" Copy- 
right League. 

I regret that I have arrived from the west (only within the present hour) 32 too late 
to attend meeting of Council called for this date. 

Yours truly 
G. W. Cable 

Paradise Road, 

Northampton, Mass., May 19,1891. 
Dear Johnson: 

I'm home and at work now without interruption and should be ever so glad if you 
would come up — you or any of your group — any day that may suit you. Indeed you 
ought to come. Have you any wild woods in New York within 60 seconds' walk of 
your house or office, where we can sit on a shady bluff with the river at our feet and read 
MS? That's what's waiting for you here. Choose your own time, it's all open to you — 
so are the spring flowers of grove & field. 


If you Century men are too high & mighty to condescend to yellow violets and 
mossy banks, then can you name some date when I can come and read MS to you? 
Don't you see what I want? It's the infinite advantage of your running comment & 
seriatim treatment! Don't tell me it's easier to write the faithful harshness of a con- 
scientious editor than to speak them to the author; it's harder — and it's much harder on 
the author & far less valuable. 

Now come up — one of you, and sit in the fragrant shade. Or if that can't (or 
simply won't) be, then fix a day for me to come down. 

Yours truly 
G. W. Cable 

Dryads' Green 33 
Northampton, Massachusetts 
April 12, '97. 
Mrs. Lucy L. Hartt; 34 
Dear madam: 

In answer to your letter of April 8 I have to say that it will give me pleasure to 
accept the invitation of Buffalo Seminary to address its graduating class on the morning 
of June 10 if my terms are acceptable to your management. 

My work however is so burdensome and urgent that I cannot feel justified in making 
less than my usual price of One hundred dollars. 
Awaiting your reply I beg to remain 

Yours truly 
G. W. Cable 

Cambridge, Mass., 
April 30, 1901. 
Dear Johnson: 

I am here for a day or two and having within this hour completed my story (Pere 
Raphael) 35 I express it to you at once. You will oblige me by sending acknowledgement 
of its safe receipt to me at my home address, Northampton. 

Though I part with the MS to you today, I want very much to give it a few love-taps 
by and by when I can give it a refreshed glance; so, as you go over it, if you will make a 
light note of such things as you think might be retouched to advantage I shall count your 
so doing a favor. 

Ever Yours truly 
G. W. Cable 


March ist 1904. 
Mr. Robert U. Johnson, 
327 Lexington Avenue, 
New York. 
Dear Johnson; — 

I cannot express to you how grateful I feel to you and to Mrs Johnson, and so many 
kind friends for your expressions of sympathy with me and my dear children in the 
loss of the beloved wife and mother 36 who was so large a part of our life and happiness. 
Your kind words are a precious comfort. 

Yours truly 
G. W. Cable 

Home-Culture Clubs, 

Northampton, Mass. 

October 17, 1906. 
Dear Mr. Page: 37 

Please keep your money, your autograph is all I ask. Mark Twain's rule is never to 
refuse his to a boy, and I am but a trifle over sixty. I founded these Home-Culture 
Clubs eighteen years ago and have been president and head-waiter of them ever since. 
The Women's Council of these Clubs, a board of Northampton and Smith College 
ladies who are having a beautiful success in imparting uplifting influences among many 
hundreds of our working people, propose to buy (through the regular channels) a number 
of your books and sell them with your autograph on inserted page, if you will have the 
goodness to sign the enclosed blank sheets. Mr. Carnegie has given his in check signatures 
for nearly seventy-five thousand dollars, 38 but in your case that form is not imperative. 

Yours truly 
G. W. Cable 

Northampton, Mass., 
Nov. 3, 1906. 
Dear Mr. Miller: 39 

I return to you here enclosed the (to me) rather senseless clipping which laments 
something that never happened and something else equally imaginary. 

"The Grandissimes" "as first printed in magazine form with all the French dialect" 

was absurdly overloaded with phonetical renderings which I simplified to the reader's 

great advantage and no one's real loss. The Grandissimes in that first form differs from 

the present version in no other way. There is not a line added subtracted or remodeled. 

Thank you for the Krehbiel 40 letter. 

My dear friend, I expect about the third week of this month to be married 41 and 
shall hope one day to see you again in "Tarryawhile." 

Ever Yours truly 

G. W. Cable 


Aug 13, 1909. 
Dear Johnson: 

I am crowded out of all chance to be a prompt correspondent. Your letter of the 
24 July gave me hearty pleasure. 

What passage Meredith 42 meant in his flattering allusion I really cannot tell — whether 
in "The Grandissimes" "The Cavalier" or "Doctor Sevier" [.] I am pretty sure to vote for 
Muir 43 for the Academy. 44 I think your policy of consultation over names is the only 
right one. 

Yours truly 
G. W. Cable 

August 23rd, 1909. 
Dear Johnson: 

I write both for Col. Higginson 45 and myself, having his letter. He says: "Can you 
tell me anything more about the proposed gathering at Washington next winter?" I 
couldn't tell him anything more. Howells's letter, received early in the summer, and 
your own last letter to me seem to take it for granted that I knew facts that have 
never come to me. I wish very much I knew exactly what is planned. If I am to 
participate in the programme, I ought to know what the projected programme is. 46 

I am really disturbed about my own part in the matter, for since I answered Mr. 
Howells, accepting his invitation, my literary work of a most obligatory sort has buckled 
up, as the mechanics say, in a most embarrassing way, and while I greatly covet the 
honor of being on such a programme as this at Washington must be in any case, I 
scarcely see how I can contrive to fulfil my promise to Howells. So may I ask you 
who do so much for us at all times to enlighten me as best you can? For if I have got 
to drop out of the parade I ought to do so as promptly as possible. 

Yours truly 
G. W. Cable 

. Philadelphia 
November 23rd [1913] 
Dear Mr. Plimpton; 47 

I heartily rejoice to know by your invitation, received yesterday, just as I was leaving 
home, that Robert Underwood Johnson is to be tendered a testimonial dinner. 48 It is 
with great regret that I find myself totally unable to attend it, having just arrived here 
to go to the Hospital for a confining though unhazardous eye operation. 

I have all exalted regard for Mr. Johnson's great public value. His devoted services 
in the interest of International Copyright, though performed incidentally while he was 
mainly absorbed in the great vocation of his life, were of themselves sufficient to put 
the whole literary world permanendy, historically in his debt. 


I have had abundant reason to count him my personal friend for more than thirty 
years, and I doubt if any other of the early contributors to the Century Magazine can 
testify to such invaluable editorial counsel received from him, as can I. 

Yours truly 
G. W. Cable 

"South Sea", Paget W. 
Bermuda, Dec 9, 1921. 
Dear Johnson: 

Your letter surprises me greatly and I reply by first mail practicable. There must 
have been, if nothing better, at least a pretext for the action 49 — what was it? 

Neither can I understand why you were seemingly treated in so slipshod a manner. 
Without a knowledge of these things I cannot allow myself to form a judgment although 
I may suspect this or that. Neither do I understand why I or any member of the Academy 
should be allowed to go ignorant of any condition requiring or justifying such a step 
by part of the Academy while the rest of the members are still ignorant of the condition 
of things. 

If the question is one of expediency no one, it seems to me, would let himself stand 
in the way of a necessary adjustment, or would need to be treated ungraciously. 

I wish I might be at the board's Dec 30 meeting. But I cannot. My wife is very ill 
and cannot be left. As to writing Augustus Thomas, 50 I do not find myself in possession 
of facts enough to justify a decision one way or another. You ought to tell me things 
more fully and I ought to have known them sooner. Surely if you counted on any aid 
from me — and I should be most happy, dear friend, to render it — you would have writ- 
ten me sooner and more fully. Still if there is any service I can perform at this distance 
of time and place (two steamers a week), give me the privilege. I ask nothing better. 

Yours truly 
G. W. Cable 

Chelsea Court Apartments 
Atlantic City, New Jersey 
Dec 19, 1922. 
Dear Johnson: 

Please let me ask you to second my nomination of Doctor Bassett. 51 Look in "Who's 
Who in America"; I cannot write a long letter — am not physically able. 

I'll be greatly obliged. 

Yours truly 




I.Edward L. Tinker, "Cable and the Creoles," American Literature, V: 317-319 (Jan. 1934). 

2. Arlin Turner, "George W. Cable, Novelist and Reformer," The South Atlantic Quarterly, XL VIII: 
542 (Oct. 1949)- 

3. Tinker, loc. cit., p. 316. 

4. Ibid., pp. 325-326. 

5. Turner, loc. cit., p. 544. 

6. Ibid., p. 545. 

7. Tinker, loc. cit., p. 326. 

8. Proofs of his first novel, The Grandissimes, a historical romance of early nineteenth-century 
Louisiana. It first appeared serially in Scribner's Monthly from Nov. 1879 through Oct. 1880. 

9. Wm. C. Black and Company, cotton factors and commission merchants in New Orleans, with 
whom Cable had been employed since 1871. He left the firm in 1880 after the death of Wm. C. 
Black. The principal source used for facts of Cable's life in these notes is Lucy L. C. Bikle, George W. 
Cable; his life and letters, New York, 1928. 

10. Irwin Russell, author of "Christmas-Night in the Quarters" and other poems, who died in a 
cheap boarding house in New Orleans on Dec. 23, 1879. In 1888 the Century Company published 
his single volume of verse under the title, Poems by Irwin Russell. 

11. Very probably Edward King, a journalist who was sent on a 25,000-mile trip through the South 
by Scribner's Monthly in 1872 to prepare their spectacular series of articles, "The Great South," and 
to explore the literary potentialities of that section. He returned with the report that he had dis- 
covered Cable, who four years previously had tried to gain the attention of that magazine, and he 
became one of the chief promoters of the Louisiana writer. See Roger Burlingame, Of Maying Many 
Boo\s . . . , New York, 1946, pp. 49-51. 

12. For many years Cable considered the reading of fiction sinful. Finally he came to read some 
of Victor Hugo, Thackeray, Turgenev, and Hawthorne. See William M. Baskerville, Southern Writers, 
Nashville, 1902, v. I, p. 342. 

13. A novelette about a quadroon woman, published in Scribner's Monthly, May-July, 1881, and in 
book form the same year. 

14. Old Creole Days. Dr. Louis Frechette, a Canadian poet, translated some of Cable's stories into 

15. Livingston remains unidentified. 

16. William T. Walthall. 

ly.The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government, New York, 1881. 2v. 

18. Probably Sophia M'llvaine Bledsoe Herrick, who was on the editorial staff of Scribner's Monthly 
and its successor, The Century, from 1878 to 1907. 

19. Cable wrote an elaborate historical sketch of New Orleans for the tenth census (1880) of the 
United States; it appeared in v. 19, pp. 213-267 of the Census. 

20. No evidence is found that the Baron's work was published. 

21. Palmer, a New York attorney interested in the development of technical education and an advocate 
of liberal ideas, had established the Nineteenth Century Club in 1880. The Club met throughout the 
winter season to hear papers by leaders in art, literature, and social science, followed by open discus- 
sion. Cable read a paper, "The True Literary Artist," at a meeting of the Club in Palmer's home on 
December 6. In a letter to his wife, written from New York on November 8, Cable described the 
paper as "just what I think it a Christian's duty to say to just such a lot of free thinkers & doubters 
as I am told that club comprises." (Bikle, George W. Cable, p. 107.) 

22. Cable and his family had moved to Simsbury in July, 1884. 

23. Cable was coming to be in great demand throughout the United States, and later in the British 
Isles, as a reader and lecturer. From Nov. 1884 to Feb. 1885, he and Mark Twain were on a reading 
tour, about which Clemens wrote: "I was on the public highway with another bandit, George W. 
Cable. We were robbing the public with readings from our works during four months." Saratoga 
was included in their tour. See Samuel L. Clemens, Mar\ Twain's Autobiography, New York, 1924, 
v. 2, p. 165. 

24. In Sept. 1885 Cable had taken up permanent residence here. 

25. American Copyright League. 

26. Robert T. Hill, U. S. geologist. 

27. The Contemporary Review, LIU: 443-468 (Mar. 1888). 

28. The Century did not print this manuscript. 

29. Clarence Clough Buel, assistant editor of The Century. 

30. Published in The Century, XXXVIII: 931-946 (Oct. 1889). 


31. It was included in his Strange True Stories of Louisiana, New York, 1889. 

32. He had been on a reading and lecture tour. 

33. In 1892 the Cable family had moved from "Red House" on Paradise Road to "Tarryawhile" 
on Dryads' Green. 

34. Lucy Lynde Hartt, widow of Charles Frederic Hartt, a geologist of international reputation. 
She was for a long time associate principal and principal of the Buffalo (N. Y.) Seminary. Appar- 
ently Cable's terms were acceptable, for a month later he wrote Mrs. Hartt again about his coming to 
Buffalo, inquiring where he was to stay. See Charles Frederic Hartt Papers in the Manuscript De- 
partment of Duke University Library. 

35. Published in The Century, LXII: 545-561 (Aug. 1901). 

36. Louise Stewart Bartlett Cable, who had died during the previous month. She and Cable were 
married in New Orleans on December 7, 1869; they had seven children. 

37. Thomas Nelson Page. 

38. The contributions of Andrew Carnegie, a friend of Cable, made possible the establishment of the 
Home-Culture Clubs. By 1896 they had spread to thirteen states. 

39. Perhaps Lewis Bennett Miller, writer of adventure stories for leading magazines. 

40. Henry Edward Krehbiel, music critic of the New Yor\ Tribune. 

41. He was married later that month to Eva C. Stevenson, a broadly educated woman from Lex- 
ington, Ky. She died early in 1923. The following December, at the age of seventy-nine, Cable mar- 
ried Mrs. Hannah Cowing, a Northampton neighbor and friend of the family. 

42. Maybe George Meredith, English poet and novelist. 

43. John Muir, geologist, explorer, naturalist, and nature writer. 

44. Probably the American Academy of Arts and Letters, of which Johnson and Cable were mem- 
bers, and to which Muir was later elected. Johnson was for many years Permanent Secretary of the 

45. Thomas Wentworth Higginson. 

46. Undoubtedly the first public meeting of the American Academy of Arts and Letters, which was 
held in Washington in two sessions on December 14 and 16, 1909. Cable did not appear on the 
program, but Higginson, also a member, read a short paper on Ruskin and Norton, and William Dean 
Howells, as president, made the opening address. 

47. George Arthur Plimpton, member of the publishing firm of Ginn and Company. 

48. Johnson resigned from the editorship of The Century in May 1913. The dinner, arranged by 
his friends in publishing, literary, and civic circles, was held at Sherry's in New York on December 11 
of that year. 

49. The abolition of Johnson's title of Permanent Secretary of the American Academy of Arts and 

50. Thomas was also a member, and former president, of the Academy. 

51. Probably John Spencer Bassett, noted historian, earlier a member of the faculty of Trinity 
College (Duke University), and at this time professor of history at Smith College. Bassett was elected 
to the National Institute of Arts and Letters in 1923. (This is the parent organization of the Academy, 
from which Academy members are elected; Cable and Johnson were therefore members also of the 
National Institute.) 


Thomas M. Simkins, Jr. 

MANY Friends of Duke Univer- 
sity Library who have not had 
opportunity to examine the major au- 
thor collections in the Rare Book 
Room will find a description of the 
Byron Collection to be of some interest. 
Though it is one of the most impor- 
tant of the Library's collections in the 
field of English literature, it has never 
been adequately described. There are 
brief articles in the Du\e University 
Alumni Register for August, 1932, and 
December, 1933, in which Mr. Eric 
Morrell, then Chief of the Order Divi- 
sion of the Library, told how through 
the efforts of the late Professor N. I. 
White and the generosity of the Class 
of 1913 the Library was enabled to 
develop its small Byron Collection into 
one of bibliographic eminence. Mrs. 
Ellen Frey Limouze, the first Curator 
of Rare Books at Duke, compiled and 
published in Library Notes for July, 
1947, selections from the correspond- 
ence of Professor White and Mr. 
Thomas J. Wise, under the title, 
"Thomas James Wise: Friend of Duke 
University Library." In these letters, 
of which the originals are in the Manu- 
script Collections of Duke University 
Library, is revealed the story of the 
Library's friendship with this man of 
complex character (if not entirely hap- 

py memory) in whose Ashley Library 
most of the important Byron items 
now at Duke once found lodging. 

To these writers the present writer 
acknowledges a heavy debt for infor- 
mation which he would not have found 
had they not gone before and lighted 
the way. Above all, to the indefati- 
gable Mr. Thomas J. Wise himself 
thanks are again due, this time for pro- 
viding not only the books, but also, in 
A Bibliography of the Writings in 
Verse and Prose of George Gordon 
Noel, Baron Byron (London, 1932, 
2 v.), so stable a basis for the identifi- 
cation of die editions, issues, and vari- 
ants represented in the Byron Collec- 
tion in the Rare Book Room. The Li- 
brary's copy of Mr. Wise's bibliography 
came as an inscribed gift from its au- 
thor and so is itself, most appro- 
priately, a part of the collection for 
whose description here it has served as 
an indispensable foundation. More- 
over, it came to Duke in company 
with many of the very copies of By- 
ron's works which Mr. Wise had so 
recently been examining during the 
labors of which the bibliography is the 
monumental record. 

Byron's bibliography begins with an 
item so involved in private printings, 
changes of title and contents, missing 



dates, revisions, errata, and other pit- 
falls, that one suspects His young Lord- 
ship and his printers of setting out like 
medieval strategists to "amuse" their 
adversaries, the collector, the bibliog- 
rapher, the librarian, and the book 
dealer. The book of juvenile pieces 
now commonly known as Hours of 
Idleness appeared first under this 
title in 1807, and the copy at Duke is 
one of this first (or "crown octavo") 
edition of the Hours, with the error 
thunder for thunder on page 114 un- 
mentioned among the errata, along 
with the for the on page 181. (There 
were two earlier editions with some- 
what different contents and different 
titles: Fugitive Pieces, 1806, and Poems 
on Various Occasions, 1807; neither of 
these is represented in the Duke Collec- 
tion.) The same collection, but with 
six poems omitted and five new ones 
added, appeared a year later in 1808 as 
Poems Original and Translated; of this 
edition there is a fine copy, complete 
with aaid for said in the footnote on 
page 115 and stanza 6 on page 29 irre- 
proachably so numbered. Also on the 
shelves may be found two copies of the 
authorized Hours of Idleness published 
by W. T. Sherwin, London, 1820, the 
contents of which agree exactly with 
the edition of twelve years earlier. 

Byron's next important work, Eng- 
lish Bards and Scotch Reviewers, pre- 
sents a bibliographical labyrinth of 
editions and issues and variants, to be 
threaded only by those who can smile 
at such monsters as "Seventh Spurious 

Third Edition, 1810 [1818]." This is 
actually one of the valued items in the 
Byron Collection to be found in the 
Rare Book Room, though it is natu- 
rally not so respectable as the genuine 
first edition, second issue or variant, of 
1809, with which we must begin. This 
second issue differs from the first in 
having a preface and the correct spell- 
ing author on page v. Proceeding with 
the authorized editions, we come next 
to the editions of 1810 and 1811, both 
of which are declared by their title- 
pages to be the "fourth edition." The 
first of these has signatures running 
from A to D, each twelve leaves, 
whereas the second runs from A to G, 
each eight leaves except the first and 
last with four leaves apiece. There is 
a slight difference also in contents, 
caused by the author's removal of four 
lines and addition of six new lines in 
the second issue, so that the total num- 
ber is 1050 lines in the first and 1052 in 
the second. Finally, the paper in a 
strong light reveals two dim but differ- 
ent watermarks, "G & R T" in the first 
issue and "J Whatman / 1805" in the 
second. There is a mystery here. Both 
"fourth" editions were regarded by 
Byron as genuine; he mentioned the 
"fourth edition" in a letter of June 28, 
18 1 1, and a published "fifth edition" 
(which must have been the fourth edi- 
tion, second issue) in another letter 
dated June 13, 18 13. The later refer- 
ence could not have been to the real, 
original "fifth edition," since this had 
been completely suppressed by Byron 



while still in preparation in 1812, de- 
spite the efforts of the villainous pub- 
lisher, James Cawthorn, to attach a 
fraudulent "fourth edition" title-page 
and thus save his printed sheets. Un- 
fortunately, Cawthorn persisted in his 
efforts and finally presented, to harass 
bibliographers, not only a "fifth edi- 
tion" dated 1816 (immediately sup- 
pressed by Byron with the aid of a 
court order) but also the long series 
of spurious "third" and "fourth" edi- 
tions, of which one example has al- 
ready been cited. The curious may see 
in the Rare Book Room genuine copies 
of Cawthorn's first and seventh spuri- 
ous "thirds," [1812?] and [1818?], and 
the first spurious "fourth" [1812?], all 
three title-pages brazenly dated "1810." 
Leaving the English Bards and the 
shameless Mr. Cawthorn, we find that 
Lord Byron had also turned his back 
on his former publisher; his next work, 
Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, was pub- 
lished by John Murray as the beginning 
of his long association with the poet. 
Here an enumeration is happily un- 
necessary, since the Library has a com- 
plete "run" of all the known separate 
editions and issues which came out 
during Byron's life: eleven editions of 
Cantos I and II between 1812 and 
1819; three issues of the first edition of 
Canto III in 1816; and five issues of the 
first edition of Canto IV in 1818. One 
example will suffice to show what tech- 
nical delights are still offered to the 
bibliographical student by Childe Har- 
old. There exist variant copies of 

Canto IV, first edition, fourth issue, 
in which the important asterisks before 
signatures P and Q, an aid in distin- 
guishing the third and fourth issues 
from the second, are unaccountably 
missing. Upon discovering one such 
copy, the late Mr. Thomas J. Wise may 
well have permitted himself one long, 
low whistle, before he sent the book 
upstairs to go into the packing box 
where rarities destined for Duke Uni- 
versity were accumulating. Among 
the curious items in the Byron Collec- 
tion is an interesting edition of Childe 
Harold printed at the Armenian Mon- 
astery of St. Lazarus in Venice (1872), 
with an Armenian translation facing 
each page of the English text. 

Two copies of The Genuine Rejected 
Addresses, first edition, first issue, are 
found in the Rare Book Room. These 
have the true first-issue imprint, ". . . 
Martin . . . and Nunn . . . 1812," rather 
than ". . . Chappie . . . and Nunn . . . 
1812," in accord with Wise's revised 
statement of the two issues in the 
preface to his second volume. 

In The Giaour, 1813, watermarks 
again leap into prominence as points 
claiming attention. The Collection con- 
tains two copies of the first published 
edition. One is on hand-made paper 
watermarked "J Whatman/1809" and 
"J Whatman/1810." The other is on 
plain unmarked "wove" paper. There 
is a difference in the size of the two 
books, but they seem to be otherwise 
identical in collation, and are thought 
to belong to the same printing. Before 



leaving The Giaour we may mention 
also a fourteenth edition, 1815, as ma- 
terial evidence of the wide circulation 
of the poem. Wise's list stops with the 
ninth edition, also dated 18 15. 

The Bride of Abydos, published in 
the year 18 13, is represented in the 
Byron Collection by two copies of the 
first issue of the first edition, one copy 
of the second issue, and single copies 
of the second, third, fourth, and elev- 
enth editions. This popular work had 
passed its fifth edition before the end 
of 1813; the date of the eleventh edi- 
tion is 1818. One of the two copies at 
Duke of the first edition, first issue, 
bears an aura of glory since it once be- 
longed to Leigh Hunt. It is further- 
more described by Wise as "extremely 
attractive" and unique in his experience 
by virtue of its page-number "48" on 
page 43. Wise's conclusion, upon this 
evidence, that this book is an "early 
copy" may be doubted by those to 
whose eyes the second figure looks 
more like a broken or smeared "3" 
than like the standard "8" found on 
other pages. 

The Corsair, 1814, brought both glad- 
ness and grief to its publisher, John 
Murray. On the very day of publica- 
tion, copies were sold to the phenom- 
enal number of ten thousand. Most, if 
not all, of these copies belonged to the 
second rather than the first issue and 
included the additional poems extend- 
ing the volume to 108 instead of 100 
pages. The verses "Weep, daughter of 
a royal line," etc., referring to Princess 

Charlotte, had caused stormy political 
protests upon their first appearance in 
a newspaper in 18 12. Murray therefore 
did not wish to include these lines in 
The Corsair, but Byron insisted upon 
them, and the unhappy publisher 
vacillated between his fear of renewed 
protests and his possibly greater fear 
of Lord Byron's wrath. The result was 
an alternation in the successive issues 
between 100 and 108 pages. The Byron 
Collection has a first edition, first issue 
(100), a first edition, second issue 
(108), an early variant of this second 
issue (100), and a second edition, first 
issue (108). 

One of the finest collector's items in 
the Rare Book Room is a somewhat 
unattractive pamphlet in drab paper 
wrappers, an uncut copy of Byron's 
anonymous Ode to Napoleon Buona- 
parte, 1 8 14. This is a first edition of a 
sixteen-page work which appeared in 
very numerous editions later in the 
same year. Of the first edition in this 
form, Mr. Wise said he had seen only 
three copies. Among the succeeding 
editions the third and the tenth are im- 
portant, the latter being the first to 
bear Byron's name. Both of these are 
represented at Duke. 

Lara made its debut in company with 
Samuel Rogers' Jacqueline in 18 14. 
Thomas Moore had been asked to con- 
tribute a poem to this rather odd com- 
bination, but he refused. Later in 18 14, 
after Lara and Jacqueline had appeared 
together in three English editions and 
at least one American edition (Boston, 



Wells and Lilly), the partnership was 
silently dissolved, and the first edition 
of Lara, alone, made its appearance, in 
two issues. The Byron Collection con- 
tains the first English and the first 
American Lara and Jacqueline, along 
with two copies each of the first and 
second issues of the first separate Lara. 
Several relatively minor works of 
Byron followed in the years 1815 to 
18 19. With regard to Hebrew Melo- 
dies, 1 8 15, it is enough to remark that 
of the two Rare Book Room copies of 
the first edition, one belongs to the first 
issue, and the other to some issue in- 
determinate because of a lost advertis- 
ing leaf. Both of these copies carry the 
proper first-edition watermarks "11 
Smith 1814" and "n Smith 1815." If 
one is deaf to the siren song of Mr. 
Eleven Smith and proceeds firmly to 
The Siege of Corinth and Parisina, 
18 16, copies of all three editions of this 
double work will be found. The Poems 
of 18 16 appears in the Collection in 
four copies, two of the first edition, 
first issue, one of the first edition, sec- 
ond issue, and one of the second edi- 
tion. There are likewise two copies of 
the first edition, first issue, of The Pris- 
oner of Chillon, 1816, and one copy 
of the second edition published at Lau- 
sanne in 1822. The Monody on the 
Death of Sheridan, 1816, appears in the 
first edition, first issue only. The La- 
ment of Tasso, 1817, is represented by 
two copies of the first edition. Of Man- 
fred, also 1817, there are two copies of 
the second issue of the first edition; 

one of these was originally called by 
Mr. Wise a first issue variant, as a 
manuscript note in his hand on the 
flyleaf still testifies. Two copies of the 
third issue of the first Manfred are also 
found, along with a second edition. 

At least five editions of Byron's next 
work, Beppo, were published in the 
year 18 18, all but the fifth anony- 
mously. At Duke may be seen a first 
edition of this poem, a third, and beau- 
tiful copies of the fourth and the fifth 
editions "stitched in modern grey- 
green paper wrappers, with trimmed 
edges, and preserved [together] in a 
dark blue cloth folding case by Rivi- 
ere," to quote the words of Wise's Bib- 
liography (I: 125) where these very 
copies are described. Mazeppa, finally, 
appears in the first edition, first issue, 
and in three copies of the first edition, 
second issue. 

The first two cantos of Don ]uan 
were issued from the press of Thomas 
Davison in Whitefriars in 18 19. The 
first edition was a large, generous 
quarto; the second, a volume of demy 
octavo size, bearing the words "A New 
Edition" on its title-page. This latter 
format was chosen for the first publi- 
cation of the subsequent cantos of Don 
]uan. Copies of all parts of the poem 
exist in both "large paper" and "small 
paper" form, and there are also many 
examples of the so-called "common 
editions" in small octavo. Many pur- 
chasers of these books, since the time 
was just before the advent of the pub- 
lisher's trade binding made of cloth, 



were careful to obtain the successive 
parts of Don Juan in uniform size in 
order to have them bound together in 
two or more sturdy volumes. Collec- 
tors of that day abhorred uncut copies 
in original drab paper wrappers or 
boards much more than they winced at 
major operations by the binder's knife, 
especially if the new raiment acquired 
in the process was splendid enough. 
Consequently, Don ]uan now exists in 
a bewildering assortment of partial 
and complete copies in a wide range 
of sizes, with frequent mixtures of edi- 
tions in bound volumes. The aging 
Mr. Wise did not live to complete his 
study of the details of Don Juan. We 
are therefore left without a guide to 
full description and identification in 
the case of Byron's most voluminous 
work. Perhaps the white paper back- 
strip labels consistently proclaiming 
that three cantos might be had for 9s. 
6d. may at last turn out to show sig- 
nificant points of issues; or it may be 
the more usually characteristic errata, 
half-titles, advertising matter, printer's 
imprints, or other more "normal" mi- 
nutiae. Work yet remains to be done 
for which Thomas J. Wise admittedly 
lacked strength. In the Rare Book 
Room at Duke University Library 
there is one fine, uncut copy of the 
first edition of Cantos I and II of Don 
Juan in quarto, 1819. Then comes an 
octavo volume containing copies of 
Cantos I and II, 1819, the second edi- 
tion, Cantos III-V, 1821, a first, and 
Cantos VI-VIII, 1823, also a first. The 

pages in this volume have been cut to 
Wi by 5% inches. Cantos IX-XVI ap- 
pear together in another volume cut 
to identical size. The dates of these 
first editions are: Cantos IX-XI, 1823; 
Cantos XII-XIV, 1823; and Cantos XV- 
XVI, 1824. The Duke copy of the last 
named is incomplete in that leaf I2, an 
advertising leaf, is wanting; in its stead 
occurs a small erratum slip not noted 
by Wise in the copies he examined. An 
issue other than the first may be sus- 
pected here, but the case is not proved. 

Marino Faliero and The Prophecy of 
Dante, published together in 1821, are 
in the Collection in both issues of the 
first edition. The first edition of Sar- 
danapalus, The Two Foscari, and Cain, 
forming another composite work pub- 
lished in the same year, is represented 
by two copies, both of which have suf- 
fered the loss of the half-title. Byron's 
Letter to**** ****** [John Murray] 
on Bowles' Strictures on Pope ran to 
three editions in 1821. Only the second 
edition of this minor work is here. 
The Age of Bronze, 1823, appears in 
the first two editions. All three edi- 
tions of The Island, 1823, are present, 
along with both issues of the first edi- 
tion of Werner, 1823. Of The De- 
formed Transformed, 1824, the Library 
has all three editions, the first occurring 
only in the "G" form, i.e., with the fi- 
nal gathering signed incorrectly "G" 
instead of "F," a point which Thomas 
J. Wise regarded as too insignificant to 
justify a separation into two issues. 

The list of single works of Byron is 



brought to a close by a brief mention 
of four other items in the Rare Book 
Room: the Parliamentary Speeches, 
1824, the Correspondence with a Friend 
[R. C. Dallas] in three volumes, 1825, 
Lord Byron's Armenian Exercises and 
Poetry, 1870, and A Political Ode, 1880. 
Each of these represents the first pub- 
lished edition, and each is a complete 
copy except the Parliamentary Speeches, 
which lacks the final advertising leaf. 
Byron began early to apply the term 
"works" to his writings. Each of the 
three years 1813 to 1815 produced its 
set of The Works of the Right Hon- 
ourable Lord Byron. The Rare Book 
Room has the four small volumes of 
the 18 15 set, the earliest edition to omit 
English Bards at the poet's request. 
Subsequent collected editions in the 
Byron Collection at Duke include that 
of 18 17 in five volumes, called "the 
first collected edition" by Wise, al- 
though the contents of its first four 
volumes are identical with the edition 
of 1815; the edition of 1819 in three 
volumes; and that of 1827 in six. Next 
on the shelf stands A Selection from 
the Worlds of Lord Byron; edited and 
prefaced by Algernon Chas. Swin- 
burne, dated 1866. Swinburne's preface 
rather boldly for its period condemns 
those readers of Byron who without 
literary appreciation adored or abom- 
inated His Lordship beyond decorous 
bounds. After this, the book presents 
in its less than 250 pages ruthlessly mu- 
tilated abridgments of some fifteen 

major works, along with ten intact 
shorter poems. 

Two other titles in the Rare Book 
Room should be mentioned before we 
attack the unwieldy items loosely 
grouped together as "Byroniana." The 
first is the ill-fated periodical, The Lib- 
eral, published by Byron and Leigh 
Hunt in 1822-1823, in whose two vol- 
umes several of Byron's works were 
first printed: "The Vision of Judg- 
ment," "Heaven and Earth," "The 
Blues," "Morgante Maggiore" (trans- 
lated from Pulci), and "A Letter to the 
Editor of 'My Grandmother's Re- 
view.' " The two volumes of The Lib- 
eral in the Byron Collection at Duke 
bear correct dates and show the other 
proper first-edition points. The second 
item to be mentioned is Imitations and 
Translations from the Ancient and 
Modern Classics, together with Orig- 
inal Poems, edited by Byron's friend 
J. C. Hobhouse, Lord Broughton, in 
1809. To this anthology Byron contrib- 
uted nine previously unpublished 
poems. The copy of the work in the 
Byron Collection is not a first issue, 
though it is a first edition. It differs 
markedly from the only copy described 
by Wise in that its original publisher's 
boards are covered with light blue- 
gray rather than pink paper, and there 
are four very obvious cancels, not, how- 
ever, involving any of the Byron con- 

Lord Byron, like a comet, was at- 
tended and followed by a swarm of 
minor particles, a swarm composed of 



his imitators, apologists, idolaters, paro- 
dists, detractors, memorialists, and pi- 
rates. The fantastic oscillations of his 
name between fame and infamy are 
represented here by a large variety of 
tides. Examples of these Byroniana 
are cited in some number, but there is 
space to comment on only a few of the 
more interesting single items. The 
earliest title among the Duke Byroni- 
ana is A Sketch from Public Life, 1816, 
which parodies Byron's A Sketch from 
Private Life of the same year. There 
exist two different parodies bearing 
this title; the one at Duke begins 
"When spicy fragrance breathes," not 
"Born in the Chambers of the rich." 
Next are two editions of Poems on His 
Domestic Circumstances, by Lord By- 
ron, 1816, both pirated and both doubt- 
fully enriched with two poems not at- 
tributable to Byron at all. The succeed- 
ing item, dated 1818, bears the aston- 
ishing title Poems Written by Some- 
body; Most Respectfully Dedicated (by 
Permission) to Nobody; and Intended 
for Everybody Who Can Read!!! 

John Byron, the grandfather of the 
poet, enjoyed some renown as an ex- 
plorer and finally became an admiral. 
His voyages were so unfailingly 
marked by hostile skies that British 
seamen dubbed him "foul-weather 
Jack" and whenever possible shunned 
his ships. Perhaps the grandson in- 
herited some of his ancestor's ability to 
withstand the world's buffets, though 
these were enough at last to drive him 

from England. They were bestowed 
abundantly in the years 1816-1824. As 
representative tides from this period, 
the Collection contains A Poetical Epis- 
tle to Lord Byron, 18 16, so weak a sat- 
ire that its anonymity causes no sur- 
prise; Caleb C. Colton's anonymously 
published Remarks Critical and Moral 
on the Talents of Lord Byron, 1819; 
The Vampyre, 1819, a poor composi- 
tion by Dr. John William Polidori per- 
sistendy fathered upon Byron in the 
popular mind to such a degree that the 
poet protested, at the same time urg- 
ing Mr. Murray to help the author, 
who seemed "improvable"; Don ]uan, 
Canto III, 1819, a reputed continuation, 
anonymous, of the two then published 
cantos; "Don John"; or, Don Juan Un- 
masked, 18 19, an anonymous tirade; 
Warner, -1&22, a broad farce parodying 
Werner, declared by its tide-page to 
be "By a Regular Swell Cove" (a para- 
gon lamentably nameless); Cato [the 
Rev. George Burgess] to Lord Byron 
on the Immoral & Dangerous Tend- 
ency of His Writings, 1824; John 
Styles' violent sermon Lord Byron's 
Wor\s Viewed in Connexion with 
Christianity, 1824; and finally The 
John Bull Magazine, 1824, which con- 
tains two alleged chapters from By- 
ron's intimate memoirs and some of 
his genuine letters. 

Somewhat more impartial, if not al- 
together favorable to Byron, were most 
of the following, published after By- 
ron's death: Sir Cosmo Gordon's Life 



and Genius of Lord Byron, 1824; 
George Cruikshank's Forty Illustra- 
tions of Lord Byron, 1 824-1825; Wil- 
liam Parry's The Last Days of Lord 
Byron, 1825; J. H. Bedford's imitative 
prose romance, Wanderings of Childe 
Harolde, published in three volumes 
duodecimo in 1825; the anonymous 
Anecdotes of Lord Byron, 1825, with its 
significant motto from Don ]uan\ 
"Dead scandals form good subjects for 
dissection"; James Wright Simmons' 
An Inquiry into the Moral Character 
of Lord Byron, 1826; Fugitive Pieces 
and Reminiscences, 1829, by Isaac Na- 
than, who had composed music for 
Byron's Hebrew Melodies; Lady By- 
ron's Remarks Occasioned by Mr. 
Moore's Notices of Lord Byron's Life, 
1830; James Kennedy's Conversations 
on Religion with Lord Byron, 1830; 
Canto XVII of Don Juan, 1832, a mod- 
estly offered and not entirely unworthy 
sequel; Conversations of Lord Byron 
with the Countess of Blessington, 1834; 
Henry Austen Driver's Harold de 
Burun, 1835; The Gallery of Byron 
Beauties [1836]; Don Juan Junior . . . 
By Byron's Ghost, edited by G. R. Wy- 
then Baxter, 1839; A Sequel to Don 
Juan, a five-canto imitation by George 
William MacArthur Reynolds [1845?]; 
Medora Leigh, a History and an Auto- 
biography, edited by Charles Mackay, 
1869; A. C. Swinburne's Essays and 
Studies, 1875, containing a reprint, 
with one addition and one subtraction, 
of the essay which had appeared as the 

preface to A Selection from the Wor\s 
of Lord Byron in 1866, already de- 
scribed; and a final work of 1876 whose 
long title deserves full quotation: A 
Spiritual Interview with Lord Byron, 
In Which His Lordship Gave His Opin- 
ion and Feelings about His New 
Monument and Gossip about the Lit- 
erature of His Own and the Present 
Day, with Some Interesting Informa- 
tion about the Spirit World; with 
Notes Explanatory and Elucidatory; 
By Quevedo Redivivus. (The pseudo- 
nym is one used by Byron in The Lib- 
eral.) Of each of the foregoing works 
the Byron Collection at Duke Univer- 
sity contains a first-edition copy. 

In summary, the Byron Collection in 
the Rare Book Room of Duke Univer- 
sity Library includes no of the approx- 
imately 375 items listed in Thomas J. 
Wise's two-volume bibliography of By- 
ron, and in addition to these, there are 
at least thirty items not included by 
Wise. Wise's bibliography, it should 
be remembered, was based largely on 
books in his own collection, and his 
collection of Byron was the finest ever 
assembled. As has been indicated, 
there are points in the bibliography 
of Byron which await full investiga- 
tion. It is hoped that bibliographical 
and other studies of Byron may be 
promoted at Duke University, where 
the Library's Friends have already laid 
so excellent a foundation for future 



THE devotion of two issues of Li- 
brary Notes, published within a 
year, to single themes (the General 
Library building issue on the occasion 
of the opening of the enlarged build- 
ing in October 1949, and the Newman 
Ivey White Memorial issue in July 
1950) made it necessary to omit from 
the News of the Library the customary 
running account of gifts to the Li- 
brary. Gifts of materials and funds 
have continued to come from Friends, 
and their accumulated number is now 
so great that it is possible to mention 
only a few in this space. 

Mrs. Katherine Bellamann and Mr. 
James Thornton Gittman have contin- 
ued to add to the Dante Collection 
formed by the late Henry Bellamann 
and presented to the Library by Mrs. 
Bellamann. Several important and 
scarce ephemera have been added to 
the Ehlhardt Collection of Robert 
Frost by Wyman W. Parker, Charles 
M. Adams, James L. Woodress, Jr., 
and Mr. Ehlhardt. For the Trent Col- 
lection, Walt Whitman material has 
come from Dr. Edwin Seaborn, Henry 
Schuman, Gay Wilson Allen, Mrs. J. 
W. Stewart, Mrs. Florence R. Garrett, 
and Mrs. Trent. Reverend George B. 
Ehlhardt has added to the Library's 
growing collection of significant Bibles 
two original leaves of the Aitken Bible 

(Philadelphia, 1782), one accompanied 
by an introduction by Edgar J. Good- 
speed (Los Angeles, 1949), and the 
other issued as An Original Leaf from 
the Bible of the Revolution, with an 
essay concerning it by Robert R. Dear- 
den, Jr., and Douglas S. Watson, 
printed by the Grabhorns in 1930. Mr. 
Ehlhardt has also presented to the Li- 
brary the original manuscript and cor- 
rected proofs of Newman Ivey White's 
Portrait of Shelley (New York, 1945), 
which the author had given to him; 
both are preserved in handsome blue 
half-morocco boxes. Not only does this 
material have a sentimental value be- 
cause of Professor White's long asso- 
ciation with Duke University and in- 
terest in the Library, but it supple- 
ments his personal papers and research 
notes given earlier by Mrs. White, 
while authors' manuscripts in general 
have value to students as illustrations 
of the methods of scholarly research or 
creative writing. 

From Mrs. Holland Holton, Mr. 
Quinton Holton, and Miss Grace Hol- 
ton have come a large number of books 
from the Holton family library. Mrs. 
Holton has also presented to the Li- 
brary, in keeping with his wishes, the 
personal papers and correspondence of 
Professor Holton, late Chairman of the 
Education Department and Director 
of the Summer Session of Duke Uni- 



versity. Mr. Gilbert C. White has con- 
tributed more than 500 books in the 
field of Engineering. 

Mr. J. R. Peacock of High Point has 
sent a Confederate broadside printed in 
Raleigh, February 22, 1861 by the 
North Carolina Standard, a rare pam- 
phlet sketch of the life of General Jo- 
siah Gorgas by T. L. Bayne (Rich- 
mond, 1885), and other Southern 
American materials. He has also made 
several scarce items available for copy- 

The Christina Publishing Society of 
Pittsburgh has given one thousand dol- 
lars for the purchase of books in reli- 
gion and education in memory of its 
founder, Mary E. Rieck. Books ac- 
quired with this fund will be added to 
the Divinity School Library. 

A number of interesting collections 
have also come by gift for the Manu- 
scripts Department, in addition to the 
Holton papers noted above. Mrs. Wil- 
liam McDougall has presented the pa- 
pers of her late husband covering the 
years 193 1 to 1938, the major portion 
of the period when this noted psy- 
chologist was Professor of Psychology 
at Duke University (1927-1938). There 
are approximately 500 items, compris- 
ing correspondence, manuscripts of ar- 
ticles, notes, etc. Miss Cecile Watson of 
Cincinnati has given 2200 items to be 
added to the papers of Henry Watson, 
Jr. (1810-1888), lawyer and planter of 
Hale County, Alabama. Mrs. Emma 
Bonney Hodges of Smithfield has de- 
posited in the Library the Eli Whitney 

Bonney papers of the Bonney and re- 
lated Lee families of Camden, South 
Carolina, dating from 1805-1914 and 
containing information on social life 
and customs, the mercantile business, 
cotton trading, the Civil War and re- 
construction; the papers number about 
600 items. Of special interest to Duke 
is a letter presented by Mr. B. D. 
Graham of Bowling Green, Kentucky, 
written by Benjamin N. Duke to Mr. 
Graham's father on the occasion of the 
birth of B. D. Graham, in which Mr. 
Duke enclosed a certificate for one 
share of stock in the Continental To- 
bacco Company as a gift for the infant 
son. Mr. Joseph L. Keitt of Newberry, 
South Carolina, has permitted the Li- 
brary to microfilm his collection of 
Keitt family papers (371 items, 1804- 
1932), many of them relating to deal- 
ings with the South Carolina Growers 
Cooperative and the Newberry Alli- 
ance Warehouse, cotton marketing, 
and local and state schools. Mr. Thom- 
as E. Keitt, also of Newberry, gave 
similar permission covering his collec- 
tion of letters and papers of the related 
Wadlington, Bauskett, and Keitt fami- 
lies of Newberry County, South Caro- 
lina (1758-1925), about 300 items with 
information on an early cotton mill at 
Vauclose, South Carolina; schools at 
Winnsboro, Charleston, and Aiken; 
South Carolina College; social life and 
customs, especially entertainment; slav- 
ery; and commodity prices. 

Mrs. O. A. Worley of Jasper, Florida, 
presented a collection of nearly five 



hundred papers (1855-73) of Charles 
Brown Tompkins, principally corre- 
spondence of this medical officer of 
the Union Army with his wife, con- 
taining information on medical and 
hospital conditions, "copperheadism," 
and the effects of the war on life in the 
North. From Mr. Warrington Daw- 
son of Versailles, France, have come 
the papers of his father, Francis War- 
rington Dawson, the famous liberal 
and progressive editor of the Charles- 
ton (South Carolina) News and Cou- 
rier ( 1 873-1 889). The papers cover the 
years 1861 to 1888, and include Daw- 
son's correspondence with many per- 
sons prominent in South Carolina pub- 
lic life. 


A NUMBER of unusual acquisi- 
tions during the past year or two 
will be of interest to The Friends, as 
well as the gifts noted above. For the 
George Washington Flowers Collec- 
tion of Southern Americana, three 
manuscript collections are particularly 
noteworthy: the Hemphill, Whitting- 
ham, and Stephens papers. The Hemp- 
hill Papers, about 13,000 items, include 
correspondence of the Hemphill fam- 
ily (of Abbeville and Charleston, 
South Carolina) touching on practi- 
cally every phase of life in South Caro- 
lina from 1800 to 1930. The bulk of 
the collection is the personal and busi- 
ness correspondence of James Calvin 
Hemphill, editor of the Charleston 
News and Courier (1889-1910, imme- 

diately following Francis Warrington 
Dawson, whose correspondence is 
noted under Gifts), the Richmond 
Times-Dispatch (1910-1911), and the 
Charlotte Observer (1911). Theologi- 
cal views of the nineteenth century, 
pastoral problems, the depressed state 
of the church in the ante-bellum peri- 
od, and educational matters make up 
the chief information in the Papers of 
William Rollinson Whittingham, who 
was the fourth Protestant Episcopal 
Bishop of Maryland. This collection 
of over 12,000 items covers the years 
1824-1879 and includes correspondence 
from many prominent Southerners in 
all fields of activity, although the ma- 
jor portion is made up of letters and 
reports from the clergymen of the dio- 
cese of Maryland. The Alexander H. 
Stephens Papers, some 2500 items from 
1823-1884, include correspondence to 
the Vice-President of the Confederate 
states covering his entire career. 

Printed material acquired through 
the Flowers Fund includes several 
Confederate imprints, both pamphlets 
and broadsides, as well as other early 
items of Southern Americana. The 
American sheet music collection has 
been increased to a total of more than 
3500 items by a new acquisition of 1121 
pieces, principally "coon" or minstrel 
songs, ranging in date from 1834 to 

Ten incunabula have been among 
recent acquisitions, the earliest (1472) 
and three others having been pur- 
chased with funds contributed by The 



Friends. In addition to the usefulness 
of these early texts for research studies, 
these books provide us with examples 
of the work of nine early printers (in- 
cluding Koberger and Quentell) from 
eight cities in Germany, Switzerland, 
and Italy. Stillwell's second census 
(1940) locates no more than eight 
copies of any of these titles in North 
America, none being in Southern li- 
braries; of the Albertus Magnus and 
Tritheim, only two other copies are 
located. The complete list follows: 

Johannes de Turrecremata. Explanatio in psal- 
terium. [Augsburg] Johannes Schiissler, 
6 May 1472. (Stillwell T-476) Gift of 
The Friends. 

Johannes Herolt. Liber discipuli . . . [Strass- 
burg: Georg Husner, ca. 1476.] (Still- 
well H-84) Gift of The Friends. 

Johannes de Turrecremata. Quaestiones 
Evangeliorum . . . Cologne [Petrus de 
Olpe] 23 August 1478. (Stillwell T-493) 
Gift of The Friends. 

Robertus Caracciolus. Sermones de timore 
. . . Cologne [Petrus de Olpe] 1478. 
(Stillwell C-171) (Bound with the 
above.) Gift of The Friends. 

Albertus Magnus. Sermones de tempore et 
de Sanctis. Reudingen: Michael Greyff 
[not after 1478.] (Stillwell A-299) 

Petrus Lombardus. Sententiarum libri IV. 
Nuremberg: Anton Koberger, 10 May 
148 1. (Stillwell P-437) 

Johannes Nivicellensis. Concordantiae Bibliae 
et Canonum. Basel: Nicolaus Kesler, 23 
June 1487; 12 July 1487. (Stillwell J-341) 

Johann Tritheim. De statu et ruina monas- 
tici ordinis. [Leipzig: Martin Lands- 
berg, after 21 April 1493.] (Stillwell 

Biblia Latina. Venice: Simon Bevilaqua, 22 
November 1494. (Stillwell B-531) 

Expositio Hymnorum. Cologne: Heinrich 
Quentell, 8 October 1496. (Stillwell 

The Library's outstanding collec- 
tions on Socialism have been further 
strengthened by the acquisition of a 
collection of 1200 books and pam- 
phlets relating to French socialism and 
political questions of the nineteenth 
and twentieth centuries; 550 pam- 
phlets on the history of Great Britain, 
all printed during the first half of the 
eighteenth century, add to another 
area in which the Library is particu- 
larly strong. Two groups of French 
plays of the eighteenth and nineteenth 
centuries, totaling nearly 1000 titles, 
have filled many gaps in the Library's 
holdings of the dramatists, both major 
and minor, of this period. 

The Library has been on the watch 
during recent months for American 
county histories, in which students 
find so much of importance and in- 
terest about the history, social life, and 
folklore of these minor civil divisions. 
Over 400 titles of this nature have been 
acquired, principally for the Southern 
and Mid-Western regions. 

Groups of British sermons, over fifty 
of the seventeenth century, and 500 of 
the eighteenth century, have been 
acquired for the Divinity School Li- 
brary, and an excellent copy of the sec- 
ond edition of the King James Bible 
(1613). Sixty-six volumes, represent- 



ing twenty titles, have been added to 
the Ministers' Loan Library. 

Two collections of wood engravings 
by Miss Clare Leighton are also among 
the recent additions to the Library: a 
set of twelve engravings exhibiting the 
crafts and industries of New England; 
and set number i of the twenty-four 
engravings prepared for the edition of 
the Frank C. Brown Collection of 
North Carolina Folklore, the first vol- 
umes of which are now in press. 

Finally, a new Greek manuscript of 
the four Gospels has been added to the 
Library. This latest acquisition (the 
fifteenth in Duke's Collection of Greek 
manuscripts) dates from about 1150. 
The Gospels, lacking only the first and 
one internal leaf from St. Matthew and 
the final seven (?) leaves of St. John, 
are on 236 vellum leaves, followed by 
lectionary tables on eleven leaves of 
paper. There are decorated title panels 
in color at the beginning of the Gos- 
pels of SS. Mark, Luke, and John. 
The manuscript was located in Alex- 
andria last year by Professor Kenneth 
Clark and had lost its binding entirely. 
It has been bound for the Library by 
R. Macdonald of New York in me- 
diaeval style of red velvet over wooden 
boards, with parchment linings. It is 
already under intensive study by Pro- 
fessor Clark's graduate students in the 
text of the New Testament; the results 
of their study will contribute to the 
work of the international committee 
now collating all existing New Testa- 
ment manuscripts. 


A FEW changes and some addi- 
tional decorating have been com- 
pleted in the General Library building 
during recent months. For the most 
part these have been projects which 
were under consideration during the 
major building program completed in 
1949, but were deferred at that time in 
order that final decisions might be 
based on experience gained from ac- 
tual use of the enlarged building. 

New fluorescent lighting, matching 
that in the rest of the building, has been 
installed in the Undergraduate Read- 
ing Room and over the adjacent re- 
serve book stacks. In the Periodical 
Room, cabinets with 308 additional 
closed compartments for unbound 
periodicals have been completed. At 
the Main Loan Desk, the central loan 
files have been re-located in a well cut 
into the top of the desk itself and pro- 
tected by a bronze grille; additional 
shelving for sorting books has been 
built in the working area behind the 
desk. Venetian blinds and draperies 
add to the comfort and beauty of the 
General Reference and Reading Room. 
In a large room on the third floor of 
the new west wing, planned for cur- 
rent storage and as a future reading 
room, temporary partitions have been 
erected to set apart about a third of 
the area for library storage and to di- 
vide the remainder into faculty offices 
and seminar rooms. This helps to re- 
lieve a critical need for office space 
until such time as the entire room is 



required for Library uses, when it is 
expected that new buildings projected 
in the Duke Development Program 
will have been completed. 


AT the close of the last fiscal year 
.on June 30, 1950, the total num- 
ber of volumes cataloged and available 
for use in the University libraries was 
994,233. This figure stands in dramatic 
contrast to the 87,857 volumes avail- 
able in 1924/25, the year the Univer- 
sity was established, representing an 
increase of 1032 per cent in a quarter 
century. Friends frequently ask about 
the size of the Library in relation to 
those of other American universities, 
so we reprint here from statistics com- 
piled by Princeton University Library 
the number of volumes reported by the 
twenty largest university libraries as of 
June 30, 1950. 

1. Harvard 5,397,286 

2. Yale 3,979,942 

3. Illinois 2,383,503 

4. Columbia 1,897,715 

5. Chicago i>797>5 8 4 

6. California (Berkeley) 1,665,063 

7. Minnesota 1,528,288 

8. Cornell 1,463,968 

9. Michigan 1,457,047 

10. Pennsylvania 1,194,808 

n. Princeton 1,166,634 

12. Stanford 1,092,008 

13. Northwestern 1,013,151 

14. Duke 994> 2 33 

15. Texas 934,290 

16. New York University 888,181 

17. Ohio State 863,154 

18. Johns Hopkins 839,804 

19. Indiana 79^797 

20. Wisconsin 777,491 

Duke occupies fourteenth place in 
this table, a position it has held since 
1947/48. In reviewing comparable sta- 
tistics for the past twenty years (1930/- 
31 to 1949/50), we find that Duke, 
with 246,280 volumes, was the 26th 
largest university library in 1930/31. 
It moved into the "first twenty" group 
in 1933/34, and has remained there 
ever since. Of the twenty-three libraries 
which have occupied places in this 
group fairly consistently during these 
past twenty years, Duke, though now 
fourteenth in number of volumes, 
would rank eighth in average annual 
number of accessions, and ninth in 
average annual expenditure for books, 
periodicals, and binding. The record is 
an enviable one, to which the Friends 
of the Library have contributed in no 
small measure. 

Late in September, 1950, Duke Uni- 
versity Library added its one-millionth 
volume. The book selected for this 
distinction was an early description 
of North Carolina by a German trav- 
eler, Americanischer Wegu/eiser; oder 
Kurtze und Eigentliche Beschreibung 
der Englischen Provintzen in Nord- 
Ameri\a, sonderlich aber der Land- 
schafft Carolina . . . , by Johann Ru- 
dolf? Ochs, published in Bern in 171 1. 
Of this exceedingly rare title, which 
was purchased on the George Washing- 
ton Flowers Memorial Fund, only two 
other copies are known in American 


No. 26 


The Friends of 'Duke University JPibrary 

April, 1952 


THE Library has recently acquired 
a group of letters to and about 
the English poet Arthur O'Shaugh- 
nessy (1844-1881), who is usually re- 
garded as a late-comer or follower of 
the Pre-Raphaelites. He is chiefly re- 
membered now as the author of "We 
Are the Music-Makers" and one or 
two similar poems, from which he 
might seem to be the pale shadow of 
a human being palely loitering through 
the streets of London. But actually he 
was also a proficient herpetologist em- 
ployed in the zoology department of 
the British Museum, and, as these letters 
show, a live man actively interested in 
making his way as a poet against the 
usual odds, and very diligent in seeing 
that his slender volumes were well 
handled by the reviewers. He pub- 
lished three books, and a fourth ap- 
peared posthumously in 1881. They 
have never been reprinted and are 
difficult to come by, but a good selec- 
tion was put out in 1923 by the Yale 
University Press. At the end of his 
life he turned to criticism and became 
the London correspondent of the 
French periodical he Livre, then just 
beginning. His articles written in 
French for this journal have never been 

Among our letters are twenty from 
Octave Uzanne, editor of he Livre, run- 
ning from August 1879 to December 
1880, discussing various details of 
O'Shaughnessy's work. The initial ar- 
rangement called for a monthly article 
for which he was to receive fr.6oo 
(^24) a year; later it was decided that 
the articles should appear "de deux 
mois en deux mois." 

There are also a number of letters 
from his first publisher, John Camden 
Hotten, well (or ill) known from his 
relations with Swinburne after the pub- 
lication of Poems and Ballads in 1866. 
His business relations with O'Shaugh- 
nessy were likewise somewhat com- 
plex. In January 1869 O'Shaughnessy 
sent him four manuscript volumes of 
poetry for an estimate. Hotten replied 
that the cost would be ^50 for five 
hundred copies, but he would un- 
dertake to publish An Epic of Women 
for ^35 and account to the author for 
all copies sold after the first costs were 
met. Presently O'Shaughnessy sent in 
more manuscript and Hotten thought 
he should raise the price to ^40, yet 
agreed to abide by his former agree- 
ment. In April 1870 he received his 
^35, while the book was "in the course 
of printing"; in June he warned the 


poet about increased costs resulting 
from cancellation of sheets and reset- 
ting, for O'Shaughnessy was particular 
not only about his text but about the 
head- and tail-pieces and some special 
figured end-papers — samples of which 
are included with the letters. In Sep- 
tember 1870 Hotten rendered his bill, 
including 12/10/0 for extra matter, 
7/10/0 for author's corrections, and 
16/0/0 for the engraving of nine 
blocks, besides of course the first ,£35. 
There is another letter in October 
about finances, and 10 November Hot- 
ten wrote, "per A. C." (i.e. Andrew 
Chatto): "I am sorry to find in your 
recent letters such a spirit of captious 
fault-finding." The account was finally 
settled 5 September 1873; 420 of 500 
copies, apparently the second edition, 
had then been sold. 

In August 1870 Hotten sent 
O'Shaughnessy a review, probably of 
the poems of John Payne, "by my friend 
Joe Knight (the most conscientious re- 
viewer in England). ... I expect you 
will get a good notice there." Proof 
sheets of An Epic of Women were sent 
to Knight, and his review appeared in 
the Sunday Times. O'Shaughnessy 
then wrote him explaining some of the 
poems, and Knight replied : "Naturally 
slow of comprehension and arriving at 
appreciation by intellectual processes 
eminently cumulative a volume of new 
poems is never adequately mastered by 
me in time to review it. . . . Incom- 
petent as one may be, one brings to 
one's duty a gift the rarest of all with 

professional critics an absolute desire 
to appreciate." He now understands, 
he says, "Bisclaveret" [sic] better with 
the poet's "gloss"; and continues, "Ros- 
setti has . . . expressed his great ad- 
miration for it. . . . His is indeed 
praise worth having." 


"Yours truly, Jno. Camden Hotten." Facsimile o£ 

the signature of a letter to Arthur O'Shaughnessy, 

15 August 1870, about % actual size 

On 4 November Hotten congratu- 
lated O'Shaughnessy on "the conspicu- 
ous review of An Epic of Women' in 
tomorrow's Athenceum," which was 
probably by "our critical friend" West- 
land Marston, the author of several 
successful plays and regular poetry re- 
viewer for the Athenceum, and father 
of the blind poet Philip Bourke Mar- 
ston. A little later, 14 December, 
Knight wrote: "I looked after your 
interest in the Athenaeum and as you 
see with success" and congratulated the 
poet on a second edition so soon. Mean- 
while O'Shaughnessy had sent Marston 
a copy, for which Marston thanked 
him on 15 October, saying he had just 
read a long article about it in the Sun- 


day Times. Then follow two letters 
from Marston asking him to call — and 
three years later his daughter Eleanor 
became Mrs. O'Shaughnessy. 

There are still more letters showing 
how Hotten tried to get reviews and 
advertisements in conspicuous places. 
For example, O'Shaughnessy sent Dr. 
T. Gordon Hake (also a friend of 
Rossetti's) a copy and wrote to Wil- 
liam Mackay "to prepare him for the 
reception of your volume" and get him 
to review it for Ainsworth. O'Shaugh- 
nessy then thanked Mackay, who in 
turn thanked O'Shaughnessy, describ- 
ing himself as "a half-Bohemian 
wretch" and commenting on the sad 
state of reviewing. 

Thus O'Shaughnessy made progress. 
On 7 June A. Perceval Graves (the 
author of "Father O'Flynn" and father 
of Robert Graves) invited him to meet 
"many of your literary & artistic 
friends." The invitation was forwarded 
to C. H. Miller, who wrote on it: "Dear 
Boy, Put in an appearance at Graves' 
without fail" — and in August Graves 
accepted a poem from him and ar- 
ranged for illustrations by O'Shaugh- 
nessy's friend J. T. Nettleship. 

In August 1871 O'Shaughnessy had 
more poems ready and approached the 
firm of Ellis and Green. Ellis was at 
first discouraging, but on 1 September 
he agreed to print 500 copies of Lays 
of France at his own risk and share the 
profits of an eventual second edition. 
(On 19 September Hotten still thought 
he was to publish "your new book.") 

Now begin again fresh troubles with 
the printers and skirmishes with the 
reviews, introducing two new names, 
F. Hiiffer (father of Ford Madox 
Ford) and a certain Rev. W. Knox 
Macadam, of Rothesay, N. B., who en- 
gaged to review Lays of France "in 
three Northern Journals" as he had 
done for Marston's poems and for 
Swinburne's Songs before Sunrise. 

For his next volume, Music and 
Moonlight, 1874, O'Shaughnessy moved 
to the new firm of Chatto and Windus 
— Chatto had formerly worked for Hot- 
ten. They agreed to print 1000 copies at 
their own risk, with a royalty of 20 
per cent on all copies after the first 
750. Clearly O'Shaughnessy was get- 
ting on. On 18 March Oliver Madox 
Brown wrote to Mathilde Blind (mis- 
spelling her name) asking her to review 
the new book; which she did in the Ex- 
aminer, with a private exchange of 
courtesies. Brown has learned, he says, 
through Philip Marston that copies to 
the Athenaum and Academy "have by 
some mischance fallen into adverse 
hands" and adds that the Athenaum 
"was able in a great measure to stop 
the circulation of my book by an un- 
favourable review; but just at present 
it is all powerful with regard to poetry 
and might ruin O'Shaughnessy for 
good. The Philistines are making such 
headway nowadays!" With this letter 
is a holograph poem of Brown's with 
several manuscript alterations. 

On 7 April Miss Alice Boyd wrote 
O'Shaughnessy a note, which was en- 


closed in a letter by her friend William 
Bell Scott, commending the volume; 
and on 8 July the Earl of Lytton wrote 
him a long letter of high praise. Bux- 
ton Forman promised to review it. 

There are many other letters in the 
collection of greater or less interest — 
one from George Powell, the Wagner 
enthusiast and a special friend of Swin- 
burne, congratulating O'Shaughnessy 
on his approaching marriage; one 
from Mrs. Marston hoping the couple 
will visit the Dobells in the course of 
their wedding journey; two to Mrs. 
O'Shaughnessy, one of them from Mrs. 
E. Lynn Linton; eight very long ones 
from Miss May Doyle and a manu- 
script poem of hers ; two from Augusta 
Holmes, in French; sundry invitations 
to call or dine (Ford Madox Brown, 
Sidney Colvin, Simeon Solomon and 
his sister, Mrs. Hepworth Dixon, Lord 
Houghton for breakfast) and so on. 
A letter from Pakenham Beatty, a very 
minor poet, enclosing a forty-four-line 
poem addressed to O'Shaughnessy, has 
the teasing question: "Have you seen 
the Moores, George and Augustus? 
They have 'softly and suddenly van- 
ished away' as though they had seen a 
Boojum." Lastly, there is a four-page 
letter from the poet to E. C. Stedman, 
7 October 1880, promising to send a 
photograph. Elliott and Fry have just 
done one, he says, but "I am so dis- 
satisfied with the brutal more than 
Zola-like appearance that I cannot send 
it to you. ... I write to assure you of 
my continued & for the present de- 

termined existence. I am very busy 
of course & just on the point of bring- 
ing out my new volume of poems — 
[which appeared posthumously in 
1881 with the title Songs of a Worker] 
— in which I hope there are many that 
you will like. Though not large it 
contains much of my best work in all 
respects & in it I shall have carried out 
thoroughly my artistic schemes as I 
have obstinately delayed it to complete 
this or that poem which being in my 
original intention had not presented 
themselves so readily for embodiment. 
I will give you some particulars of my 
personality if still in time for your 
purpose. If not please write of me at 
your discretion & describe me yourself. 
I was born in 1846 [sic]. I should be 
glad of a criticism that would deal ade- 
quately with 'Chaitivel' & the Two 
Lovers' in Lays of France. . . ." 

In his Victorian Poets, 1875, Sted- 
man has given half a page to O'Shaugh- 
nessy as one of "The General Choir," 
along with the two Marstons, father 
and son, Dr. Hake, John Payne, and 
other minor es. Their exchange of let- 
ters in late 1880 was probably con- 
nected with Stedman's preparations for 
his revised edition, the thirteenth, ot 
Victorian Poets, 1887, where in the 
"Supplementary Review" chapter 
O'Shaughnessy is included — with Ros- 
setti, Home, and P. B. Marston — among 
the Stilled Voices, with the observation 
that the posthumous volume testified 
to "an active but scarcely brightening 
career. p P p, 

Robert Lee Flowers 


November 6, 1870— August 24, 1951 

THE death of Chancellor Robert 
Lee Flowers took from the 
Friends of the Library a lovable spirit 
and a generous friend. He was one of 
the two professors who came to Dur- 
ham with Trinity College when it was 
moved here in 1892, and he continued 
to serve as Professor, Secretary, Treas- 
urer, Vice President, Trustee, President, 
and finally Chancellor, with faithful- 
ness and ability and selfless devotion. 
He was a lover of learning, and he had 
a fine appreciation of the requirements 
for intellectual endeavor. It is not 
necessary to add here that he had also 
a fine appreciation of human character; 
and his own gentle and lofty spirit, 
combined with a kindly humor and a 
perceptive shrewdness, endeared him 
to generations of Trinity graduates. 
Duke University has been fortunate 
in having associated with it for long 
periods of time some great personalities, 
and the modest and democratic 
4> Bobby" Flowers will be long re- 
membered by both students and fac- 
ulty as a sincere friend in time of need. 
This has been said of many persons, 
and of none may it be more truly said 
than of Dr. Flowers; of this a great 
host bears witness. 

Though a teacher of mathematics, 
he was one of the founders of the Trin- 
ity College Historical Society when it 
was organized at Trinity in 1892 under 

the leadership of the professor of his- 
tory, Stephen B. Weeks. Flowers was 
intimately associated with Weeks's suc- 
cessor, John Spencer Bassett, and with 
Bassett's student and successor, the late 
William Kenneth Boyd, in the growth 
of the Society and in the acquisition of 
historical materials for its use. In 1893- 
1894 Flowers was president of the So- 
ciety, and in 1896 he gave to the So- 
ciety a "spectacular array of gifts" of 
books and Civil War relics, with some 
which were loaned or presented by his 
father, George Washington Flowers, a 
lieutenant colonel in the Confederate 
Army. He read papers before the So- 
ciety and published articles on his- 
torical subjects in the Historical Papers, 
and in The South Atlantic Quarterly. 
He was indefatigable as a collector; 
Nannie M. Tilley in The Trinity Col- 
lege Historical Society, i8g2-ig4i, re- 
cords that "from 1904 until 1915, he 
made no less than fifty-eight donations 
to the Society." This interest continued 
until the end, but perhaps more im- 
portant was his influence in the estab- 
lishment of the George Washington 
Flowers Memorial Collection, in mem- 
ory of his father, and the encourage- 
ment he gave to his brother, William 
Washington Flowers, a former student 
at Trinity and an officer of the His- 
torical Society, to make liberal annual 
contributions to the Memorial Collec- 


tion, and to provide a generous endow- 
ment for its use. In less than a genera- 
tion the Flowers Collection has become 
a great storehouse of books, pamphlets, 
newspapers, maps, and manuscripts il- 
lustrating the varied aspects of life in 
the South, and providing the raw ma- 
terials for much of the writing about 
the South by graduate students and ma- 
ture scholars. Chancellor Flowers in 
his will made generous bequests to the 
University and added substantially to 
the endowment for the Flowers Col- 
lection. He knew that only in these 
and like ways could the heavy bur- 
dens of a university library be carried. 
But it will not be the material gifts 
which those who had occasion to talk 
with President Flowers about library 
matters will remember most often. 
They will remember, rather, his ready 
understanding of the problems in- 
volved, and his willingness, even eager- 
ness, to lend a helping hand, though 

he was burdened with many pressing 
responsibilities. He gave of himself in 
ways that were not always easy. In his 
long career he served the University in 
many hard tasks, but it may well be 
that his most enduring monument will 
relate, not to the business side of the 
University with which he was so close- 
ly connected, but to the promotion of 
scholarship and intellectual attainments 
through the enrichment of the Library. 
The memory of Robert Lee Flowers 
will endure so long as the University 
stands, and it is a solemn pleasure to 
record here our appreciation of his 
noble life and his generous deeds. He 
died in the autumn of his years, at the 
age of nearly eighty-one, but it was a 
golden autumn, brightened by the 
myriad recollections of a long and use- 
ful life, and warmed by the sunset 
glow of rich friendships among all 
races and all creeds. 



AMONG the recent acquisitions of 
the Library is a series of notes 
from William Michael Rossetti to Her- 
bert Gilchrist, nineteenth-century Eng- 
lish artist, and his mother, Anne Bur- 
rows Gilchrist, who was one of the 
earliest Walt Whitman fans in Eng- 
land. In fact, she fell in love with the 
American poet through reading Leaves 
of Grass and moved her family for a 
while to Philadelphia just to be near 
him. Young Gilchrist shared his 
mother's enthusiasm for Whitman and 
in 1885 aided Rossetti in a campaign to 
raise funds for the poet, who, they 
thought, was starving in poverty in 
Camden, New Jersey. The new cor- 
respondence deals chiefly with family 
gossip and with this campaign. 

With one of the letters — dated Sep- 
tember 17, 1885 — Rossetti forwarded a 
list of subscribers which contains a few 
names of considerable interest. Head- 
ing the list is the name of Lord Rus- 
sell, father of Bertrand Russell, who 
contributed a handsome sum. Most of 
the more generous contributors, how- 
ever, were ladies. Robert Louis Steven- 
son, also a Whitman fan, offered a 

pound as his mite. But Henry James, 
not to be outdone by the most philan- 
thropic Britishers on the list, came 
through royally with five pounds. 
James shared the fascination exerted by 
Leaves of Grass in London intellectual 
circles and liked to say over the teacup, 
"Whitman— er— ah— yes!" (He al- 
ways stammered when he talked.) "A 
great genius, no doubt, but, thank God, 
he knew no more languages." Whit- 
man's misuse of French hacked his 
sensitive instincts for philological pro- 
priety. The five-pound note turned 
over to the Whitman fund by James is, 
however, a sure proof that so far as old 
Walt was concerned, Henry's heart was 
in the right place. 

The newly acquired Rossetti letters 
fit in with a much larger collection of 
correspondence with the Gilchrists that 
has been housed in the Library for 
twenty years. It was printed in 1934 
in a handsome volume published by 
the Duke University Press, Letters of 
William Michael Rossetti concerning 
Whitman, Bla\e, and Shelley, and ed- 
ited by Professors Clarence Gohdes and 
Paull F. Baum. 


JAMES Lane Allen is now by way 
of being forgotten. He died in 1925; 
there was a book about him in 1928 
and another in 1935 — but even so. His 
stories and articles about Kentucky 
were in their day (the eighteen nineties 
and early nineteen hundreds) popular 
and highly regarded. They are now 
in that limbo which waits to receive 
so many writers until they are either 
revived and given their due or left for- 
ever in the oblivion, which may be their 
due, at the mercy of antiquaries or lit- 
erary historians. Meanwhile, in a small 
group of letters from Allen to Joseph 
Marshall Stoddart, of Lippincott's, ac- 
quired by the Library in 1944, there are 
a few glimpses of him at work which 
may be set forth for the use of those 
antiquaries or literary historians. 

On 19 November 1891 Allen wrote 
to "The Editor of Lippincott's Maga- 
zine," then unknown to him, offering 
a local-color love story of 45,000 or 
50,000 words, called "John Gray." 
There was some discussion of terms, 
and on 21 December Allen telegraphed 
accepting Lippincott's offer of $750 for 
all publishing rights. A few days later 
the matter of advertising came up, 
and Allen wrote to Stoddart: "During 
the few years that I have been writing, 
I have persisted in keeping my person- 
ality as much out of sight as possible, 
being out of sympathy with all the 
tendencies of the time that run toward 
the advertisement of authorship. I 

have wished my work, not myself, to 
be known." But he did offer to send 
a photograph, partly because it might 
help to distinguish him from the other 
James Lane Allen in Chicago. 

On 7 May 1892 he sent Stoddart a 
description of his projected "novelette 
entitled 'As It Was in the Beginning' " : 
the scene was to be Lexington; "the 
action deals with the ceremonies, char- 
acters, passions, and events that were 
connected with the admission of Ken- 
tucky into the Union. The movement 
is quick & dramatic, less psychological 
and introspective than 'John Gray' ; the 
grouping is picturesque and full of 
color; and the entire work is meant to 
give as vivid, powerful, and impressive 
a picture of the times as it lies within 
me to create. . . ." It would run to not 
less than 35,000 words and not more 
than 45,000. Would Lippincott's ac- 
cept it, and also publish it in a volume 
with "John Gray"? His price would 
be $20 a thousand words for the maga- 
zine rights only; and then he added, 
with courteous regret at the necessity of 
mentioning such a matter: "For more 
than a year I have had a standing offer 
from one of the two leading New York 
magazines [Harper's no doubt] of 
$25.00 a thousand for the magazine 
rights to my Kentucky stories." In Au- 
gust he reported that the story was 
growing to 60,000 to 75,000 words and 
would not be finished until spring. At 
the same time there is an interesting 


detail, apropos of the book publication 
of "John Gray," for which he expected 
"a rather extra dress. You may know 
that the sale of my other book [Flute 
and Violin, and Other Kentucky Tales 
and Romances] has been very large, 
and chiefly among a class of readers 
who have an eye to margins, type, and 
"John Gray" was expanded and re- 

vised to become in 1897 The Choir 
Invisible, but there seems to be no 
further record of Allen's novelette on 
the admission of Kentucky into the 

The Library has also a letter, type- 
written, to Thomas Nelson Page, 18 
October 1892; a copy of a letter, 1891, 
to Dr. W. M. Baskervill; and two mu- 
tilated letters to Baskervill of 1896. 


On April 5th, 1951, Mr. George Arents, 
well known for his great collection of books 
on the history and culture of tobacco, spoke 
to the Friends of the Library at their annual 
dinner meeting, and we are privileged to 
print here part of his address. 

Mr. Arents began with an anecdote of his 
first meeting with James B. Duke in 1890. 
His father had invited to dinner a man who, 
he said, "would be a leader in the tobacco 
industry. When I met him I was not im- 
pressed. A tall, thin, redheaded young man. 
I did not see how one so young could be so 
important, but I was only fifteen. It did not 
take me many years to find my father was 
right. For this man became not only a great 
builder of business organizations, but in his 
later life the builder of a great university." 

"A yCY other talks at Duke have 
X ▼ Abeen about my books relating 
to tobacco, so this time I will tell you 
of some of the manuscripts in my col- 

"One of the most interesting of these, 
I could not resist buying several years 
ago — a letter from Queen Elizabeth to 
Charles IX, King of France, dated Au- 
gust 22nd, 1572. It is written in 
French and in it she explains that she 
cannot marry his younger brother, the 
Duke d'Alencpn, as there is too great 
a difference in their ages: "summer 
and spring cannot unite." At this 
time Elizabeth was in her late thirties 
and the Duke not yet twenty. As this 
letter makes no mention of tobacco, 
many people have asked me what it 
is doing in the Tobacco Collection. So 

I have told them about the late Dr. 
Randolph Adams, who was a member 
of the faculty of Duke University be- 
fore he became the Director of the 
Clements Library of Americana at the 
University of Michigan. He purchased 
for that Library a first edition of the 
works of Plato, an incunable published 
before the discovery of America, and 
when asked why he had added this 
work to a collection devoted to Ameri- 
can interests, he replied: 'Why, don't 
you remember that Plato tells of the 
lost Atlantis in this volume? I am 
quite convinced that that is America.' 
I think I have more reason to include 
an Elizabeth letter in my Collection — 
Elizabeth was the first queen to smoke, 
and then there is a story about her 
which I like to believe is true. At one 
of her receptions, Sir Walter Raleigh 
asked for permission to smoke. In 
granting it she said: 'I do not see how 
you can find any pleasure in something 
that weighs nothing.' He wagered her 
a gold piece he could weigh the smoke. 
He weighed the tobacco before filling 
his pipe; after he had finished smoking, 
he weighed the ashes, saying: 'You 
must admit the difference has gone off 
in smoke.' While paying the wager 
she said: 'I have heard of many alche- 
mists who have turned gold into smoke, 
but you are the first to turn smoke into 
gold.' Elizabeth's letter to Charles IX 
probably was never sent, as only two 
days later the Massacre of St. Bartholo- 



mew occurred, causing unpleasantness 
between the two Courts. 

"I have in my other collection a letter 
from Elizabeth Barrett Browning to 
Napoleon III asking him to pardon 
Victor Hugo, whom he had sent into 
exile to the Isle of Jersey for referring to 
him as 'Napoleon le Petit' in his re- 
cently published Contemplations. It 
is a very beautiful letter, as beautiful 
as her poems. This letter also was 
never sent, as Napoleon III pardoned 
Victor Hugo just at that time. 

"When we speak of the 'founding 
fathers' and the thirteen original colo- 
nies, it is interesting to know that there 
might have been only twelve. I have 
an autograph letter written by George 
Calvert, first Lord Baltimore. This 
letter was written in 1629 to a friend in 
England, from Newfoundland, where 
he had attempted to found a colony. 
In it he writes that he found the cli- 
mate so bad that he decided to take his 
people and go to Virginia and raise 
tobacco. However, on his arrival at 
Jamestown he would not take the Oath 
of Conformity because of his religion, 
and the colonists would not allow him 
to stay there. He returned to England 
and was granted land which is now 
the state of Maryland, but unfortunate- 
ly he died before leaving England. If 
this had not happened, what is now 
the State of Maryland might have be- 
come part of the surrounding colonies. 

"Then there are two letters from 
John Quincy Adams. The first, writ- 
ten when he was a struggling young 

lawyer, tells of his love of fine cigars. 
The second, in his old age, thanks a 
correspondent for having dedicated an 
anti-tobacco book to him. 

"Among other documents signed by 
famous Americans is one signed by 
both George Washington as President 
and Thomas Jefferson as Secretary of 
State. They are ship's papers printed 
in three languages for a vessel with a 
cargo of tobacco. It is very seldom 
that both of these signatures are found 
on the same document. Thomas Jef- 
ferson was a great landowner and grew 
large quantities of tobacco. Among 
his autograph letters, some of which I 
have acquired, is a lengthy series of 
directions sent to the overseer of his 
plantation instructing him in the plant- 
ing of 'Tomahawk' plantation, cau- 
tioning him to keep rotating the crops 
so as not to exhaust the soil by plant- 
ing tobacco continuously in the same 
fields. George Washington also made 
a study of the economy of rotating 
crops and wrote of it in his diaries, 
copies of which are in the Library of 

"Charles Lamb was a great smoker, 
and many times he decided to stop. 
It was always at the end of an evening 
when he made this resolution, and he 
always started smoking again the next 
morning. I am fortunate in having 
the manuscript of his poem A Fare- 
well to Tobacco. This is signed by a 
drawing of a pipe turned upside down. 
Lamb often referred in his letters to 
his determination to give up smoking. 



Only recently I was able to secure a 
letter to William Hazlitt, the essayist, 
in which Lamb declares his intention 
of giving up smoking and signs him- 
self 'Yours, Fumosissimus.' It is hard 
to imagine an English author more un- 
like Lamb than Lord Byron. It is well 
known that Byron paid a tribute to 
the cigar in The Island, but no one 
would imagine that he chewed tobac- 
co. But I have a letter from him to 
Francis Hodgson in which he remarks 
that he did nothing 'but eschew to- 
bacco.' At first I thought this meant 
that he did not chew, but in Don ]uan 
he refers to tobacco as 'the cud es- 
chewed by human cattle.' 

"It is always exciting to find a previ- 
ously unknown part of a book or play 
by a famous author. This happened 
to me last year. I found in one of 
Sotheby's catalogues that a number of 
Oscar Wilde's manuscripts were to be 
sold — among them the manuscript of 
the first two acts of The Importance of 
Being Earnest and the typescript of 
Acts III and IV with innumerable al- 
terations in the hand of the author. 
The play was written originally in four 
acts, but when it was produced and 
when it was printed four years later, 
the second and third acts were com- 
pressed into one, so that, of Act II, 
as originally written, much remains 
unknown and unpublished. When 
George Alexander, the great English 
actor, bought the acting rights, he was 
insistent that Wilde should cut the 
play to three acts, and it has always 

been produced in this way. The author 
himself was not pleased at shortening 
his play, saying that the composition 
of some disputed scenes had cost him 
much time and energy; and in fact 
the text of the omitted portions is just 
as brilliant as the rest of the play. I 
am anxious to publish it as originally 
written, and hope to obtain permission 
from Mr. Vyvyan Holland, Oscar 
Wilde's literary heir. Among my other 
Wilde material is the typescript of Act 

I. This typescript together with that 
of Acts III and IV comprises the com- 
plete play, parts of Act II having been 
inserted into Act III in order that Act 

II, as originally written, could be omit- 
ted. Also, I have letters from Oscar 
Wilde to George Alexander about this 
play. George Bernard Shaw was the 
only critic who was not enthusiastic 
after attending the first performance in 
1895. When it was published in 1899, 
Wilde sent a presentation copy to 
Shaw, which is now in my collection. 

"Shaw was a great enemy of tobacco. 
When in 1920 Mr. H. C. Duffin wrote 
The Quintessence of Bernard Shaw, he 
had a good deal to say about Shaw and 
tobacco. Duffin sent his proof sheets 
to Shaw asking for his comments. In 
addition to many notes on the margins 
of the proof sheets, he wrote a seven- 
teen-page letter to Duffin, about a page 
of which is on the subject of Duffin's 
understating his hatred of the filthy 
weed. Upon receipt of the letter Duf- 
fin wrote Shaw asking permission to 
publish it as an appendix to his book. 



Shaw refused, saying in his letter: 'If 
you bring a book about me to a pub- 
lisher, you are bringing him a specula- 
tion: if you bring him a book by me, 
even in part, you are bringing him an 
investment.' I have all this material 
and Duffin's book. The first edition 
contains exactly what he had said in 
the proof sheets about Shaw and to- 
bacco. In the second edition, published 
some years later, there is no mention 
of tobacco. Anxious for a letter from 
Shaw for my Collection, I wrote him 
saying I had this material, and that in 
one chapter of Duffin's book the author 
had spoken of his dislike of tobacco 
and smoking, and referred to Shake- 
speare's silence in regard to a habit 
very popular in his day, which unfor- 
tunate omission had meant that no 
works by the great dramatist could be 
included in my Tobacco Collection. 
I was much interested to know whether 
his opinion about tobacco had changed 
between the publication of the first 
and second editions of Duffin's book. 
He returned my letter, at the bottom 
of which he had written in red ink: 

I know nothing of Mr. Duffin's disposal of 
my comments on his book. I have never 
smoked in my life, and look forward to a 
time when the world will look back with 
amazement and disgust to a practice so un- 
natural and offensive. To employ idle hours 
men could knit, as women do. 

G. Bernard Shaw 16/6/1945. 

"Dante Gabriel Rossetti does not 
seem to be a poet who would write a 
poem entirely on a smoking theme. 

Yet in his youth he worked on a ballad 
on that subject, but did not complete 
it until the end of his life. It is en- 
titled The Ballad of Jan Van Hun\s 
and tells the story of a miser who bet 
he could outsmoke the Devil. Of course 
he lost, and was taken to Hell and 
turned into the Devil's pipe. This bal- 
lad is of particular interest here, for 
the Duke University Library has two 
pages of the original draft written in 
1847, and also a great deal of the part 
which was written at a later date; and 
I have a notebook of Rossetti's contain- 
ing the complete ballad which was 
written in his last years. It is written 
in pencil with innumerable changes, 
and I think it is the first draft. There 
is a note by W. M. Rossetti saying that 
it was found among his brother's books. 
A fair copy of this was given in 1882 
by the writer to Theodore Watts- 
Dunton, who also held the copyright. 
He sold the manuscript to T. J. Wise, 
and the copyright was sold to Mac- 
kenzie Bell at the Watts-Dunton sale. 
The poem was printed in The English 
Review, and Mr. Wise issued an edi- 
tion of thirty copies in 1912. Mac- 
kenzie Bell published a limited edition 
in 1929 and claims that this was the 
first edition. This manuscript was 
bought by the British Museum when 
they purchased the Ashley Library. I 
hope sometime in the future to pub- 
lish facsimiles of these three manu- 
scripts, and, after a long correspond- 
ence with the British Museum, I was 
able to get in touch with Mr. Rossetti's 



literary heir, who has given me permis- 
sion to do so." 

Mr. Arents, at the conclusion of his 
address, told the Friends about the 
special fascination of collecting books 
which were originally published in 
parts, and instanced his set of Pick- 
wick Papers, which was first issued 
in twenty numbered parts, 1836-1837. 
"Some years ago only sixteen prime 
Pickwicks were known. 1 Since then, 
three or four more have been as- 
sembled. It takes years to perfect 
one. When one realizes that there 
were probably less than five hundred 
copies of Part I issued originally and 
about thirty thousand copies of the 
last part, it is easy to see how many 
times the earlier parts had to be re- 
issued. I have copies of the pirated 
editions of Pickwick which were pub- 
lished in New York and Calcutta at 
about the same time as the London 
edition. These are scarcer than perfect 
copies of the London Pickwick- I 

1 Fourteen of these are owned in America. Mr. 
Arents' copy is duly listed among them in The 
First Editions of the Writings of Charles Dic\ens, 
by John C. Eckel, New York, 1932, p. 57. — Ed. 

know of only three of the New York 
edition and one of the Calcutta. 

"In 1834 a pirated edition of Mrs. 
Shelley's edition of the poet's works 
was issued in parts. Mrs. Shelley then 
asked Moxon, the publisher of her edi- 
tion, to write to the pirate, objecting to 
its publication, and I think that all 
copies but one were destroyed. I was 
fortunate in securing it, but the last 
few leaves of one part were missing. 
By good luck they were found among 
Mr. Moxon's papers, so it is now com- 
plete except for some of the wrappers. 

"I have been fortunate also in secur- 
ing the manuscripts of four of Anthony 
Trollope's novels: The Prime Minister, 
Rachel Ray, Nina Balatka, and John 
Caldigate, and Marcus Stone's pen-and- 
ink drawings for the illustrations of 
He Knew He Was Right, the manu- 
script of which is owned by the Morgan 
Library. I suggested to Miss Belle 
Greene that I give them The Prime 
Minister for their He Knew He Was 
Right. Her only response was to say: 
'How dare you have those manu- 
scripts ?' " 

Robert Wilson Christ 


Friends of the Library are saddened by 
the untimely death of Robert W. Christ, the 
late Assistant Librarian of Duke University. 
They will be interested in the following ex- 
cerpt from a recent resolution of the General 
Faculty and the brief tribute to his memory 
prepared by a special memorial committee of 
the Friends. 

"T? OBERT Wilson Christ, assistant 
XV librarian of Duke University, 
died on December 23, 195 1. One of 
three children of George E. and Bessie 
Lutz Christ, he was born in New Brit- 
ain, Connecticut, on June 20, 1908. Mr. 
Christ was graduated from Amherst 
College, cum laude, in 1930, and re- 
ceived an M.S. degree from Columbia 
in 1948. He was Assistant to the Li- 
brarian of Mount Holyoke College 
from 1931-1942; Librarian of the Lend- 
ing Service Library of Columbia Uni- 
versity in 1943-44; Reference Librarian 
of the Grosvenor Library of Buffalo, 
New York, from 1944- 1946; and Chief 
of the Information Section, Reference 
Division, Department of State, from 
1946 to February, 1948, when he joined 
the staff of the Duke University Li- 

"Mr. Christ was an active member 
of several professional library associa- 
tions. He served as chairman of the 
Reference Section of the Association of 
College and Reference Libraries, on 
important committees of the North 
Carolina, Southeastern, Special and 
American Library Associations, and at 
the time of his death was a member of 

the Council of the American Library 
Association. The range of his scholar- 
ly interest was wide; his contributions 
were published in most of the profes- 
sional library journals of this country, 
Papers of the Bibliographical Society of 
America, American Notes and Queries, 
and The New Yor{ Times Boo\ Re- 
view. He collaborated with Paul 
Saintonge in the compilation and pub- 
lication in 1942 of Fifty Years of 
Moliere Studies: a Bibliography , i8g2- 
1941. Mr. Christ gave his time gener- 
ously to outside activities. He served 
more than three years as secretary of 
the Friends of Duke University Library 
and editor of Library Notes, was a 
charter member of the Durham Choral 
Society, the Play Readers, and the 
choir of the First Presbyterian Church. 
In the summer of 1949 he taught at 
Florida State University and in 1951 
at Syracuse University." 

The foregoing biographical sketch 
summarizes the principal events in 
Mr. Christ's notable career. It seems 
appropriate here to enlarge somewhat 
upon his contributions to the Library 
and to its Friends. 

In his position as Assistant Librarian, 
Mr. Christ supervised departmental li- 
braries and was in charge of readers' 
services in the General Library. He 
prepared library publications and also 
served as chief editor of all library pub- 
lications: student guides, library hand- 



books, and manuals. All phases of li- 
brary service interested him, and his 
contributions to the several divisions 
of the University Libraries were sig- 
nificant. Particularly did he give gen- 
erously of his time and talents to the 
details of finishing and equipping the 
addition to the General Library. 

He assumed an active role in the 
work of the Friends upon joining the 
staff in 1948, serving most ably both as 
secretary and editor of Library Notes. 
His reports to the annual dinner meet- 
ings of the Friends were brilliantly and 
interestingly prepared. Mr. Christ's col- 
lecting, aside from professional mate- 
rials and general reading, centered in 

Walter de la Mare, of whose publica- 
tions he had virtually a complete col- 

No mere recital of his varied achieve- 
ments and activities, however, fully 
shows the indebtedness of the Library 
and its Friends to Mr. Christ. His 
love of learning, his professional com- 
petence, his energy and winning per- 
sonality — these are intangible things 
and impossible to clothe in words. But 
they are what his friends will remem- 
ber, deeply regretting the loss to the 
University, yet finding pleasure in the 
memory of this devoted Friend of the 



SINCE the last report to the Friends 
of the Library on additions to its 
collections, so much time has passed 
that only a small number of the im- 
portant new accessions can be listed. 
It is a pleasure to report the progress 
of the Library, even though the report 
cannot be a full one. 

The Reverend George B. Ehlhardt 
has presented to the collection of 
medieval manuscripts its first example 
in the German language, a book of 
prayers with the title Gebete der Pas- 
sion, written about 1500 or shortly be- 
fore. A small volume (6 inches by 
4% inches) bound in full blue morocco 
by Riviere, the book contains twenty- 
three vellum leaves, with twenty-seven 
brilliant miniatures in gold and colors 
showing scenes of the Biblical narrative 
from the triumphal entry into Jerusa- 
lem to the descent of the Spirit in 
tongues of fire. It was once a part of 
the library of J. P. R. Lyell, and was 
found by Professor Kenneth W. Clark 
in London in the summer of 195 1. 

From the same library came also two 
new Biblical manuscripts in Greek. 
The first is a twelfth-century codex of 
the Gospels on 280 leaves of parchment, 
and the second a Psalter of the twelfth 
or thirteenth century on 272 leaves. 
These manuscripts, especially the 
former, will provide useful material 
for textual study. They bring the 
number of Greek manuscripts in the 
collection to seventeen. 

Mr. Frank Fuller has given to the 
Library a full set of Charles Dickens' 
Dombey and Son in the original paper- 
covered monthly parts as it was first 
published from October 1846 to April 
1848. The publication of Dickens' 
novels, beginning with ?ic\wic\ 
Papers, in shilling installments, was 
one of the innovations of nineteenth- 
century publishing, and complete sets 
of any of the novels in parts are now 
rarely met with. Time and the collec- 
tors have long since claimed most of 

From Mr. and Mrs. Harry Fogleman 
the Library has received as a gift the 
two-volume set Illustrations of the 
Nests and Eggs of Birds of Ohio, by 
Mrs. N. E. Jones, with text by Howard 
Jones, published in Circleville, Ohio, in 

Professor Edgar T. Thompson has 
contributed about one hundred forty 
books and pamphlets largely on the 
subject of race relations. 

The George Washington Flowers 
Memorial Collection of Southern 
Americana has been strengthened by 
additions to several groups of manu- 
script materials: the Paul Hamilton 
Hayne manuscripts, the Thomas Went- 
worth Higginson papers, and the col- 
lection pertaining to the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South. George W. 
Cable, Appleton Oaksmith, Thomas 
Nelson Page, James A. Seddon, and 
Benjamin S. Williams of Brunson, 
S. C, are also represented in new ma- 



terials added to earlier holdings. New 
groups of manuscripts worthy of men- 
tion include papers of William H. 
Gregory, merchant and publisher of 
Stovall, N. C; of Frederick William 
McKey Holliday, Governor of Vir- 
ginia, 1878-82; and of Richard Mal- 
colm Johnston of Baltimore, the author 
of Georgia Sketches and other works. 
Manuscripts of Arthur Middleton form 
another recently acquired group of his- 
torical interest. Middleton was U. S. 
Charge d' Affaires in Madrid during 
the Carlist Revolution, and the papers 
cover the years 1836 and 1837. Thomas 
E. Perrin of Abbeville, S. C., legislator 
and railroad president, is represented 
by a new set of papers dated 1822 to 
1895. Another recently established col- 
lection sheds light upon the activities 
of James Redpath of Boston, who was 
an editor, an author, and the founder 
of the Haitian bureaus of emigration 
in Boston and New York. This mili- 
tant abolitionist from Scotland, known 
especially for his promotion of public 
lectures through the establishment of 
the Boston Lyceum Bureau, figures in 
letters dated 1867 to 1869. 

Rare books newly added to the 
Flowers Collection show a wide diver- 
sity of subject and form. An early im- 
print of the American archivist and 
printer, Peter Force (1790-1868), has 
been acquired; the title is A National 
Calendar, for 1820. An interesting 
eighteenth-century description of Brit- 
ish America by a foreigner is Christian 
Leiste's Beschreibung des brittischen 
America [Wolfenbiittel] 1778, with an 

engraved map of the middle colonies 
in color by Pingeling. Mrs. Anne Roy- 
all's anonymously published Sketches 
of History, Life and Manners in the 
United States, by a Traveller, New 
Haven, 1826, is another descriptive 
work valuable in presenting con- 
temporary impressions of the States. 
Scattered numbers of a weekly news- 
paper, the Winchester (Va.) Gazette, 
1819-23, and the second volume of a 
periodical, The Microscope, New 
Haven, 1820, are worthy additions to 
the early American imprints in Duke 
University Library. The Library now 
has copies of two uncommon political 
tracts by the Revolutionary poet Joel 
Barlow: his Advice to the Privileged 
Orders in . . . Europe, Part II, 2d ed., 
London, 1795, and A Letter Addressed 
to the People of Piedmont on the Ad- 
vantages of the French Revolution, 
London, 1795. Other recent acquisi- 
tions in the Flowers Collection which 
should be at least briefly noted are A 
Complete Collection of State-Trials . . . 
4th ed. . . . with a new preface by 
Francis Hargrave, London, 1776-81, 
eleven volumes bound in six; Observa- 
tions on Rail Roads in the Western & 
Southern States, Cincinnati, 1850; and 
five issues, 1854-55, °^ a medical journal 
with the striking title The Georgia 
Blister and Critic. An outstanding 
association item from the Reconstruc- 
tion period is a newly acquired copy 
of the constitution, ordinances, and 
public laws of Georgia, published at 
Milledgeville in 1866. It is the copy 
which Governor Charles J. lenkins pre- 



sented to President Andrew Johnson. 

To the Biology Library have been 
added the twenty-six volumes of Phy- 
cotheca boreali-americana, a Collection 
of Dried Specimens of the Algae of 
North America, by Frank Shipley Col- 
lins, Isaac Holden, and William Albert 
Setchell, Maiden, Mass., 1895-1903. 
Another rare biological work recently 
purchased is the Rariorum plantarum 
historia of Charles de l'Ecluse, Ant- 
werp, 1601. 

About twelve hundred French 
pamphlets of the late sixteenth and 
early seventeenth centuries have been 
acquired, to augment the Library's his- 
torical source materials. The new col- 
lection includes decrees, laws, official 
letters, and some literary pamphlets, 
many of which illumine phases of the 
political and social history of their 
period. The collection of British eight- 
eenth-century pamphlets has also been 
increased by approximately eleven hun- 
dred titles. 

An important acquisition in the field 
of cartography is Pieter van der Aa's 
Le nouveau theatre du monde, Leide, 
1713. In this folio atlas the northwest- 
ern coast of North America is left un- 
defined, and California appears as an 

Finally, mention should be made of 
three books of facsimiles added to the 
Library in recent months. The first re- 
produces in full the famous Manuscript 
1856 of the Vienna Nationalbibliothek, 

"das schwarze Gebetbuch des Herzogs 
Galeazzo Maria Sforza." This master- 
piece of fifteenth-century illuminative 
art was made available in color fac- 
simile in 1930, by the Osterreichische 
Staatsdruckerei. The second facsimile 
work is Durham Cathedral Manu- 
scripts to the End of the Twelfth Cen- 
tury, printed for the Dean and Chapter 
of Durham Cathedral at the Oxford 
University Press, 1939. The third is 
William Blake's Jerusalem, published 
by the Trianon Press in London for the 
William Blake Trust in 1950. This is 
a hand-colored facsimile of the unique 
copy of Jerusalem belonging to Lt. Col. 
William Stirling of Keir. The original 
work marks the culmination of Blake's 
genius as artist, prophet, and poet. 


READERS of Library Notes may 
have wondered about the average 
cost of processing each book so as to 
make it a part of the Library. The 
term "technical processes" is used to in- 
clude all the steps from ordering the 
book (or recording it as a gift), 
through cataloging, classification, prep- 
aration for binding (if necessary), and 
marking the book for the shelves. A 
survey of technical processes in Duke 
University Library made in April 1951 
showed that the average cost per vol- 



ume of all these processes, with the 
keeping of the necessary records, is 
$2.28. This amount compares favorably 
with processing costs in many other 
libraries of similar size. The acquisi- 
tion or ordering process accounts for 
one-fourth of the cost; cataloging and 
classification together, for about one- 
half; preparation for binding, super- 
vision of work, and other items, for 
the remainder. The cost of the book 
itself or of binding does not, of course, 
enter into the calculation of processing 


THE annual dinner for the Friends 
of the Library has been scheduled 
for Wednesday, May 7, 1952, in the 
Union Ballroom on the West Campus 
of Duke University. The speaker will 
be Mr. James T. Babb, Librarian of 
Yale University, and his subject will be 
the eighteenth-century English litera- 
ture collections in the Yale University 
Library and how they were assembled. 
Formal announcements and invitations 
to the dinner will be issued in April. 

Duke University Libraries